Beyond Speed and Accuracy, Let's Focus on Engagement and Memorability

Beyond Speed and Accuracy, Let's Focus on Engagement and Memorability

Beyond Speed and Accuracy, Let's Focus on Engagement and Memorability: Creating New Instruments for Evaluating Cartographic Animations

@JoannaMerson
Arizona State University

#nacis2015

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Nathaniel V. KELSO

October 15, 2015
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  1. Beyond  Speed  and  Accuracy,     Let's  Focus  on  Engagement

     and  Memorability:     Crea>ng  New  Instruments  for  Evalua>ng   Cartographic  Anima>ons   @JoannaMerson   Arizona  State  University  
  2. “Anima5ons  are  o6en  too  complex  or   too  fast  to

     be  accurately  perceived.”   Arc5c  Ice  Melt.  NOAA  Climate.gov  
  3. Outline   •  How  and  why  animated  techniques  are  

    commonly  leveraged  in  maps   •  Strengths  and  limita5ons  of  tradi5onal  speed/ accuracy  style  assessments   •  Framework  for  the  "understanding,   engagement,  and  recall"  method.    
  4. Outline   •  How  and  why  animated  techniques  are  

    commonly  leveraged  in  maps   •  Strengths  and  limita5ons  of  tradi5onal  speed/ accuracy  style  assessments   •  Framework  for  the  "understanding,   engagement,  and  recall"  method.    
  5. Outline   •  How  and  why  animated  techniques  are  

    commonly  leveraged  in  maps   •  Strengths  and  limita5ons  of  tradi5onal  speed/ accuracy  style  assessments   •  Framework  for  the  "understanding,   engagement,  and  recall"  method.    
  6. Finding  anima5on  in        academic  cartography…   SELECT

     *  FROM  journals     WHERE     CONTAINS  (animated  map  or   dynamic  map)     …I wish
  7. What  is  being  shown     Sta>c  Data   Dynamic

     Data   -­‐   Linear  flow  data    (wind  water)   -­‐  Moving  points  (migra5on,  airplanes)   -­‐   Surface  flow  (pollu5on)   -­‐  Census/count  surveys   (popula5on,  point  events)   -­‐Land  cover  (types,  values)  
  8. What  is  being  shown     How  is  it  shown

      Interac>ve   Animated   -­‐   Flyovers   -­‐   View  changes   -­‐   Data  transforma5ons     * *it’s not… but that’s another topic -­‐   Brushing   -­‐   Linking   -­‐   Callouts   -­‐   Time-­‐series/5me  lapse   -­‐   Blinking/flashing     -­‐ “Mo5cons”/semi-­‐sta5c   Sta>c  Data   Dynamic  Data  
  9. Why  is  it  being  animated?   -­‐   To  test  the

     “effec5veness”  of…     Something  that  would  be   difficult  or  impossible  to   convey  in  sta5c  form.     -­‐  Exploratory  purpose   -­‐   Communica5ve  purpose    
  10. •  Boaom-­‐up  assessments          speed  and  accuracy

     assessments     •  how  quickly  and  correctly  users  can  complete   specific,  usually  low-­‐level,  tasks        eye-­‐tracking   Does  the  anima5on  work?   majority
  11. Results  of  these  assessments?   •  high  contrast  colors  and

     blinking  symbols  ü •  users  follow  transi5ons       ü   •  5me  spent  correlated  to  performance  as   difficulty  increased     •  informa5on  difficult  to  perceive  due  to   overloading  informa5on  û   •  change  blindness  û  
  12. On  assessing  graphs  vs  tables:     One  must  be

     careful  not  to  fall  into  a   conceptual  trap  by  adop>ng  accuracy  as  a   criterion.  We  are  not  saying  that  the  primary   purpose  of  a  graph  is  to  convey  numbers  with  as   many  decimal  places  as  possible.  …  If  this  were   the  only  goal,  tables  would  be  beaer.  The  power   of  a  graph  is  its  ability  to  enable  one  to  …  see   paaerns  and  structure  not  readily  revealed  by   other  means.   -­‐  Cleavland  and  McGill  (1984)  
  13. On  assessing  animated  vs  sta5c  maps:     One  must

     be  careful  not  to  fall  into  a   conceptual  trap  by  adop>ng  accuracy  as  a   criterion.  I  am  not  saying  that  the  primary   purpose  of  an  animated  map  is  to  convey  data   with  as  much  accuracy  as  possible.  …  If  this  were   the  only  goal,  sta5c  maps  would  be  beaer.  The   power  of  an  anima5on  is  its  ability  to  enable  one   to  …  see  spa5al-­‐temporal  paaerns  and  structure   not  readily  revealed  by  other  means.   -­‐  Merson  (today!)  
  14. What  is  being  shown     How  is  it  shown

      Interac>ve   Animated   -­‐   Brushing   -­‐   Linking   -­‐   Callouts   -­‐   Flyovers   -­‐   View  changes   -­‐   Data  transforma5ons   -­‐   Time-­‐series/5me  lapse   -­‐   Blinking/flashing     -­‐ “Mo5cons”/semi-­‐sta5c   Sta>c  Data   Dynamic  Data   -­‐  Census/count  surveys   (popula5on,  point  events)   -­‐Land  cover  (types,  values)   Sta0c  values   measured   repeatedly  over   0me   -­‐   Linear  flow  data        (water)     -­‐ Surface  flow  (pollu5on,  wind)   -­‐ Moving  points  (migra5on,   airplanes)  
  15. Animated   -­‐   Time-­‐series/5me  lapse   -­‐   Blinking/flashing    

    -­‐ “Mo5cons”/semi-­‐sta5c   Dynamic  Data   -­‐   Linear  flow  data        (water)     -­‐ Surface  flow  (pollu5on,  wind)   -­‐ Moving  points  (migra5on,   airplanes)   Snapshots  of  intrinsically,   con0nuously  moving  data   represented  with  mo0on   What  is  being  shown     How  is  it  shown  
  16. Wind  Example  

  17. Minard  Example    

  18. •  Boaom-­‐up  assessments            speed  and

     accuracy  assessments     •  how  quickly  and  correctly  users  can  complete  specific,   usually  low-­‐level,  tasks            eye-­‐tracking   •  gaze  path  paaerns     •  Top-­‐down  assessments  (broadly  in  cartography)   –  less  common  for  map  assessments   –  memorability  evalua5on  assessments     –  learning  facilita5on  assessments   –  task  outcome  assessments     Does  the  anima5on  work?  
  19. The     understanding,  engagement,  &  recall   method  

  20. understanding      Data  retrieval  precise  data  ques5ons  (what,  where,

     when)    Map  interpreta5on  ques5ons  (direc5on,  trends,  comparisons)    Map  narra5ve  ques5ons  (iden5fy  overall  “message”)   engagement  Time  spent  “exploring  the  map”      User  experience  ques5ons  (reac5on  card  method) recall  Reask  data  retrieval  ques5ons  (can  you  remember…)      Reask  map  interpreta5on  and  user  experience    Open  ended  recall  (describe  the  content,  look,  and  anything         else  that  s5cks  out  in  your  mind  of  the  map  you  saw  last  5me)    
  21. Expected  results   The  users  of  the  animated  maps  will…

        1)  have  reduced  speed  and  accuracy  of  responses  to  specific   map  data  ques5ons.           However,     2)  report  a  more  posi5ve  and  thought  provoking  experience     3)  remember  more  informa5on  with  more  accuracy,  and   remember  a  more  posi5ve  experience  
  22. Arc5c  Ice  Melt.  NOAA  Climate.gov  

  23. understanding      Data  retrieval  precise  data  ques5ons  (what,  where,

     when)    Map  interpreta5on  ques5ons  (direc5on,  trends,  comparisons)    Map  narra5ve  ques5ons  (iden5fy  overall  “message”)   engagement  Time  spent  “exploring  the  map”      User  experience  ques5ons  (reac5on  card  method) recall  Reask  data  retrieval  ques5ons  (can  you  remember…)      Reask  map  interpreta5on  and  user  experience    Open  ended  recall  (describe  the  content,  look,  and  anything         else  that  s5cks  out  in  your  mind  of  the  map  you  saw  last  5me)    
  24. @JoannaMerson   jmerson@asu.edu   Ques5ons?   Feedback?