EcmaScript 6 - the future is here

EcmaScript 6 - the future is here

Talk given at JsDay (Verona, Italy) - May 2014

Transcript

  1. Sebastiano Armeli @sebarmeli http://courtreportingnyc.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/future-of-court-reporting.jpg

  2. @sebarmeli Sebastiano Armeli

  3. ES6

  4. History 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2003 (May) B.

    Eich invented Mocha (Dec) LiveScript renamed to JavaScript JSScript (June) ECMA-262 Ed.1! ! by TC39 committee ECMA-262 Ed.2 ECMA-262 Ed.3 ECMA-262 Ed.4 started ECMA-262 Ed.4 abandoned (Sep) Mocha renamed to LiveScript
  5. History 2005 2007 2008 2009 2011 2013 2014 ES 4

    again! (Adobe, Mozilla,! Google)! ES 3.1 ! (Microsoft, Yahoo)! beginning ES 5 spec finalized (June) ECMA-262 Ed.5 (June) ES 6 proposals freeze (Dec) ECMA-262 Ed.6 target release (27th April) latest spec draft (July) Agreement: ES3.1 & ES-Harmony! ! ES3.1 becomes ES5
  6. ECMA-262 TC39 ES 4 ES-Harmony ES.Next ES 6 ECMA ES

    7 es-discuss
  7. ES-Harmony Proposal ES 6 Candidate ECMA-262 Ed.6 standardized ES 6

    Specification Draft TC39 Process Strawman Proposal
  8. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  9. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  10. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x +

    1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5
  11. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x +

    1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5 No constructor Syntax sugar Lexical `this` binding
  12. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x +

    1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5 No constructor Syntax sugar Lexical `this` binding
  13. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x +

    1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5 No constructor Syntax sugar Lexical `this` binding
  14. let x = (x) => {return x + 1} var

    x = function(x) { return x + 1; } let x = (x, y) => ({ x: x, y: y }) var x = function(x, y) { return { x: x, y: y }; } ES6 ES5
  15. let map = words => words.map((w) => w.length); var map

    = function(words) { return words.map(function(w) { return w.length; } } ES6 ES5 map([‘sea’, ‘beach’, ‘do’]); // [3,5,2]
  16. var obj = { doIt: function(){}, handle: function(){ document.addEventListener(‘click’, function(e)

    { this.doIt(); }.bind(this)); } } ES5 var obj = { doIt: function(){}, handle: function(){ var that = this; document.addEventListener(‘click’, function(e) { that.doIt(); }); } } ES3
  17. var obj = { doIt: function(){}, handle: function(){ document.addEventListener(‘click’, (e)

    => this.doIt()); } } ES6
  18. Object.getPrototypeOf(() => {})

  19. Object.getPrototypeOf(() => {}) Function.prototype

  20. When to use ‘function’ ?

  21. Constructors Generators Methods in obj

  22. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping & Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  23. Block Scoping Each BLOCK has got its lexical environment let/const

    bind variables to the lexical environment Variables declared with let/const are NOT hoisted
  24. var vs let (function() { console.log(y) // “undefined” if (true)

    { var y = “value”; } console.log(y) // “value” }());
  25. var vs let (function() { if (true) { let y

    = “value”; } console.log(y) // ERROR!! }()); (function() { console.log(y) // “undefined” if (true) { var y = “value”; } console.log(y) // “value” }());
  26. const (function() { const X; X = “foo”; // ERROR:

    x unitialized }()); (function() { const X = “foo”; X = “foo2”; // ERROR: x is read-only }());
  27. Block functions if (true) { function fn () {} }

    ! fn(); // ERROR!
  28. Destructing array var [x,y] = [‘a’, ‘b’]; ! console.log(x); //

    ‘a’ ! console.log(y); // ‘b’ ! ! var [x,y] = [y, x]; ! console.log(x); // ‘b’
  29. Destructing object var obj = {width: 50, height: 100}; !

    var {width, height} = obj; ! console.log(width); // 50
  30. Destructing multiple return value var fn = function(){ return [“50”,

    “100”]; } ! var [width, height] = fn(); ! console.log(width); //50 console.log(height); //100
  31. Default values function(foo) { foo = foo || “a”; }

  32. Default values function(foo) { foo = foo || “a”; }

    function(foo = “a”) {}
  33. function fn(…args) { console.log(args); //[“a”, “b”, “c”] args.forEach(function(arg) { console.log(arg);

    }; } ! fn(“a”, “b”, “c”); ! // a // b // c Rest parameters
  34. Rest parameters function fn(a, …args) { console.log(args); //[“b”, “c”] args.forEach(function(arg)

    { console.log(arg); }; } ! fn(“a”, “b”, “c”); ! // b // c
  35. Spread operator function fn(a, b, c) {} ! var array

    = [“A”, “B”, “C”]; fn.apply(null, array);
  36. function fn(a, b, c) {} ! var array = [“A”,

    “B”, “C”]; fn.apply(null, array); fn(…array); Spread operator
  37. function fn(a, b, c) { var array = Array.prototype. slice.apply(arguments);

    } Spread operator
  38. function fn(a, b, c) { var array = Array.prototype. slice.apply(arguments);

    var array = […arguments]; } Spread operator
  39. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  40. for-of for-of loop on ‘iterables’ Arrays/Sets/Maps are ’iterables’ for-in limitations

  41. Iterable { iterator: function() -> iterator } { next: function()

    -> any } Iterators
  42. for-of var array = [“a”, “b”, “c”]; ! for (let

    el of array) { console.log(el); } ! // “a” // “b” // “c”
  43. Array comprehension var array = [1, 2, 11, 20]; !

    var array_c = [x (for x of array) (if x > 10)]; ! // [11, 20]
  44. function* g() { yield “a”; yield “b”; } Generator var

    generator = g(); generator ‘constructor’ generator.next(); //{ value: “a”, done: false} generator.next(); //{ value: “b”, done: false} generator.next(); //{ value: undefined, done: true}
  45. ! function* g() { yield “a”; var retVal = yield

    “b”; return retVal; } var generator = g(); generator.next().value; //“a” generator.next().value; //“b” generator.next(“c”).value; //“c”
  46. ! function* asyncFn() { var data = yield getUser(); doSomethingElse(data);

    } function run(genFunction) { var generator = genFunction(); generator.next().value.then(function(val){ generator.next(val); }, function(err) { generator.throw(err); }); } run(asyncFn); Promise
  47. for (let el of generator) { console.log(el); } Generators are

    iterables
  48. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  49. Set Set of values - NO duplicates Different type of

    values add(key)/ has(key) / delete(key) entries() -> Iterator
  50. let countries = new Set(); countries.add(“US”); countries.add(“Italy”); countries.add(“US”); ! countries.values().next().value;

    // “US” ! countries.values().next().value; // “Italy” ! for(let country of countries) { console.log(country); }
  51. Map key-value Different type of values Object can be keys

    get(key)/ has(key) / set(key,val)
  52. let dict = new Map(); dict.set(“A”, 1); dict.set(“B”, 2); !

    dict.get(“A”); // “1” dict.delete(“B”); ! for(let w of dict.keys()) { console.log(w); // “A” // “B” } ! for(let w of dict.values()) { console.log(w); // 1 // 2 }
  53. WeakMap Avoid memory leaks Reference to the key obj held

    weakly Key must be an object No iterators methods
  54. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  55. Module ! module “ads” { export function register(ad) { return

    ad; } } ! import {register} from “ads”; var app = { doIt: function() { register({}); } } export app; app.js lib/ads.js
  56. ! module “widget” {…} module “widget/button” {…} module “widget/text” {…}

    ! ! import ‘lib/ad’ as c; import { meth as method } from ‘a'; ! ! export default class {}; // Ad.js import Ad from ‘ad'; // app.js
  57. \ Loader API System.load('http://json.org/modules/json2.js', function(JSON) { alert(JSON.stringify([0, {a: true}])); });

    System.import Configure module loading
  58. Class / Subclass ! class Animal { constructor(name) { this.name

    = name; } toString() { return “This is: ” + this.name; } } class Cat extends Animal { constructor(name, ownerName) { super.constructor(name); this.ownerName = ownerName; } ! toString() { return super.toString() + “ owned by ” + this.ownerName; } }
  59. ! function Animal(name) { this.name = name; } ! Animal.prototype.toString

    = function() { return “This is: ” + this.name; }; ! function Cat(name, ownerName) { Animal.call(this, name); this.ownerName = ownerName; } ! Cat.prototype = Object.create(Animal.prototype); Cat.prototype.constructor = Cat; Cat.prototype.parent = Animal; ! Cat.prototype.toString = function() { return Animal.prototype.toString.call(this) + “ owned by ” + this.ownerName; }
  60. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  61. String methods startsWith() endsWith() contains() …

  62. Number methods Number.isInteger(num) Number.isNaN(num) Number.isFinite(num) …

  63. Array methods var divs = document.querySelectorAll("div"); Array.from(divs); ! // [<div></div>,

    </div></div>] ! Array.of(10, 11); ! // [10, 11] ! !
  64. var array = [“a”, “b”, “c”]; ! for (let [index,

    el] of array.entries()) { console.log(index, el); // 0 “a” // 1 “b” // 2 “c” } ! for (let index of array.keys()) { console.log(index); } ! for (let el of array.values()) { console.log(el); } !
  65. Object methods Object.setPrototypeOf(obj, proto) Object.assign(obj, mixin) Object.is(value1, value2)

  66. var object = { method() { return “a”; } }

    object.method(); // “a” !
  67. var object = { method() { return “a”; } }

    object.method(); // “a” ! function f(x, y) { return {x: x, y: y};} function f(x, y) { return {x, y}; } =
  68. Math methods Math.log2() Math.log10() Math.sinh() Math.cosh() …

  69. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping API improvements

    Proxies
  70. Proxies var obj = {num: 1}; ! obj = Proxy(obj,

    { set: function (target, property, value) { target[property] = value + 1; } }); ! obj.num = 2 // [[Set]] console.log(obj.num); // 3
  71. Proxies function createDefensiveObject(target) { return new Proxy(target, { get: function(target,

    property) { if (property in target) { return target[property]; } else { throw new ReferenceError(); } } }); } ! var obj = createDefensiveObject({name: “Seb”}); console.log(obj.lastname); //ReferenceError http://www.nczonline.net/blog/2014/04/22/creating-defensive-objects-with-es6-proxies/
  72. Generators & Iteration Recap Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling

    API improvements Proxies
  73. Promises Symbols Generator Expressions Quasi-literals (template-strings)

  74. Tools Traceur compiler (Google) es6-transpiler es6-module-transpiler (Square) es6-shim defs.js

  75. http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php https://people.mozilla.org/~jorendorff/es6-draft.html http://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/ http://esdiscuss.org/ @sebarmeli Sebastiano Armeli