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A new blockchain ecosystem for trusted, traceable & transparent ontological knowledge

1a66e27edea82a53437fb9f2788db872?s=47 ONTOCHAIN
September 21, 2021

A new blockchain ecosystem for trusted, traceable & transparent ontological knowledge

Presentation made at GECON 2021- 18th International Conference on the Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems and Services, following the submission of the paper:

A new blockchain ecosystem for trusted, traceable & transparent ontological knowledge.

👉 Paper Authors: Thanasis Papaioannou, Vlado Stankovski, Petar Kochovski, Anthony Simonet-Boulogne, Caroline Barelle, Alberto Ciaramella, Marco Ciaramella and George Stamoulis.

1a66e27edea82a53437fb9f2788db872?s=128

ONTOCHAIN

September 21, 2021
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  1. CLICK TO EDIT MASTER TITLE STYLE Click to add subtitle

    Location Date A NEW BLOCKCHAIN ECOSYSTEM FOR TRUSTED,TRACEABLE AND TRANSPARENT ONTOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Thanasis G. Papaioannou1, Vlado Stankovski2, Petar Kochovski2, Anthony Simonet-Boulogne3, Caroline Barelle4, Alberto Ciaramella5, Marco Ciaramella5, and George D. Stamoulis1 1Athens University of Economics & Business (AUEB), Greece, e-mail: {pathan,gstamoul}@aueb.gr 2University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, e-mail: {Vlado.Stankovski,Petar.Kochovski}@fri.uni-lj.si 3iExec, France, e-mail: asb@iex.ec 4European Dynamics, Luxembourg, e-mail: caroline.barelle@eurodyn.com 5IntelliSemantic, Rivoli, Italy, e-mail: {ceo, marco.ciaramella}@intellisemantic.com 09/21/2021 GECON’ 21, Rome, Italy
  2. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU OUTLINE 2 • Introduction • The Problem •

    Our Objectives • Related Work • The Framework Design • The Architecture • Use Cases • Current Implementation Status • Conclusions – Future Work
  3. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 3 INTRODUCTION 3

  4. 4 TODAY’S INTERNET CHALLENGES The success of the Internet lied

    in • free speech • open innovation • interoperability However, growing concerns that openness, trustworthiness, privacy and security are being threatened by the quest for high performance and profit Multiple threats have been identified when people interact with online services: • unknown provenance of information • anonymity in favor of criminal activity • personal privacy violations and personal data exploitation • biases in AI algorithms • no fair rewards for quality contributions • spread of fake news • centralization of power Existing problems of misuse of information can soon achieve even more dangerous levels
  5. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU OUR OBJECTIVE 5 The Internet of the future

    should be more resilient, trustworthy and sustainable New software technologies stack should be developed • at the meeting point between the Semantic Web and Blockchain • to enable trustworthy data / services exchange as well as trustworthy content handling for different domains e.g. e- Education, e-Health, e-Government, e-Commerce, e-Tourism, e- Infrastructures, Industry 4.0 entertainment
  6. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU ONTOCHAIN 7 CORE PARTNERS

  7. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 7 ONTOCHAIN Up to 4.2 Millions € funding

    and mentoring program with best international experts in Semantic Web, Linked Data, ontology engineering, Blockchain interoperability, knowledge management, distributed and decentralised computing, business models for trusted knowledge … ONTOCHAIN - Trust traceable and transparent ontological knowledge on blockchain ✓ EU H2020 project and part of the European Commission’s Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative ✓ Launched in September 2020 ✓ 3 Open Calls to develop blockchain-based knowledge management solutions that will be part of a novel software ecosystem for a better share of knowledge and value. 7
  8. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU RELATED WORK 8 Several initiatives are aiming to

    bring the benefits of DLTs to different business domains: • GAIA-X: European data infrastructure for developing innovative trustworthy and sustainable data economy, by relying on standards and open-source software • Hyperledger Fabric (HLF): permissioned blockchain project originally developed by IBM. HLF follows a flexible modular design which allows to simply replace components (e.g. consensus, smart contract language) and adapt to various application domains • fast transaction throughput, limited scalability to a maximum of 16 peers, vulnerability to compromised nodes • EOSIO: a modular framework for creating industrial-scale permissioned or permission-less blockchains and implements a 2-layer consensus protocol which combines a Byzantine Fault Tolerant protocol and a delegated Proof-of-Stake protocol • High throughput • ONTology: high performance PoS public blockchain (Chinese initiative) that focuses on decentralized identity and trustworthy data exchange None of the above combines the functionality intended to be delivered by ONTOCHAIN
  9. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 9 ONTOCHAIN FRAMEWORK 9

  10. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 10 THE ONTOCHAIN ARCHITECTURE

  11. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 11 USE-CASES LAYER • Trustworthy Information/Services Exchange: Encapsulates

    the tools and libraries for secure exchange of trustworthy data/services among trustworthy parties, namely • data provenance mechanisms, • decentralized oracles for assessing data trustworthiness, • decentralized reputation models to assess the trustworthiness of data sources and service providers, • secure data exchange mechanisms to transfer the data securely among transacted parties through cryptographic mechanisms • Trustworthy and Transactional Content Handling: Enables trustworthy data handling by means of • authorized access/handling of the data, • data credibility assessment, • copyrights management, • secure and privacy aware querying of the data
  12. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 12 APPLICATION PROTOCOLS LAYER (I) • Data Provenance:

    Storage and retrieval of complete trail of transactions that resulted in a record of processing activity • Reputation Models: Build different decentralized reputation models over the blockchain, so that reputation feedback is genuine, credible and anonymous • Decentralized Oracles: Assess trustworthiness of real- world data (numerical, categorical, textual, time-series, etc.) to be deployed by Smart Contracts • Market Mechanisms ``as a Service”: Support data/service transactions, trading of physical assets, price determination, billing, customer support, inventory management services, DeFi , value sharing and more
  13. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 13 APPLICATION PROTOCOLS LAYER (II) • Secure Data

    Exchange: Exchange securely data among distributed parties, while verifying data ownership, access rights, authenticity of transacted parties, data integrity and confidentiality • Ontology Representation: New ontologies for smart contracts and decentralized services to enable service searchability and matching with service requests, semantic agreements based blockchain-based consensus, tools and methods that can help deduce new knowledge arriving from IoT • Multi-source Identity Verification: Register and verify individual digital identities of physical objects • Value Sharing and Incentives: Proper incentive mechanisms for rewarding the people involved, according to their contribution
  14. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 14 CORE PROTOCOLS LAYER (I) • Certification: Confirmation

    of certain characteristics/credentials of an object, person, or organization, e.g., a government may issue certificates to cloud providers for GDPR-compliant handling of private citizens’ data • Secure/Privacy Aware Storage: Off-chain distributed storage, encryption mechanisms and access control, as well as various partitioning, fragmentation and redundancy methods (e.g., StorJ) • Identity Management: Ability to issue/recover self-sovereign identities, to identify oneself in specific interactions (e.g., withdrawing money in a bank), and to preserve one’s privacy (e.g., healthcare data, online buyer’s habits)
  15. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 15 CORE PROTOCOLS LAYER (II) • Gateways/Bridges: Connect

    the functionality of ONTOCHAIN blockchain with the outside world, including other blockchains in the form of Smart Contracts, as well as several higher-level wrappers for commonly used languages (e.g., JavaScript, Java and Python) • Data Semantics: Supporting W3C semantic web standards in the blockchain and providing data semantic annotation, semantics extraction, linking, inference, alignment and reasoning on top of blockchains • Authorisation: Access to specific portions of data according to SSI/credentials and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). E.g., a patient is self-identified on blockchain, while a medical doctor gains access to the medical records based on her/his role (e.g., surgeon, general practitioner)
  16. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU USE CASES – VERTICALS 16 • Arts -

    Remunerate artistic work • Commerce and Trading – P2P eCommerce, Proprietary data trading • Education - Credible and authentic eScience • Finance - Decentralized borrowing and lending • Healthcare – Access to patient data, Drug control, Privacy-aware data- analytics • Industry - Privacy-aware data analytics • Insurance - Decentralized, Transparent and Trustworthy Insurance • Manufacturing – Supply Chain Management, Maintenance tracking • Public Sector – Smart cities Traffic control
  17. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 17 P2P COMMERCE DAPP SCENARIO

  18. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 18 CURRENT STATUS 18

  19. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 19 ONTOCHAIN FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION 19

  20. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 20 THE 7 PROJECTS CURRENTLY IN THE ONTOCHAIN

    FRAMEWORK 20 Project Main Results Feature supported Other to mention OntoSsiVault Horizontal SDK SSI, Verifiable Credentials Store and manage credentials HIBI Horizontal SDK SSI, eIDAS linkage CopyrightLY Vertical microservices Claim authorship, Dispute claims Incentives for non-false claims, filing complaints KnowledgeX Vertical microservices and Horizontal SDK Privacy-aware data analytics Also request/offer matchmaching REPUTABLE Vertical microservices Reputation management Feedback Unlinkability, Rater Verifiability, Data Integrity GraphChain Horizontal SDK Blockchain semantic data store Uitilization of semantics in blockchain smart contracts POC4Commerce Ontologies E- commerce ontologies for any services/goods offered in blockchain Tokens and exchange mechanism
  21. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 21 CONCLUSIONS – FUTURE WORK 21

  22. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU CONCLUSIONS 22 • We presented an overview of

    the challenges of todays Internet, and how ONTOCHAIN platform by combining ontological knowledge and blockchain technology plans to tackle them • We described the high-level architecture and the main functionality of our innovative blockchain ecosystem • Moreover, with one use case scenario, we exemplified how the proposed platform could enable innovative and promising distributed applications • We presented a quick overview of the current status of the platform • As a future work, we plan to define the ONTOCHAIN architecture in more depth with detailed APIs among the different components and implementation details. Additionally, we will demonstrate prototype implementations of exemplary distributed applications enabled by the proposed platform
  23. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU Open Call 2 specific objective is to implement

    an infrastructure that will host ONTOCHAIN’s trustworthy data, metadata and services, as well as specific software solutions that can be used widely, further extending the use cases and the architectural features planned by the end of the Open Call 1. Topic 1: Decentralized Oracles for ONTOCHAIN Topic 2: Market Mechanisms for ONTOCHAIN Topic 3: ONTOCHAIN Interoperability & API Gateways Topic 4: ONTOCHAIN Network Design and Scalability Topic 5: Semantic Based Marketplaces for ONTOCHAIN Topic 6: Data Provenance in ONTOCHAIN 23 OPEN ISSUES – FUTURE WORK
  24. STAY UPDATED AND GET INVOLVED! /company/ontochain ontochain.ngi.eu @ONTOCHAIN @ONTOCHAIN f6s.com/ontochainproject

    /channel/UCcF7Ovd99lOKcjMGQdnhIvA Thank you! e-mail: pathan@aueb.gr
  25. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 25 SUPPORT SLIDES 25

  26. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU ONTOCHAIN VISION: TRUSTWORTHY DATA EXCHANGE EXAMPLE 26

  27. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 27 ONTOSSIVAULT / GIMLY ID SDK STORE &

    MANAGE VERIFIABLE CREDENTIALS GRANULAR CONTROL OVER YOUR DATA PASSWORDLESS LOGIN SELF SOVEREIGN IDENTITY (SSI) AND THE SSI STACK
  28. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU

  29. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 29 COPYRIGHTLY: IPR MANAGEMENT FOR DATA / CONTENT

    • Authorship and rights management layer for ONTOCHAIN • Fundamental services: • Claim authorship (of content or data) • Token curated claims and complaints • Reuse terms and conditions • Foundation for future vertical applications on the ONTOCHAIN ecosystem https://www.linumlabs.com/articles/bonding-curves-the-what-why-and-shapes-behind-it
  30. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 30 KnowledgeX: Privacy-aware data analytics • KX is

    a Marketplace where data scientists can find gigs offered by data owners. They can execute their data science tasks in a trusted environment where the data owner has full control over the data • Offers Microservices ◦ Matchmaking ◦ User Management ◦ Gig Management • Offers Interfaces: ◦ To iExec to create jobs ◦ To blockchain smart contracts
  31. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU REPUTABLE - Privacy-Friendly Reputation System for Blockchain 31

    o To develop a decentralized, reliable and verifiable reputation system (REPUTABLE) that can achieve trustworthy reputation modelling of external services within a blockchain ecosystem (ONTOCHAIN). o Key outcomes: o Anonymity of feedback by de-linking user identity o Develop an aggregate reputation score for a service provider based on user feedback o Capture and maintain provenance of the reputation scores o Store reputation data (agg. score & raw feedback) • Aggregate score stored on-chain (integrity checking, verifiability) • Raw feedback stored off-chain (linked with on-chain reputation scores) • Query interface to enable user verification, analytics and interoperability with other services
  32. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU 32 GRAPHCHAIN: BLOCKCHAIN SEMANTIC DATA STORE Graphchain node:

    L2 sidechain node and a Semantic Data Store
  33. | ONTOCHAIN.NGI.EU POC4COMMERCE: ONTOLOGY HIERARCHY FOR BLOCHAIN E-COMMERCE 33 •

    A stack of ontologies (OC-Found, OC- Commerce, OC-Ethereum) for ◦ participants, offers, products, services, and related supply chains ◦ tokens and exchange mechanisms ◦ Ethereum smart contracts, in particular, for token trading ◦ general purpose Ethereum-oriented digital commerce • A semantic search engine for enabling users to probe the marketplace for the desired good and automatically access the desired product/service