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Introduction to business: motivation

Ted Major
March 31, 2016

Introduction to business: motivation

CC-BY-SA

Ted Major

March 31, 2016
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  1. Management,
    motivation, and
    leadership
    flickr photo by whatsthatpicture https://flic.kr/p/7vWjfM shared under a CC (BY-NC)
    license

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  2. Why are you here today?

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  3. Motivation
    • Intrinsic
    • Extrinsic

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  4. Scientific Management
    • time-motion studies
    • principles of motion economy

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  5. Image courtesy http://www.jacmusic.com/300B/300B-index.htm

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  6. Image courtesy of http://chuckmancollectionvolume11.blogspot.com

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  7. Image courtesy Morton College Hawthorne Museum
    http://www.morton.edu/Hawthorne_Museum/

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  8. flickr photo by BetterWorks https://flic.kr/p/9VjtZA under a CC (BY) license

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  9. By David Shankbone; cropped by Beyond
    My Ken (talk) 10:09, 28 February 2015
    (UTC) - David Shankbone, CC BY-SA 3.0,
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index
    .php?curid=38643076

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  10. ©1931, Lewis W. Hines

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  11. cc licensed ( BY SD ) flickr photo by Salim Virji: http://flic.kr/p/Bzxus

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  12. cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by andrew d miller: http://flic.kr/p/4g7gHN

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  13. Theory X and Theory Y
    (MacGregor’s Management Styles)
    Theory X
    • people dislike work & will
    avoid it when possible
    • workers must be threatened
    with punishment to work
    • workers prefer to be
    directed, avoid
    responsibility, have little
    ambition & want security
    • motivators are fear &
    money
    Theory Y
    • people naturally like work
    • people work toward goals
    • commitment depends on rewards
    • people seek responsibility
    • people use imagination,
    cleverness & creativity to solve
    problems
    • the average person’ s intellectual
    potential is only partially realized
    • people are motivated by a variety
    of rewards

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  14. Herzberg’s Motivating Factors
    (job content)
    Hygiene
    • company policy &
    administration
    • supervision
    • working conditions
    • interpersonal relations
    • salary, status, job security
    Motivators
    • work itself
    • achievement
    • recognition
    • responsibility
    • growth & advancement

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  15. Equity theory
    • Employees expect fair return for work: “equity
    norm”
    • Equity norm relative to coworkers:
    "comparison other"
    • If employees feel they are treated unfairly
    (outputs unequal to inputs)?
    – Cognitive distortion
    – Alter inputs/outputs
    – Leave organization

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  16. Equity Theory
    • People compare total inputs to outputs
    • Different people value inputs & outputs
    differently
    • OK for senior employees to earn more, but
    too much inequality is demotivating
    • Perceptions of inputs/outputs may be
    inaccurate

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  17. Equity Theory
    • Underpaid?
    • Overpaid?

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