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systemd: wymyślmy jeszcze jedno koło

9b91521dd3d020edb72521181aa32c9f?s=47 Tomasz
January 15, 2011

systemd: wymyślmy jeszcze jedno koło

Prezentacja w ramach Zimowiska TLUG 2011. Wprowadzenie do systemd.
http://vimeo.com/20205771

9b91521dd3d020edb72521181aa32c9f?s=128

Tomasz

January 15, 2011
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  1. systemd: wymyślmy jeszcze jedno koło Zimowisko TLUG 2011 Zimowisko TLUG

    2011 Tomasz Torcz Tomasz Torcz <tomek@pipebreaker.pl> <tomek@pipebreaker.pl>
  2. Rozdzielnik co to jest init? jaką ma rolę? dlaczego systemd?

  3. SystemV init PID 1 /etc/inittab sysinit: initdefault: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Init#Other_styles

  4. Mamo, skąd się biorą procesy? - boot - cron, at

    - inetd - D-Bus activation
  5. Autorzy systemd% git log --format=%an | sort -u | wc

    -l 47 >10 commitów: Michael Biebl, Kay Sievers, Lennart Pöttering Pomysły: reszta świata
  6. Usługi to nie wszystko usługi gniazda punkty mountowania pliki, katalogi

    upływ czasu urządzenia, cele
  7. Ale my już mamy koło!

  8. Ale my już mamy koło! /etc/init.d/* /etc/fstab /etc/init/* kernel command

    line (emergency, single itp.)
  9. Usługi zależności (implicit) restartowanie demonizacja limity i kontrola (CPU, I/O,

    mem)
  10. Usługi - kontrola WorkingDirectory= RootDirectory= User= Group= SupplementaryGroups= Nice= OOMScoreAdjust=

    IOSchedulingClass= IOSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingPolicy= CPUSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingResetOnFork= CPUAffinity= UMask= Environment= EnvironmentFile= StandardInput= StandardOutput= StandardError= TTYPath= SyslogIdentifer= SyslogFacility= SyslogLevel= SyslogLevelPrefix= TimerSlackNSec= LimitCPU= LimitFSIZE= LimitDATA= LimitSTACK= LimitCORE= LimitRSS= LimitNOFILE= LimitAS= LimitNPROC= LimitMEMLOCK= LimitLOCKS= LimitSIGPENDING= LimitMSGQUEUE= LimitNICE= LimitRTPRIO= LimitRTTIME= PAMName= TCPWrapName= Capabilities= SecureBits= CapabilityBoundingSetDrop= ControlGroup= ReadWriteDirectories= ReadOnlyDirectories= InaccessibleDirectories= PrivateTmp= MountFlags=
  11. Usługi - kontrola WorkingDirectory= RootDirectory= User= Group= SupplementaryGroups= Nice= OOMScoreAdjust=

    IOSchedulingClass= IOSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingPolicy= CPUSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingResetOnFork= CPUAffinity= UMask= Environment= EnvironmentFile= StandardInput= StandardOutput= StandardError= TTYPath= SyslogIdentifer= SyslogFacility= SyslogLevel= SyslogLevelPrefix= TimerSlackNSec= LimitCPU= LimitFSIZE= LimitDATA= LimitSTACK= LimitCORE= LimitRSS= LimitNOFILE= LimitAS= LimitNPROC= LimitMEMLOCK= LimitLOCKS= LimitSIGPENDING= LimitMSGQUEUE= LimitNICE= LimitRTPRIO= LimitRTTIME= PAMName= TCPWrapName= Capabilities= SecureBits= CapabilityBoundingSetDrop= ControlGroup= ReadWriteDirectories= ReadOnlyDirectories= InaccessibleDirectories= PrivateTmp= MountFlags=
  12. Usługi - kontrola WorkingDirectory= RootDirectory= User= Group= SupplementaryGroups= Nice= OOMScoreAdjust=

    IOSchedulingClass= IOSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingPolicy= CPUSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingResetOnFork= CPUAffinity= UMask= Environment= EnvironmentFile= StandardInput= StandardOutput= StandardError= TTYPath= SyslogIdentifer= SyslogFacility= SyslogLevel= SyslogLevelPrefix= TimerSlackNSec= LimitCPU= LimitFSIZE= LimitDATA= LimitSTACK= LimitCORE= LimitRSS= LimitNOFILE= LimitAS= LimitNPROC= LimitMEMLOCK= LimitLOCKS= LimitSIGPENDING= LimitMSGQUEUE= LimitNICE= LimitRTPRIO= LimitRTTIME= PAMName= TCPWrapName= Capabilities= SecureBits= CapabilityBoundingSetDrop= ControlGroup= ReadWriteDirectories= ReadOnlyDirectories= InaccessibleDirectories= PrivateTmp= MountFlags=
  13. Usługi - kontrola WorkingDirectory= RootDirectory= User= Group= SupplementaryGroups= Nice= OOMScoreAdjust=

    IOSchedulingClass= IOSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingPolicy= CPUSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingResetOnFork= CPUAffinity= UMask= Environment= EnvironmentFile= StandardInput= StandardOutput= StandardError= TTYPath= SyslogIdentifer= SyslogFacility= SyslogLevel= SyslogLevelPrefix= TimerSlackNSec= LimitCPU= LimitFSIZE= LimitDATA= LimitSTACK= LimitCORE= LimitRSS= LimitNOFILE= LimitAS= LimitNPROC= LimitMEMLOCK= LimitLOCKS= LimitSIGPENDING= LimitMSGQUEUE= LimitNICE= LimitRTPRIO= LimitRTTIME= PAMName= TCPWrapName= Capabilities= SecureBits= CapabilityBoundingSetDrop= ControlGroup= ReadWriteDirectories= ReadOnlyDirectories= InaccessibleDirectories= PrivateTmp= MountFlags=
  14. Usługi - kontrola WorkingDirectory= RootDirectory= User= Group= SupplementaryGroups= Nice= OOMScoreAdjust=

    IOSchedulingClass= IOSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingPolicy= CPUSchedulingPriority= CPUSchedulingResetOnFork= CPUAffinity= UMask= Environment= EnvironmentFile= StandardInput= StandardOutput= StandardError= TTYPath= SyslogIdentifer= SyslogFacility= SyslogLevel= SyslogLevelPrefix= TimerSlackNSec= LimitCPU= LimitFSIZE= LimitDATA= LimitSTACK= LimitCORE= LimitRSS= LimitNOFILE= LimitAS= LimitNPROC= LimitMEMLOCK= LimitLOCKS= LimitSIGPENDING= LimitMSGQUEUE= LimitNICE= LimitRTPRIO= LimitRTTIME= PAMName= TCPWrapName= Capabilities= SecureBits= CapabilityBoundingSetDrop= ControlGroup= ReadWriteDirectories= ReadOnlyDirectories= InaccessibleDirectories= PrivateTmp= MountFlags=
  15. Usługi - kontrola man systemd.exec man systemd.unit man systemd.service

  16. Usługi - sysvinit #!/bin/bash # # ladvd Startup script for

    the [cefn]dp/lldp sender # # chkconfig: - 85 15 # description: ladvd uses [cefn]dp / lldp frames to inform switches \ # about connected hosts, which simplifies ethernet \ # switch management. # processname: ladvd # pidfile: /var/run/ladvd.pid # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: ladvd # Required-Start: $local_fs $network # Required-Stop: $local_fs $network # Short-Description: start and stop cdp/lldp sender # Description: ladvd uses [cefn]dp / lldp frames to inform switches # about connected hosts, which simplifies ethernet # switch management. ### END INIT INFO # Source function library. . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions [ -f /etc/sysconfig/network ] && . /etc/sysconfig/network [ "${NETWORKING}" = "yes" ] || exit 0 [ -r /etc/sysconfig/ladvd ] && . /etc/sysconfig/ladvd start() { [ -z "$ARGS" ] && exit 6 echo -n $"Starting ladvd: " [ ! -d "/var/run/ladvd" ] && mkdir /var/run/ladvd && chown ladvd.ladvd /var/run/ladvd daemon /usr/sbin/ladvd $ARGS $LADVDARGS RETVAL=$? echo [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/ladvd return $RETVAL } stop() { echo -n $"Shutting down ladvd: " killproc ladvd RETVAL=$? rm -f /var/lock/subsys/ladvd echo return $RETVAL } [ -f /usr/sbin/ladvd ] || exit 0 # See how we were called. case "$1" in start) start ;; stop) stop ;; force-reload|restart|reload) stop start ;; try-restart|condrestart) [ -e /var/lock/subsys/ladvd ] && (stop; start) ;; status) status ladvd RETVAL=$? ;; *) echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|reload|condrestart}" exit 3 esac exit $RETVAL
  17. Usługi - sysvinit #!/bin/bash # # ladvd Startup script for

    the [cefn]dp/lldp sender # # chkconfig: - 85 15 # description: ladvd uses [cefn]dp / lldp frames to inform switches \ # about connected hosts, which simplifies ethernet \ # switch management. # processname: ladvd # pidfile: /var/run/ladvd.pid # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: ladvd # Required-Start: $local_fs $network # Required-Stop: $local_fs $network # Short-Description: start and stop cdp/lldp sender # Description: ladvd uses [cefn]dp / lldp frames to inform switches # about connected hosts, which simplifies ethernet # switch management. ### END INIT INFO
  18. Usługi - sysvinit [ -r /etc/sysconfig/ladvd ] && . /etc/sysconfig/ladvd

    start() { [ -z "$ARGS" ] && exit 6 echo -n $"Starting ladvd: " [ ! -d "/var/run/ladvd" ] && mkdir /var/run/ladvd && chown ladvd.ladvd /var/run/ladvd daemon /usr/sbin/ladvd $ARGS $LADVDARGS RETVAL=$? echo [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/ladvd return $RETVAL } stop() { echo -n $"Shutting down ladvd: " killproc ladvd RETVAL=$? rm -f /var/lock/subsys/ladvd echo return $RETVAL } [ -f /usr/sbin/ladvd ] || exit 0
  19. Usługi - sysvinit # See how we were called. case

    "$1" in start) start ;; stop) stop ;; force-reload|restart|reload) stop start ;; try-restart|condrestart) [ -e /var/lock/subsys/ladvd ] && (stop; start) ;; status) status ladvd RETVAL=$? ;; *) echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|reload|condrestart}" exit 3 esac exit $RETVAL
  20. Usługi - systemd [Unit] Description=uses [cefn]dp / lldp frames to

    inform switches about connected hosts [Service] EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/ladvd ExecStart=/usr/sbin/ladvd -a -f $LADVD_OPTIONS PIDFile=/var/run/ladvd.pid StandardOutput=syslog
  21. Usługi - pilnowanie systemctl status (DEMO)

  22. Gniazda kompatybilność (x)inetd niezrywalne połączenia przykład: syslog pełna kontrola

  23. Gniazda - kontrola BindIPv6Only= Backlog= BindToDevice= SocketMode= MaxConnections= KeepAlive= Priority=

    ReceiveBuffer= SendBuffer= IPTOS= IPTTL= Mark= PipeSize= FreeBind= TCPCongestion=
  24. Gniazda (DEMO)

  25. Gniazda – vsftpd.socket [Unit] Description=vsftpd incoming socket [Socket] ListenStream=21 Accept=yes

    [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
  26. Gniazda – vsftpd@.service [Unit] Description=vsftpd instance service [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=-/usr/sbin/vsftpd

    StandardInput=socket
  27. Urządzenia współpraca z udev start aplikacji zależny od sprzętu

  28. Urządzenia – 99-hdapsd.rules # cat /etc/udev/rules.d/99-hdapsd.rules SUBSYSTEM=="block", KERNEL=="sd[ab]", ATTRS{removable}=="0", TAG="systemd",

    ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS}="hdapsd@%k.service" (DEMO)
  29. Urządzenia – hdapsd@.service [Unit] Description=%I shock protection daemon [Service] EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/hdapsd

    StandardOutput=syslog SyslogIdentifier=%p(%I) Nice=-5 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/hdapsd -d %I $HDAPSD_OPTIONS (DEMO)
  30. Timery cykliczne czynności: czyszczenie raportowanie w przyszłości cron

  31. Timery – rrd_hddtemp.timer [Timer] OnBootSec=3m OnUnitActiveSec=5m [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

  32. Timery – rrd_hddtemp.service [Service] ExecStart=/root/bin/rrd_hddtemp.pl Type=oneshot StandardError=syslog

  33. Wymagania jądro 2.6.32 devtmpfs D-Bus 1.4.0 udev 151

  34. Podsumowując lepsza kontrola – restarty, limity OnFailure= pilnowanie zależności mniej

    kodu: demonizowanie, sockety
  35. Podsumowując 2 zintegrowanie usług dystrybucyjnych (random seed, clock, API mounts)

    ujednolicenie skryptów startowych szybki start, zintegrowany readahead
  36. avahi-daemon.socket [Unit] Description=Avahi mDNS/DNS-SD Stack Activation Socket [Socket] ListenStream=/var/run/avahi-daemon/socket [Install]

    WantedBy=sockets.target
  37. avahi-daemon.service [Unit] Description=Avahi mDNS/DNS-SD Stack Requires=avahi-daemon.socket After=syslog.target [Service] Type=dbus BusName=org.freedesktop.Avahi

    ExecStart=/usr/sbin/avahi-daemon -s ExecReload=/usr/sbin/avahi-daemon -r NotifyAccess=main [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target Also=avahi-daemon.socket
  38. systemctl status # systemctl status avahi-daemon.service avahi-daemon.service - Avahi mDNS/DNS-SD

    Stack Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/avahi-daemon.service) Active: active (running) since [Sat, 18 Sep 2010 23:32:54 +0200; 16h ago] Main PID: 3300 (avahi-daemon) Status: "Server startup complete. Host name is dhartha.local. Local service cookie is 966442585." CGroup: name=systemd:/systemd-1/avahi-daemon.service ├ 3300 avahi-daemon: running [dhartha.local] └ 3305 avahi-daemon: chroot helper
  39. systemctl status # systemctl status avahi-daemon.service avahi-daemon.service - Avahi mDNS/DNS-SD

    Stack Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/avahi-daemon.service) Active: active (running) since [Sat, 18 Sep 2010 23:32:54 +0200; 16h ago] Main PID: 3300 (avahi-daemon) Status: "Server startup complete. Host name is dhartha.local. Local service cookie is 966442585." CGroup: name=systemd:/systemd-1/avahi-daemon.service ├ 3300 avahi-daemon: running [dhartha.local] ├ 3305 avahi-daemon: chroot helper
  40. status mount # systemctl status boot.mount boot.mount - /boot Loaded:

    loaded Active: active (mounted) since [Sat, 18 Sep 2010 23:32:54 +0200; 16h ago] Where: /boot CGroup: name=systemd:/systemd-1/boot.mount
  41. systemd: wymyślmy jeszcze jedno koło Zimowisko TLUG 2011 Zimowisko TLUG

    2011 Tomasz Torcz Tomasz Torcz <tomek@pipebreaker.pl> <tomek@pipebreaker.pl>
  42. systemctl -t URL Strona: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd Dokumentacja: http://0pointer.de/public/systemd-man/ Definicje jednostek: https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/User:Johannbg/QA/Systemd/compatability

  43. None