Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Byzantine Art

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
April 01, 2013

Byzantine Art

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

April 01, 2013
Tweet

Transcript

  1. Art  of  Byzan,um   Reading   Stokstad,  232-­‐263    

    Range   395-­‐1453  CE   Byzan1ne     Terms/Concepts   penden,ve,  squinch,  luminosity,   Nika  Revolt,  Jus,nian,  patronage,   martyr,  martyrdom,  apse,   caesaropapism,  diptych.   Monument  List     8-­‐12,  St.  Michael  the   Archangel,  Ivory  Panel,   Constan,nople,  6th  Century  CE     8-­‐4,  Anthemius  of  Tralles  and   Isidorus  of  Miletus,    Church  of   Hagia  Sophia,    (Interior),     532-­‐537.         Not  in  Book,  Jus,nian  as   defender  of  the  faith,   (Barberini  Ivory),  mid-­‐sixth   century  CE.     8-­‐8,  Emperor  Jus,nian  and  his   AVendants,    San  Vitale,   Ravenna,  c.546-­‐548.      
  2. Reminders   •  Mythological  Comparison  is  due  NEXT   THURSDAY

     April  11.   •  Final  Exam  is  on  Tuesday  May    14th  8:00-­‐10:00   AM  in  Tivoli  Theater  12.  
  3. Could  be  another   angel  or  an   emperor  receiving

      this  orb.   Diptych  =  Di  (Two)  Ptukhe  (Fold)  
  4. None
  5. Wing  

  6. The  Birth  of  Byzan,um   395  CE   Theodosius  divides

     the  Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *By  476,  all  of  Italy  was  under  the  control  of  the  Ostrogoths.   Byzan,ne  Empire  
  7. Underlying the surprising achievements of the Late Empire was an

    enormous volume of trade. For example, fifth- and sixth-century wine and oil amphorae are found in bulk throughout the Mediterranean and beyond at sites like Tintagel in Cornwall. This exchange of commodities helped to support patronage. SPLENDID SILKS AND JEWELLED METALWORK in this wall mosaic in St Vitale, Ravenna (AD 546–547) of the Emperor Justinian and his retinue emphasize luxury and eastern contacts. L ycus S E A O F M A R M A R A ( P r o p o n t i s ) G O LDE N H O RN (Chry sokeras) BOSPORUS PSAMATHIA EXOKI O NION P HANARION EXOPHILOPAT ION PHILADELPHION XEROLOPHOS DEUTERON PEMPTON BLACHERNAE STRATEGION SYCAE ACROPOLIS TRITON BLANGA Harbour of Theodosius Cistern of St Mocius Golden Gate Cistern of Aetius Gate of Charisius Church of the Mother of God Gate of Plataea Cistern of Aspar Aqueduct of Valens Harbour of Kontoskalion Hippodrome Augusteum Hagia Sophia St Irene Baths of Zeuxippus Imperial Palace Forum of Constantine Sts Sergius and Bacchus Forum of Theodosius Forum of Arcadius Church of the Holy Apostles mese mese Wall of Theodosius (AD 413) Wall of Constantine (AD 3 30) N 0 0 1 miles 1.5 kms 3 Constantinople wall cistern major building built-up area by c. AD 413 church Byzan,ne  Constan,nople   Originally  consecrated   by  Constan,ne  in  330.   Hailed  as  “New  Rome.”  
  8. The  Tumultuous  Rise  of  Jus,nian   Jus,nian  (527-­‐565)   In

     532  CE,  just  five  years  aeer  Jus,nian  came   into  power,  the  Nika  Revolt  threatened  the   stability  of  his  reign.   71 tradition of organized forest management. Underlying the surprising achievements of the Late Empire was an enormous volume of trade. For example, fifth- and sixth-century wine and oil amphorae are found in bulk throughout the Mediterranean and beyond at sites like Tintagel in Cornwall. This exchange of commodities helped to support patronage. SPLENDID SILKS AND JEWELLED METALWORK in this wall mosaic in St Vitale, Ravenna (AD 546–547) of the Emperor Justinian and his retinue emphasize luxury and eastern contacts. L ycus S E A O F M A R M A R A ( P r o p o n t i s ) G O LDE N H O RN (Chry sokeras) BOSPORUS KASHMIR PSAMATHIA EXOKI O NION P HANARION EXOPHILOPAT ION PHILADELPHION XEROLOPHOS DEUTERON XEROLOPHOS PEMPTON BLACHERNAE STRATEGION SYCAE ACROPOLIS TRITON BLANGA Harbour of Theodosius Cistern of St Mocius Golden Gate Cistern of Aetius Gate of Charisius Church of the Mother of God Gate of Plataea Cistern of Aspar Aqueduct of Valens Harbour of Kontoskalion Hippodrome Augusteum Hagia Sophia St Irene Baths of Zeuxippus Imperial Palace Forum of Constantine Sts Sergius and Bacchus Forum of Theodosius Forum of Arcadius Church of the Holy Apostles mese mese Wall of Theodosius (AD 413) Wall of Constantine (AD 3 30) N 0 0 1 miles 1.5 kms 3 Constantinople wall cistern major building built-up area by c. AD 413 church Constan,nople  
  9. None
  10. 240  Feet   270  Feet  

  11. 180  Feet   “Solomon  I  have  surpassed  thee.”  

  12. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Plan of Hagia

    Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. (Stokstad 7-18)
  13. Structures:  Domes   Dome  on  Squinches   Dome  on  Penden,ves

      Dome  on  a  cylinder  
  14. •  Pendentive: A concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four

    of which provide the transition from a square area to circular base of a covering dome Pendentive
  15. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Interior of Church

    of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul). 532-537. (See 8-4) Ribs Pendentive Pendentive
  16. None
  17. None
  18. “a  golden  chain  from  Heaven”   “the  firmament  which  rests

     on  air”  
  19. “gilded  tesserae  from  which  a  gliVering  stream   of  golden

     rays  pours  abundantly  and  strikes   men’s  eyes  with  irresis,ble  force.    It  is  as  if  one   were  gazing  at  the  midday  sun  in  spring.”   “Light  comes  from  the  Good  and  …light  is   the  visual  image  of  God.”  
  20. Who…shall  sing  the  marble  meadows  gathered   upon  the  mighty

     walls  and  spreading   pavement…[There  is  stone]  from  the  green   flanks  of  Carystus  [and[  the  speckled  Phrygian   stone,  some,mes  rosy  mixed  with  white,   some,mes  gleaming  with  purple  and  silver   flowers.    There  is  a  wealth  of  porphyry  stone,   too,  besprinkled  with  liVle  bright  stars….You   may  see  the  bright  green  stone  of  Laconia  and   gliVering  marble  with  wavy  veins  found  the   deep  gullies  of  the  Iasian  peaks,  exhibi,ng   slan,ng  streaks  of  blood-­‐red  and  livid  white;   the  pale  yellow  with  swirling  red  from  the   Lydian  headland;  the  gliVering  crocus-­‐like   golden  stone  [of  Libya];….gliVering  [Cel,c]   black  [with]  here  and  there  abundance  of  milk;   the  pale  onyx  with  glint  of  precious  metal;  and   [Thessalian  marble]  in  parts  vivid  green  not   unlike  emerald….It  has  spots  resembling  snow   next  to  flashes  of  black  so  that  in  one  stone   various  beau,es  mingle.”  
  21. Men   Women   Clergy   Men   Women  

    “No  maVer  how  much  the  concentrate  their   aVen,on  on  this  and  that,  and  examine   everything  with  contracted  eyebrows,  they   are  unable  to  understand  the  craesmanship   and  always  depart  from  there  amazed  by  the   perplexing  spectacle.”  
  22. Converted  into  a  mosque  aeer  1453.   Minaret   Minaret

      Minaret   Minaret  
  23. The  Fall  of  the  Western  Empire   395  CE  

    Theodosius  divides  the  Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *By  476,  all  of  Italy  was  under  the  control  of  the  Ostrogoths.   Byzan,ne  Empire   410   418   402   476  
  24. EUROPE AD 300-600 30 30 40 20 10 0 30

    Paris Troyes Trier Córdoba Cologne Genova Pisae Narbonne Bordeaux Saragossa Tarragona Cádiz Toledo Marseille Mediolanum Caralis Lyon Lisbon Besançon Leptis Magna Memphis Cyrene Sinope London York St Albans Arles Geneva Aquileia Ravenna Rome Naples Ephesus Antioch St Catherine’s Monastery Carthage Sabratha Nicopolis Athens Alexandria Philippi Thessalonica Trapezus Damascus Caesarea Bethlehem Jerusalem Mosul Constantinople Nicomedia S L A V S P I C T S C E L T S BASQUES B E R B E R S F I N N O - U G R I A N S S L A V S IRISH BRITONS IRISH A F R I C A SCANDINAVIA BRITAIN I B E R I A ITALY GREECE E G Y P T GAUL ASIA MINOR CORSICA SARDINIA SICILY CRETE CYPRUS BA LEARIC IS A L P S A T L A S M T S PYRENEES CAUCASUS S A H A R A ARABIAN DESERT Mt Sinai Dnieper D niester Rhône Loire Tagus Elbe Oder N ile Danube N O R T H S E A BALTIC SEA M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A ENGLISH CHA N N EL A T L A N T I C O C E A N B L A C K S E A RED S EA 370 376 455 410 439 418 406 452 N 0 0 300 miles 450 kms 1 The Disintegration of the Roman Empire important churches Huns Vandals, Alans, Sueves Visigoths Burgundians Ostrogoths Angles, Saxons, Jutes Lombards Franks Empire of Justinian, AD 565 successor kingdoms: East Roman Empire Kingdom of the Vandals Kingdom of the Visigoths Burgundian Kingdom Kingdom of the Ostrogoths Sasanian Empire Kingdom of the Sueves Frankish Kingdom 1 THREATENED BY BARBARIANS through the fourth century and especially in the fifth century, the western empire collapsed, though many elements of its culture survived. The eastern empire was eventually able to deflect its enemies. Mainly of Germanic origin, the barbarians were forced westwards by pressure from the nomads of central Asia. The  Conquest  of  the  West   Byzan,ne  Empire   “An  able  Goth  wants  to  be  like  a  Roman;  only  a   poor  Roman  would  want  to  be  like  a  Goth.”    –Theodoric,  King  of  the  Visigoths  
  25. Jus,nian  and  the  Byzan,ne  Empire   Jus,nian  (527-­‐565)   “We

     believe  that  the  first  and  greatest  blessing  for  all  mankind   is  the  confession  of  the  Chris,an  faith…to  the  end  that  it  may   be  universally  established…we  have  deemed  it  our  sacred  duty   to  admonish  any  offenders.”  
  26. Jus,nian  as  Victor  

  27. None
  28. None
  29. “At  the  summit  of  the  column  stands  a   huge

     bronze  hors  turned  towards  the   east,  a  most  noteworthy  sight….Upon  this   horse  is  mounted  a  bronze  image  of  the   Emperor  like  a  colossus….He  wears  a   cuirass  in  heroic  fashion  and  his  head  is   covered  with  a  helmet…and  a  kind   radiance  flashes  forth  from  there….He   gazes  towards  the  rising  sun,  steering  his   course,  I  suppose,  against  the  Persians.     In  his  lee  hand  he  holds  a  globe,  by  which   the  sculptor  has  signified  that  the  whole   earth  and  sea  were  subject  to  him,  yet  he   carries  neither  sword  no  spear  nor  any   other  weapon,  but  a  cross  surmounts  his   globe,  by  virtue  of  which  alone  he  has   won  the  kingship  and  victory  in  war.     Stretching  forth  his  right  hand  towards   the  regions  of  the  East  and  spreading  out   his  fingers,  he  commands  the  barbarians   that  dwell  there  to  remain  at  home  and   not  to  advance  any  further.”  
  30. None
  31. None
  32. None
  33. None
  34. Conquered   Heathens  and   Barbarians  giving   Tribute.  

  35. Military  officer   presen,ng  a   trophy  to   Jus,nian.

     
  36. Christ  Blessing   Jus,nian  

  37. Jus,nian  and  the  Byzan,ne  Empire   Jus,nian  (527-­‐565)   By

     554,  Jus,nian  had  reclaimed  lands  previously  held  by  the   barbarian  tribes.    
  38. San  Vitale  

  39. None
  40. None
  41. Central   Domed   Area   Narthex  

  42. Plan  

  43. None
  44. Plan  

  45. None
  46. Saint  Vitalis  presented  with   the  crown  of  martyrdom  

  47. Bishop  Ecclesius  presen,ng  San   Vitale  to  Christ  

  48. Paradise had four rivers, which are depicted beneath Christ.

  49. None
  50. *The  mosaics  are  located  where  the  Eucharist   would  have

     been  prepared  and  given.  
  51. None
  52. Chi-­‐Rho  

  53. None
  54. Cri,cal  Thinking  Ques,ons   1.  How  does  Byzan,ne  art  have

     one  foot  in  the   Roman  world  and  one  foot  in  the  Medieval   world?   2.  What  role  does  luminosity  play  in  the   architecture  and  decora,on  of  the  Hagia   Sophia?   3.  How  is  both  royal  and  church  patronage  shown   in  the  mosaics  of  San  Vitale  in  Ravenna?   4.  What  is  a  martyr?  How  are  the  important  figures   in  the  church?