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Constantinos Papadias - Antenna Arrays with Parasitic Elements: a Technology for Compact MIMO Systems

Fef83ca87fd2a7994d087631868acf8f?s=47 SCEE Team
December 03, 2009

Constantinos Papadias - Antenna Arrays with Parasitic Elements: a Technology for Compact MIMO Systems

Fef83ca87fd2a7994d087631868acf8f?s=128

SCEE Team

December 03, 2009
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  1. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    1/93 Antenna Arrays with Parasitic Elements: a Technology for Compact MIMO Systems Dr. Constantinos B. Papadias Co-authors: O. Alrabadi & A. Kalis Broadband Wireless & Sensor Networks Group (B-WiSE) Athens Information Technology papadias@ait.edu.gr Talk given at the 2nd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Nov. 24-27, 2009
  2. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    2/93 • Motivation / Vision • Review of MIMO technology – Basic features & techniques – Main benefits & Limitations • Review of parasitic antenna arrays: – Fix directive transmission – Beam / null steering – Pattern / angular diversity • Beam-space MIMO – A new formulation for conventional MIMO systems – Spatial multiplexing with parasitic antenna arrays • Design issues • Applications Outline
  3. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    3/93 www.ait.edu.gr Classical MIMO i. High Cost due to Expensive RF components ii. High Spatial Correlation for Spacing less than λ/2 iii. Reduced Antenna Efficiency due to Strong Mutual Coupling iv. High Consumption of DC Power as Multiple IF/RF Front-ends are used Designing a Low Cost, High Performance Compact MIMO Transceiver Seems Contradictory Using Classical MIMO. No Capacity Gain (Over SISO) for D=λ/4 or less Î Motivation
  4. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    4/93 www.ait.edu.gr Î Conventional MIMO Transmission Future MIMO Transmission The Vision
  5. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    5/93 Review of MIMO Technology
  6. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    6/93 Single antenna links: Shannon capacity “It is dangerous to put limits on wireless” Guglielmo Marconi, 1932 • The information-theoretic capacity of single-antenna links is limited by the link’s signal to noise ratio according to Shannon’s celebrated formula • Capacity grows logarithmically with the Tx power (i.e. to go from 1bps/Hz to 11 bps/Hz, the Tx power must be roughly increased by ~1000 times!) •Disclaimer: TX RX 2 log (1 SNR) [bps/Hz] C = + s k ( ) x k ( ) C. Shannon Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, 1950
  7. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    7/93 Multiple antenna links • Keeping the game fair: total Tx power should remain the same • Questions: (1) What is the corresponding capacity? (2) How should we transmit from the different antennas? (3) How should the receiver operate? TX 1 RX 1 TX 2 RX 2 TX M RX N s k 1 ( ) s k 2 ( ) s k M ( ) x k 1 ( ) x k 2 ( ) x k N ( )
  8. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    8/93 • We are primarily interested in the case where: – The transmitter only knows the channel statistics but not the channel realization H. This is sometimes referred to as ‘‘open-loop’’ operation – We also assume a coherent receiver that knows perfectly the MIMO channel H • The mutual information with equal power transmission from each antenna (a pragmatic popular approach), is ‘‘Open-loop’’ MIMO † 2 log det T o N n P C I M σ ⎧ ⎫ = + ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ HH (see [Foschini ’96] [Foschini & Gans ’98][Telatar ’99] )
  9. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    9/93 • The capacity can be written equivalently as: • This leads to the following equivalent representation of the MIMO channel in terms of independent component channels (often called ‘‘spatial modes’’): The Spatial Multiplexing Effect 2 2 2 1 1 SNR log 1 log 1 r r T o i i i i n P C M M λ λ σ = = ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ = + = + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ∑ ∑ where are the eigenvalues of the channel matrix and is the rank of . 's i λ † HH r H r 1 ( ) s k ′ 1 λ + 1 ( ) x k ′ ( ) r s k ′ r λ + ( ) r n k ′ ( ) r x k ′ 1 ( ) n k ′
  10. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    10/93 Rayleigh i.i.d. MIMO (open-loop) Outage Capacities SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY (bps/Hz) NUMBER OF UNCORRELATED ANTENNAS (M=N) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 150 100 50 24dB 18 dB 12dB 6 dB 0 dB SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY vs. NUMBER ANTENNAS AT 1% OUTAGE 1×N Optimum Combining at 24 dB Predicted capacities
  11. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    11/93 First Experimental MIMO Testbed (Bell Labs, 1996)
  12. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    12/93 Transmit & Receive Arrays
  13. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    13/93 Over-the-air Typical Received Signal
  14. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    14/93 Over-the-air Processed Signals
  15. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    15/93 • V-BLAST* • simple (1D) coding • fairly simple receiver • short of capacity • “per antenna rate control” (PARC) mode achieves capacity with multi- rate feedback • D-BLAST • more demanding coding • more complex receiver • achieves capacity with single rate feedback Two Basic Transmission Methods ... ... ... ... ... ... * BLAST stands for Bell labs Layered Space Time architecture, see [Foschini ’96, Foschini & Gans ’98]
  16. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    16/93 V-BLAST vs. Capacity (Rayleigh i.i.d Channel) SNR: 10 dB SNR: 10 dB V-BLAST is capable of attaining a significant portion of the available MIMO capacity 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 M=16, N=16, ρ=10 dB capacity [bps/Hz] Pr.(capacity>abcissa) (1,1) (1,2) (1,4) (1,8) (1,16) V-BLAST(16,16) open-loop(16,16) See [Papadias & Foschini ’02] [10% outage capacities]
  17. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    17/93 SIMPLE CASE: (1,N) DIFFICULT CASE: (M,1) H1 H2 HN TX H1 H2 HM Capacity is easily achieved with 1-D codecs (MRC) Capacity is not easily achieved with 1-D codecs RX TX RX Maximizing the Throughput: Two Extreme Cases
  18. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    18/93 Space-time Block Coding Transmit Architecture ENCODER Space-Time Block Code / Mapping Input Data Stream TX 1 TX M { } %( ) b i { } ( ) b i { } 1 ( ) s k { } ( ) M s k … … • The original bit stream is first encoded • The encoded data are then mapped onto blocks of vector data that are then transmitted out of the antennas • In this fashion, encoding and spatial multiplexing are decoupled: encoding is a time-only operation, whereas the block code determines how the encoded data samples are mapped onto different antenna elements … … Encoded Input Stream (See [Tarokh et al. ’99])
  19. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    19/93 • have double length but are used for 2 sub-streams, no redundancy • and are odd and even samples from the same user’s data An application to 2.5/3G voice: Space-Time Spreading • Based on Alamouti coding [Alamouti ’98] • Each user’s sub-streams are multiplexed as follows: 1 ( ) s i c 2 c 1 2 ( ) s i 2 2 ( ) s i ∗ c 1 1 ( ) s i c 1 2 ( ) s i ∗ c 2 1 ( ) s i c 2 1 1 2 ( ) ( ) s i s i ∗ − c c 1 1 2 2 ( ) ( ) s i s i ∗ + c c B2 B2 D D b i ( ) 1 ( ) s i c c 1 2 , ⇒ 2 ( ) s i [Hochwald, Marzetta, Papadias 2001]
  20. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    20/93 Alamouti Space-Time Code: Capacity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SNR [dB] capacity [b/s/Hz] 10% outage capacities 2x2 open-loop 2x2 Alamouti x1 log-det 8x1 log-det 4x1 log-det 2x1 Alamouti 1x1 ∞
  21. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    21/93 3G1X (cdma2000) voice performance
  22. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    22/93 MIMO in 3G: UMTS high speed downlink data • Assumptions: – Turbo coding – 20 codes – 3km/hr – flat fading – known channel – ML / symbol 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 3km/hr Ior/Ioc (dB) FER (4,4) (2,2) 10.8Mbps 64QAM 14.4Mbps 16QAM 10.8Mbps 8PSK 10.8Mbps 4PSK 14.4Mbps 4PSK 21.6Mbps 8PSK (1,1) Dashed:VBLASTS olid: ML
  23. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    23/93 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Throughput, Mbits/s Prob (Throughput < x-axis) "B"-channel, 16-QAM, 4320 bits per slot, 10ms frame Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 Proposed solution 2x2 MIMO in WiFi: “B” channel, (3-9)m distance Almost doubled throughput can be achieved [Kuzminskiy et al. 05]
  24. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    24/93 HSDPA 4x4 MIMO Test-Bed [Lucent, 2002] Rx-Radio Interface UMTS-MIMO Frontend MIMO Interface Pre-Processing Timing Recovery Baseband Processing MIMO Decoder: • ML • BLAST • MMSE • ZF • Hybrid RLP-Interface Rx-Radio Interface UMTS-MIMO Frontend MIMO Interface Pre-Processing Timing Recovery Baseband Processing MIMO Decoder: • ML • BLAST • MMSE • ZF • Hybrid RLP-Interface UMTS- Transmitter UMTS- Transmitter UMTS- Transmitter UMTS- Transmitter Tx-Radio Interface Radio Controller Interface Radio Radio UMTS- Transmitter UMTS- Transmitter UMTS- Transmitter UMTS- Transmitter Tx-Radio Interface Radio Controller Interface Radio Radio Radio Radio • Featuring the world’s first MIMO ASIC • Achieving 19.2 Mbps over a 5 MHz UMTS carrier UMTS BTS User Equipment
  25. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    25/93 IST Mobile Summit, Aveiro, Portugal, June 2003, EU-FP6 Project FITNESS HSDPA MIMO Video Transmission Prototype Demonstrating Multi-User Uplink Processing
  26. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    26/93 MMDS MIMO Prototype Originally developed by Iospan & Stanford University for fixed wireless point-to-point MIMO links
  27. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    27/93 MIMO in LTE (Rel. 8): an Overview • Transmission modes: – Downlink Single User Transmit Diversity – Downlink Spatial Multiplexing & Closed-Loop MIMO – Downlink Multi-User MIMO – Uplink Multi-User MIMO [3GA09]
  28. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    28/93 MIMO in WiMAX (802.16e): an Overview • Transmission modes: – Beamforming – Space-time coding – Spatial Multiplexing – Adaptive MIMO [Li06]
  29. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    29/93 Uplink Collaborative MIMO
  30. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    30/93 IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, Special Issue on Space-Time Transmission, Reception, Coding and Signal Design, Vol. 49, No. 10, Oct. 2003. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on MIMO, March 2003. IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Special Issue on Signal Processing for Communications, Vol.50, No. 10, Oct. 2002. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Special Issue on Space-Time Coding and Its Applications – Part I, Vol. 2002, No. 3, Mar. 2002. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Special Issue on Space-Time Coding and Its Applications – Part II, Vol. 2002, No. 5, May 2002. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Special Issue on MIMO Communications and Signal Processing, Vol. 2004, No. 5, May 2004. A. Tulino and S. Verdu, Random matrix theory and wireless communications, Foundations & Trends in Communications & Information Theory, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004. A. Paulraj, R. Nabar and D. Gore, Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003. Alex Gershman, Editor, Space-Time Processing for MIMO Communications, Wiley 2005. T. Kaiser and A. Bourdoux, Editors, Smart Antennas – State of the Art, EURASIP Hindawi Book Series, 2004. H. Bolcskei, D. Gesbert, C. Papadias, A. J. Van der Veen, Editors, Space-Time Wireless Systems: From Array Processing to MIMO Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2006 Further Reading on MIMO
  31. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    31/93 Review of PARASITIC ANTENNA ARRAYS
  32. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    32/93 Yagi-Uda Antenna : Single Step Design Mainly designed and optimized using NEC2. Excitation can be an incident plane wave as in TV Rx or a voltage source. The Ladder Antenna Passive Directors Driven Dipole Passive Reflector S. Uda ‘’On the Wireless Beam of Short Electric Waves’’, Journal of the institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan’’, March 1926-July 1929
  33. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    33/93 Harrington’s Reactively Controlled Array A Single Active Dipole Surrounded by Six Parasitic Dipoles Loaded with Reactances. Harrington Array Harrington, R. Reactively controlled directive arrays. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 1978; 26(3): 390-395.
  34. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    34/93 www.ait.edu.gr Switched Parasitic Arrays (SPA) After 1978 Dinger, R. Reactively steered adaptive array using microstrip patch elements at 4 GHz. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 1984; 32(8): 848-856. Dinger, R. A planar version of a 4.0 GHz reactively steered adaptive array. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 1986; 34(3): 427-431. Preston, S. L., Thiel, D. V., Smith, T. A., O’Keefe, S. G., Lu, J. W. Base-station tracking in mobile communications using a switched parasitic antenna array. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 1998; 46(6): 841-844. Vaughan, R. Switched parasitic elements for antenna diversity. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 1999; 47(2): 399-405.
  35. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    35/93 Seven-Element ESPAR ESPAR is a modified version of the Harrington Array in the sense that monopoles rather than dipoles are used, and the variable reactive loads are integrated in the ground plane. Gyoda, K., Ohira, T. Design of electronically steerable pasive array radiator (ESPAR) antennas. Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag Soc Int Symp, 2000, 922-955.
  36. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    36/93 www.ait.edu.gr Different Configurations T. Ohira and K. Gyoda, “Electronically Steerable Passive Array Radiator Antennas for Low-Cost Analog Adaptive Beamforming”, IEEE International Conference on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 2000. pp. 101 – 104 N-Element ESPAR
  37. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    37/93 www.ait.edu.gr Monopoles and Dipoles 3D Pattern E-Plane By approximating the H-Plane to be omnidirectional, the array factor AF is easily found by the superposition of the currents induced on the dipoles/monopoles.
  38. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    38/93 www.ait.edu.gr Analog Adaptive Beamforming: Only via ESPAR C. Sun, A. Hirata, T. Ohira, N. C. Karmakar, “Fast Beamforming of Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator Antennas: Theory and Experiment”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas ond Propagation, vol. 52, no. 7, July 2004, pp 1819-1832
  39. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    39/93 www.ait.edu.gr Three Element ESPAR A 3-element ESPAR was mainly introduced for Pattern Diversity. Inter-element spacing of λ/4 and λ/20 was used The configuration is quite attractive for mobile terminal for mitigating the fading effect. T. Sawaya, K. Iigusa, M. Taromaru, and T. Ohira, “Reactance Diversity: Proof-of-Concept Experiments in an Indoor Multipath-Fading Environment with a 5-GHz Prototype Planar Espar Antenna”, Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 5-8 Jan. 2004, pp. 678 – 680. M. Taromaru and T. Ohira, “Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator Antenna − Principle, Control Theory and its Applications −”, 28th General Assembly of International Union of Radio Science (URSI GA 2005).
  40. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    40/93 www.ait.edu.gr Coordinated T/R Beamforming: A Simple Approach Chen Sun; Hunziker, T.; Taromaru, M. ‘’Wireless Communication Systems’’, 2005. 2nd International Symposium on 7-7 Sept. 2005 Page(s):581 - 585
  41. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    41/93 Till Now Parasitic arrays have been used for 1. Designing fixed directive antennas 2. Reconfigurable arrays for i. Beam and Null Steering ii. Providing Reactance Diversity (Pattern or Angular Diversity) What about true MIMO (i.e. spatial multiplexing?) Can a compact parasitic array function as a MIMO terminal?
  42. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    42/93 BeamSpace (BS) MIMO
  43. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    43/93 www.ait.edu.gr Classical MIMO i. High Cost due to Expensive RF components ii. High Spatial Correlation for Spacing less than λ/2 iii. Reduced Antenna Efficiency due to Strong Mutual Coupling iv. Interference Among the Parallel RF Chains v. High Consumption of DC Power as Multiple IF/RF Front-ends are used Designing a Low Cost, High Performance Compact MIMO Transceiver Seems Contradictory for Conventional MIMO. Compact Multi-Element Arrays C. Waldschmidt,, S. Schulteis, and W. Wiesbeck, “Complete RF System Model for Analysis of Compact MIMO Arrays”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 53, NO. 3, MAY 2004
  44. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    44/93 www.ait.edu.gr Capacity Motivation The Capacity of a 2x2 system is greater than the ∞x1 C. B. Papadias, ``On the spectral efficiency of space-time spreading schemes for multiple antenna CDMA systems," Thirty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, vol.1, 24-27 Oct. 1999.
  45. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    45/93 www.ait.edu.gr Deploying Complex Decoupling Networks for Mitigating the Mutual Coupling Effect (Multi-port Conjugate Matching) Increased Complexity, Cost and Size Antenna BW Reduction Some Limited Solutions Narrowband Wideband J. Weber, C. Volmer, K. Blau, R. Stephan, and M. A. Hein, ``Miniaturized antenna arrays using decoupling networks with realistic elements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.54, no.6, pp.2733-2740, June 2006.
  46. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    46/93 www.ait.edu.gr Polarized Arrays Deploying Polarized Arrays Drawbacks: 1. Multiple Front-ends 2. Sub-channels Power Imbalance as the XPD is Environment and Handset Orientation Dependent. 3. Large Size e.g. Two Cross-Polarized Array Elements require an Area of λ2/4 . λ/2 λ/2
  47. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    47/93 www.ait.edu.gr BS-MIMO: A New Formulation
  48. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    48/93 www.ait.edu.gr BS-MIMO Formulation Continued
  49. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    49/93 www.ait.edu.gr AF of 2-element λ/2 array (QPSK Signaling) C. Oestges and B. Clerckx,``MIMO Wireless Communication, From Real-World Propagation to Space-Time Code Design," pages 227-230, First Edition, 2007.
  50. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    50/93 Till Now • In classic MIMO systems we map symbols on orthonormal functions in the antenna domain (on antenna elements). • We have considered mapping symbols directly on the wavevector domain. • This is a Beamspace-MIMO system. • We propose to use parasitic antennas to transmit different symbol pairs simultaneously towards different Angles of Departure at the transmitter, with a single active element.
  51. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    51/93 BS-MIMO for PARASITIC ARRAYS
  52. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    52/93 www.ait.edu.gr A Single-Active Single-Passive Array
  53. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    53/93 www.ait.edu.gr Spatial Multiplexing (SM) via Beamforming (BF) ON-OFF Keying A. Kalis, A. G. Kanatas, M. Carras, A. G. Constantinides, ``On the performance of MIMO systems in the wavevector domain,“ IST Mobile & Wireless Communications Summit, 5-8 June 2006, Mykonos, Greece.
  54. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    54/93 www.ait.edu.gr BPSK SM via BF E(Θ)=s 0 A(Θ) A. Kalis, A. G. Kanatas, C. Papadias, ``An ESPAR antenna for beamspace-MIMO systems using PSK modulation schemes," IEEE International Conference on Communications 2007, Glasgow, UK, June 24-28, 2007.
  55. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    55/93 Tx 1 Tx 2 Tx 3 Rx 1 Rx 2 Rx 3 h 11 h 33 θ R,1 θ R,3 θ T,1 θ T,2 θ T,3 θ R,2 describe the coupling between the jth orthogonal basis radiation pattern of the Tx antenna with the ith orthogonal basis radiation pattern of the Rx antenna. { } ( , ) V H i j The Virtual Channel ˆ ˆ ˆ H R V T H H R R b T T R R b T bs bs V bs bs = + = + = + = + = + y Hx n A H A x n A A H A A x n A A H B x n y H x n % % % % % A. M. Sayeed, ``Deconstructing multiantenna fading channels," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 50, pp. 2563-2579, Oct. 2002.
  56. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    56/93 www.ait.edu.gr Troubles 1. Changing the driving point impedance when changing the loads. 2. The obtained pattern may not be a pure linear combination of the desired functions. 3. Can hardly be scaled to higher order modulation schemes.
  57. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    57/93 www.ait.edu.gr Pattern Decomposition: A Novel Approach Example: BPSK Signaling O. N. Alrabadi, A. Kalis, C. Papadias and A. Kanatas, ``Spatial Multiplexing by decomposing the far-field of a compact ESPAR antenna," IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 15-18 Sept 2008.
  58. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    58/93 www.ait.edu.gr Circuit Relations of the 3-element ESPAR O. N. Alrabadi, A. Kalis, C. Papadias and A. Kanatas, ``Spatial Multiplexing by decomposing the far-field of a compact ESPAR antenna," IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 15-18 Sept 2008.
  59. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    59/93 www.ait.edu.gr Three-Element ESPAR Far-Field O. N. Alrabadi, C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis, N. Marchetti and R. Prasad ``MIMO Transmission and Reception Techniques Using Three-Element ESPAR Antennas," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol.13, Issue 4, April 2009 Page(s):236-238.
  60. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    60/93 www.ait.edu.gr A Basis of Two Angular Functions AF O. N. Alrabadi, C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis, N. Marchetti and R. Prasad ``MIMO Transmission and Reception Techniques Using Three-Element ESPAR Antennas," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol.13, Issue 4, April 2009 Page(s):236-238.
  61. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    61/93 www.ait.edu.gr Control Circuit
  62. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    62/93 www.ait.edu.gr All PSK Modulation Schemes cos(kdcos(Θ)) Î 1 As dÎ0 d=λ/16 and less ~0 Non-linear Mapping from the Reactance Space (X L ) to the Signal Space S O. N. Alrabadi, C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis and R. Prasad ``A Universal Encoding Scheme for MIMO Transmission Using a Single Active Element for PSK Modulation Schemes," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications.
  63. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    63/93 www.ait.edu.gr All PSK Modulation Schemes
  64. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    64/93 www.ait.edu.gr Model Extension Planar Symmetrical Topology: An Orthonormal Basis of 3 functions is obtained.
  65. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    65/93 www.ait.edu.gr Channel Model Parametric Channel Model J. Fuhl, A. F. Molisch and E. Bonek, ``Unified channel model for mobile radio systems with smart antennas," Ins. Elect. Eng. - Radar Sonar Navigation, vol. 145, pp. 32-4, Feb. 1998.
  66. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    66/93 www.ait.edu.gr Channel Estimation O. N. Alrabadi, A. Kalis, C. Papadias and A. Kanatas, ``Spatial Multiplexing by decomposing the far-field of a compact ESPAR antenna," IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 15-18 Sept 2008.
  67. Papadias, Alrabadi, Kalis: Parasitic Antenna Arrays for Compact MIMO Systems

    67/93 Mutual Information Analysis: Open-Loop
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    68/93 www.ait.edu.gr Simulation Results Gaussian Signaling is assumed rather than PSK
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    69/93 Average Mutual Information for Discrete PSK Input
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    70/93 Performance Evaluation V. Barousis, A. G. Kanatas, A. Kalis, C. Papadias, ``A Limited Feedback Technique for Beamspace MIMO Systems with Single RF Front-end," IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC)}, 15-18 Sept 2008.
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    71/93 www.ait.edu.gr Lack of Orthogonality Correlation may not be always zero among the basis when considering channels with narrow angular spread O. N. Alrabadi, C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis and R. Prasad ``A Universal Encoding Scheme for MIMO Transmission Using a Single Active Element for PSK Modulation Schemes," to appear at IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications.
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    72/93 www.ait.edu.gr Optimal Loads At [jX1 jX2]=[-j5 -j62]Ω ηM =95%, and Power Imbalance between B1 (Θ) and B2 (Θ) about -0.22 dB (0 dB is Optimal)
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    73/93 www.ait.edu.gr Spatial Multiplexing (SM) via Antenna Switching (AS) Motivation 1. Next generation wireless terminals (e.g. LTE and WIMAX) will use most probably a single antenna for uplink versus four antennas for downlink. Hence: There is no real MIMO for the uplink Transmission 2. We at AIT have some experience in designing an antenna switch system on the node level. Hence: A MIMO (SM or STBC) can be implemented using a switch antenna system during transmission whereas antenna selection diversity is used during reception. O. N. Alrabadi, C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis, N. Marchetti and R. Prasad ``Spatial Multiplexing via Antenna Switching," Accepted on 13 June 2009 at the IEEE Communications Letters.
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    74/93 www.ait.edu.gr Motivation, Cont. Energy Saving in WSN’s Motivation: Total Energy Saving is done by integrating a MIMO Transceiver for Transmitting on lower Power Level, Keeping the Same Data Rate and the Same Link Performance of SISO.
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    75/93 www.ait.edu.gr SM via AS, Cont. O. N. Alrabadi, C. B. Papadias, A. Kalis, N. Marchetti and R. Prasad ``Spatial Multiplexing via Antenna Switching," Accepted on 13 June 2009 at the IEEE Communications Letters.
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    76/93 www.ait.edu.gr SM via AS, Cont.
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    77/93 www.ait.edu.gr Control Circuit Design
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    78/93 www.ait.edu.gr Mutual Information Analysis
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    79/93 www.ait.edu.gr Spatial Demultiplexing I/Q Separation Beam-Switching at twice the symbol rate
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    80/93 Some Design Considerations
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    81/93 www.ait.edu.gr Driving Impedance Variations C. Sun, A. Hirata, T. Ohira, N. C. Karmakar, “Fast Beamforming of Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator Antennas: Theory and Experiment”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas ond Propagation, vol. 52, no. 7, July 2004, pp 1819-1832 Port impedance varies according to loads used Increasing number of parasitic elements increases the resolution and directivity of the antenna but spread of port impedance values increases Frequency response and centre frequency depend on matching of port impedance to feed network One technique is to use dynamic (variable) matching instead of constant matching Addition of variable impedance to active element Matching performed based on value of imaginary part of port impedance to maintain efficiency
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    82/93 www.ait.edu.gr Design Considerations While varactor can give a large reactive range, their switching rate is slower than other switches like PIN Diodes M. D.~Migliore, D. Pinchera and F. Schettino, ``Improving Channel Capacity Using Adaptive MIMO Antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.54,Nov 2006.
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    83/93 www.ait.edu.gr Bandwidth Expansion Ideal Transition Slow Transition
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    84/93 Applications
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    85/93 www.ait.edu.gr Devices Mobile Equipments: Cellular Phones, PDA’s, Laptops Access Points Motivation: The Capacity of a 2x2 system is greater than the ∞x1
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    86/93 www.ait.edu.gr Devices Wireless Sensor Nodes Motivation: Total Energy Saving is done by integrating a MIMO Transceiver for Transmitting on lower Power Level, Keeping the Same Data Rate of a SISO system. AIT’s SENSA
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    87/93 www.ait.edu.gr Ad-hoc Networks The performance of peer-to-peer communication links between 2 nodes equipped with 3-element ESPAR antennas is shown in the Figure beside. Etot (Θ,Φ)
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    88/93 www.ait.edu.gr Multi-User MIMO: Base-Station Capacity Enhancement Motivation: Number of Simultaneously Served Users is Upper-bounded by the Number of BS-Antennas Proposed Idea: Surround Each Active Antenna with two or three parasitic elements (PE), and external control circuit Requirement: Each Array (the single active and its PE) should be placed at sufficient distance from each other, so no mutual coupling among the arrays takes place. Proposed Topology: Collinear Topology Precoding Matrix (W): A block-diagonalizing matrix is proposed, so that the orthonormality of the basis is not destroyed.
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    89/93 www.ait.edu.gr Cognitive Radios (CR) By integrating Compact and Cheap Parasitic Arrays in the user’s handhelds, the spatially aware terminals can enhance the whole system capacity via 1. Interference reduction via null steering is controlled via cheap varactors. 2. Robust performance is done via space-time coding, and adaptive modulation. 3. Capacity attainment is done via spatial multiplexing and high M-array signaling. 4. Low-cost receiver diversity is done via angular diversity. 5. Beam-steering or beam-selection is implemented under poor MIMO channel conditions. 6. Hidden Terminal Problem is Solved by Scanning the Space Using a Directive Rotating Beam. Broadband ESPAR Arrays and Multi-band Parasitic Arrays are already Available.
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    90/93 www.ait.edu.gr Satellite Communications Motivation: The need for light (small weight), Adaptive and low-DC Power Consuming Array.
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    91/93 Biosensor Networks
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    92/93 Thank you! Special thanks to Osama Alrabadi, Antonis Kalis and Nicola Marchetti for providing valuable material for this presentation
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    93/93 [Alamouti ’98] S. M. Alamouti, “A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications", IEEE JSAC, vol. 16, Oct. 1998, pp. 1451-58. [Bolcskei et al. 06] H. Bolcskei, D. Gesbert, C. Papadias, A. J. Van der Veen, Editors, Space-Time Wireless Systems: From Array Processing to MIMO Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2006. [Foschini ’96] G.J. Foschini, "Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multielement antennas," Bell Labs Tech. J., pp. 41-59, 1996. [Foschini & Gans ’98] G. J. Foschini and M. J. Gans, ‘‘On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas,’’ Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 6, pp. 311-335, 1998. [Hochwald et al. ’01] B. Hochwald, T. Marzetta and C. Papadias, ‘‘A transmitter diversity scheme for wideband CDMA systems based on Space-Time Spreading,’’ IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (J- SAC), special issue on wideband CDMA (II), vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 48-60, Jan. 2001. [Kuzminskiy et al. 05] A. Kuzminskiy, H. Karimi, D. Morgan. C. Papadias, D. Avidor and J. Ling, “Downlink Throughput Enhancement of IEEE 802.11a/g Using SDMA with a Multi- Antenna Access Point,” EURASIP Signal Processing, special issue on Advances in Signal Processing-assisted cross layer Designs, No. 86, Issue 2, pp. 1896-1910, Dec. 2005. [Li06] Kuo-Hui Li, (Intel Mobility Group), “IEEE 802.16e-2005 Air Interface Overview,” June 5, 2006, available on-line. [Papadias ’09] C. Papadias, “On the Spectral Efficiency of Space-Time Spreading Schemes for Multiple Antenna CDMA Systems,” 33rd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, Oct. 24-27, 1999. [Papadias & Foschini ’02] C. Papadias and G. Foschini, ``On the capacity of certain space-time coding schemes,’’ EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, special issue on Space-Time Coding and its Applications, pp. 447-458, vol. 5, May 2002. [Tarokh et al. ’99] V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani and A. R. Calderbank, ‘‘Space-time block codes from orthogonal designs,’’ IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 1456 – 1467, July 1999. [Telatar ’99] E. Telatar, ‘‘Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels,’’ European Transactions on Telecommunications, vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 585-595, Nov. / Dec. 1999. [3GA’09] 3G Americas, “MIMO Transmission Schemes for LTE & HSP Networks,” June 2009, available on-line. References