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Empirical methods for evaluating maps: Illustrations and results

Empirical methods for evaluating maps: Illustrations and results

Learning progressions and learning map structures are increasingly being used as the basis for the design of large-scale assessments. Of critical importance to these designs is the validity of the map structure used to build the assessments. Most commonly, evidence for the validity of a map structure comes from procedural evidence gathered during the learning map creation process (e.g., research literature, external reviews, etc.). However, it is also important to provide support for the validity of the map structure with empirical evidence using data gathered from the assessment. In this paper, we propose a framework for the empirical validation of learning maps and progressions using diagnostic classification models. Three methods are proposed within this framework that provide different levels of model assumptions and types of inferences. The framework is then applied to the Dynamic Learning Maps (DLM) alternate assessment system to illustrate the utility and limitations of each method. Results show that each of the proposed methods has some limitations, but are able to provide complementary information for the evaluation of the proposed structure of content standards (Essential Elements) in the DLM assessment.

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Jake Thompson

April 06, 2019
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  1. Empirical Methods for Evaluating Maps: Illustrations and Results W. Jake

    Thompson & Brooke Nash
  2. 2 Methods for Evaluating Map Structure • External outcomes •

    Classical item statistics • Unidimensional models
  3. 3 A Framework for Map Evaluation • Diagnostic Classification Models

    (DCMs) • Mastery profiles on the set of assessed skills • Three methods –Patterns of Mastery Profiles –Patterns of Mastery Assignment –Patterns of Attribute Difficulty
  4. 4 An Illustrative Example • 3 attribute assessment • Linear

    map structure Initial Precursor Target
  5. 5 Map Structure in a DCM Context

  6. 6 • Estimate two models – Saturated model with all

    profiles – Reduced model with only hypothesized profiles • Assess model fit – Posterior predictive model checks – Model comparisons Patterns of Mastery Profiles Initial Precursor Target 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
  7. 7 Patterns of Attribute Mastery • Estimate each attribute as

    a separate 1-attribute DCM (equivalent to LCA) • Set mastery threshold (0.8) Student Initial Precursor Target 1 .97 .85 .43 2 .86 .52 .13 3 .92 .89 .83 4 .88 .65 .85 5 .55 .70 .33 … … … … Student Initial Precursor Target 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 4 1 0 1 5 0 0 0 … … … … Student Initial Precursor Target 1 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 4 1 0 1 5 0 0 0 … … … …
  8. 8 • Measure attribute difficulty using classical p-values • Group

    similar respondents a priori • Calculate the weighted average p- value for each attribute and group Patterns of Attribute Difficulty
  9. 9 Case Study: Dynamic Learning Maps • Each Essential Element

    (EE) available at multiple levels of depth, breadth, and complexity –5 levels in ELA and mathematics –3 levels in science • Linkage levels are assumed to follow a linear progression • Students test on only one linkage level for each EE during the operational assessment
  10. 10 • Patterns of Profile Mastery – Models fail to

    converge due to missing data • Patterns of Attribute Mastery – The majority of flags were in ELA – More flags for higher linkage level reversals than lower Case Study: Dynamic Learning Maps
  11. 11 Case Study: Dynamic Learning Maps • Patterns of Attribute

    Difficulty –Flags by subject • 28 ELA EEs • 35 mathematics EEs • 0 science EEs
  12. 12 Summary • Benefits and limitations of each method within

    the framework • Wide breadth of methods provides complementary information • Application to DLM shows insights that can be applied to future test and map development
  13. 13 Ongoing Research • Continue to refine methods –Alternative modeling

    strategies for Patterns of Mastery Profiles –Simulation studies to inform empirical flagging criteria • Expanding beyond the progression of linkage levels within EEs to the more fine-grained map structure
  14. More Information