Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

JASELE42 Symposium Slides

JASELE42 Symposium Slides

全国英語教育学会第42回埼玉研究大会(獨協大学)
2016年8月21日 14:00-15:40
シンポジウム「日本の英語教育の将来: 効果的な授業の組み立て方について考える」
コーディネーター兼司会
亘理 陽一(静岡大学)
シンポジスト
佐藤 臨太郎(奈良教育大学)
松村 昌紀(名城大学)
#jasele42sympo

0b6e4412ee7d15d1cea3cd34cc13359e?s=128

Yoichi Watari

August 21, 2016
Tweet

More Decks by Yoichi Watari

Other Decks in Education

Transcript

  1. શࠃӳޠڭҭֶձୈ42ճ࡛ۄݚڀେձ 2016೥8݄21೔ 14:00-15:40 ೔ຊͷӳޠڭҭͷকདྷ ޮՌతͳतۀͷ૊Έཱͯํʹ͍ͭͯߟ͑Δ ίʔσΟωʔλʔ݉࢘ձ ࿱ཧ ཅҰʢ੩Ԭେֶʣ γϯϙδετ ࠤ౻

    ྟଠ࿠ʢಸྑڭҭେֶʣ দଜ ণلʢ໊৓େֶʣ KBTFMFTZNQP
  2. γϯϙδετʢ༧ߘू, pp. 635–638ʣ • ࠤ౻ ྟଠ࿠ʢಸྑڭҭେֶʣ • ೔ຊਓֶशऀʹదͨ͠ʮվగܕPPPΞϓϩʔ νʯͷఏҊ •

    দଜ ণلʢ໊৓େֶʣ • λεΫɾϕʔεͷൃ૝ͱػೳ͢Δӳޠ࢖༻ऀ΁ ͷల๬
  3. ͓͓Αͦͷߏ੒ • PPPͷجຊతͳߟ͑ํɾվగ൛PPPͷఏҊʢ20෼ʣ • TBLTͷجຊతͳߟ͑ํઆ໌ʢ20෼ʣ • վగ൛PPP͔ΒTBLTʹίϝϯτɾ࣭໰ɾ࿦఺ఏىʢ10෼ʣ • TBLT͔Βվగ൛PPPʹίϝϯτɾ࣭໰ɾ࿦఺ఏىʢ10෼ʣ •

    ొஃऀʹΑΔσΟεΧογϣϯʢ15෼ʣ • ϑϩΞΛަ͑ͯͷσΟεΧογϣϯʢ15෼ʣ
  4. People who deal constructively with criticism deserve to be published.

    (Silvia, 2008, p. 97)
  5. z…īÔçuÌīR‡ ―0ˆ¬ĩpŒī½IJ·ĥxĪĤđĥÉēĺ― z… MÈÊĪñĝĠČtàAPPPľŗŢŦŌč Ö ÐJó (sato.rintaro@nara-edu.ac.jp) ŁŦţŦŐŲPPPūTBLTūEFLMÈÊ

  6. Can Japanese junior and senior high students learn English by

    using it? (not learn to use it) Possibly… Ideally…. but can be Too good to be true !
  7. Anything can happen. Don’t give up! “Japan way!” “Practice makes

    perfect” Ũz…şŃŔŦŕōŏřŦš5HPĕĸũ Ũ¸6… qũ
  8. M‰ÔçuÌī­ ČŅśŝŒńŦŇŞŤÎ+īÌjč qŠŲ ČĴģħĉĴģħ OûĪßç¥ĽĔěĩĒ ĽĤĘĹıĝĶĒŧč ğīĠijĪĬų ĝģĕĹħĝĠ¢ÞħÂÈ ŧ q³ŨPresentationũŲ­w–þ­Ľq³ťé{

    ÂÈ(Practice)Ųğīw–þ­ĪĤđĥīŽċĩÂÈ ¥(Production)Ų­w–ĽģĠŅśŝŒńŦŇŞŤ—1
  9. Skehan (1996): “… no longer carries much credibility in linguistics

    or psychology” Willis (2004): Language learning is a complex process which does not proceed in a linear additive way. Skehan (1998): “…such an approach is now out of fashion” White (1988) : a meaning-impoverished methodology.
  10. ć¿¬ŶŶŶ → tà PPP (HPPP) Í~ ßçÈbĪĔĚĺ毬ŗŢŊʼn Input → intake

    → output Skill acquisition theory / ACT-R(Anderson et al., 2004) ČʼnŁšMÈčħĝĥī¹ ßçÈbŨDeKeyser,2007ũ P߬¯êŨ{³¬¯êũ→→kÀė¬¯ê
  11. ć¿¬ŶŶŶ → tà PPP (HPPP) ųLearn by using it ĈLearn

    to use it “The central question is not what learners have to do to use language naturally, but what they have to do to learn to use language naturally” (Widdowson,1990,p.46) Č…dÙĩ™ĵ.+īmvĽúęĠijĪ…MÈ£FĽ! eĪᨅč ü„(2014) řŏŜľōŗMÈť—1Īķĺj,āīã →MÈÊīČðjhčȚëhč
  12. tàAŶŶŶ q³ŨPresentationũ ťuUĕĸīœ•ĩŀŤŗōŏŨsmall talk)ħŀŤŋşłŇŞŤ ī ťz…çĪķĺTKĽ$ĸĝĠ¤aīÒ>Ľ[ėĚĺ{³ ¬›Ä¬ w–é{ (ÔçĦĴ9ĕĴųũ ťEýīĐĺĦīwťw–īS!(J¦,2016ũ

    ĐĺđĬÔçĪķĺV¼¬oS ⇒ņŦšĬ{³¬¯êī¡b
  13. Presentation: Ũq³ é{ũ ťTeacher talk(Small talk) (a lot of input,

    interaction, output opportunity ) →Explanation of grammar (brief and concise )
  14. tàAŶŶŶ ÂÈŨPracticeũ ‹¬ÂÈ, “Deliberate practice” Ū wÏĽģĠ; ĪùïīĐĺÔwĽ¥đĥī]Zħg >ĪŸĽ\ĥĠÂÈ ⇒“±fĪöėĽÅė­w–īN®

    Č%‡ĺķĒĪĩģĥđģĥđĺčħđĒŚňŎĿŖĩhÝĽ S!ťé{ť‹ŐŠš →C²M+īN®ĪQ Ókgêīln ÿùīõj Ũ ,2015)
  15. ŶŻŷŸżźŸŹ ŨÂÈũ ă(ć)Parrot-like simplistic, mechanical imitation and repetition } 8cÂÈ

    ÅėrēŨuUīo³Ħ¤aĬç, ĐĺđĬôĽGēĺũ } GrŨuUīo³ĪķĹ, wĽ=N]ĵª?]ĪGēĠĹ, ĐĺđĬ}'ĵiĽ GēĠĹĞĺũºċ →ťComplex, active imitation and repetition connecting form with meaning ťA large amount of practice in context ġĻĕĪĵģĥįĝđěħĽwant ŪA ŪtoŽĽģĥÔwĽĹıĝĶĒĊ ŨI want my mother to cook spicy curry and rice everyday.) Crown 3 L.7 ’ĪğīwĽâĝĥ, œŦŏőŦĪßģĥIJıĝĶĒĊ(¢§Ĵ-ēıĝĶĒũ
  16. tàAŶŶŶ ⇒“±fĪöėĽÅė­w–īN® ¥ŨProductionũ ŨěěīĠijĪ‚&īŮŶŧũ ­w–ĽĒ—1 Ũ“±Ĝĉ˜€ĜũŪ (ĪL/ĬĜĻĺĖũ­w–¥ĽÇ2ĚĩđѧYī Ăđ—1 Ũ˜€Ĝũ ⇒ŅśŝŒńŦŇŞŤÎ+īÌj

    ťStructured communication→ Authentic communication (Littlewood,2004) ťyÈ þĽÁ<¬Ī—¥ĝĥ×Ē*î¬ĩŅśŝŒńŦŇŞŤ —1č Ũ†÷ ,2001)
  17. Production (¥ũ Structured → Open } Role play ĦŘľĪĩĹ, īåĪĤđĥ,

    Œ_)Ľ”ij, ¶‘ĽBijĩĖĸåĝĥĘġĜđŨÔwĬÚĥĴĕı ļĩđũĊ ’ĪÔwĽÚĩđĦåĝĥĘġĜđ Ć_)Ľ ĝ, Ą, ąī— 1ĽÃĹíĝĥĘġĜđ A: I wanted my father to ( ) for me last year. B: Oh, why? A: Because ( ). } Short talk Œ want ŪA ŪtoŽīwĽ¥đĥĉ7ðĪĝĥįĝđěħħĉ¢§ ĽåĝĉŮ ĦåĽÀĚĥĘġĜđĊ
  18. Strategic interaction (Open ) ŴŲ You are a junior high

    school student who loves to use the Internet. You use the Internet not only for academic purposes, but just for your own enjoyment. You believe the Internet has made your life more fulfilling and rewarding. But your father wants you to use it less. He is going to allow you to use the Internet for only an hour a day. He is coming to your room now. What will you say to him? ŵŲYou are a father of a junior high school boy, who seems to be addicted to the Internet. You believe that the Internet has more disadvantages than advantages for high school kids. You are going to your son’s room to ask him to use it only an hour a day. What will you say to him?
  19. tàAŶŶŶ ıħij ŨĪ{³¬oSĪķĺũ {³¬¯ê ŨP߬¯êũīöÜ({³¬¯êīÑ13) Č{³¬¯êĖ³¬¯êĪļĺdÙĬ"Ęĩđč Č{³¬ĪMÈĝĠw–Û(Ĭĉƒg>ÂÈĪķģĥįݞgêĪ¥Ħėĺw –Û(ĮħGrĦėĺč Ũ«©,2015) ĦĬ

    ³¬¯êĬų HøīŀŤŗōŏ ÔçĦīpŒ ĦĴ…
  20. ‚`Ī “The parable of the bricklayers” Three bricklayers are asked:

    “What are you doing?” A, “I’m laying bricks.” B, “I’m building a church.” C, “I’m building the house of God.” Ħĉ¸6òkĬ ĨģĢīʼnŋŀšĦų PPPA or TBLTAų
  21. References Anderson, J. R., Bothell, D., Byrne, M. D., Douglass,

    S., Lebiere, C., & Qin,Y.(2004). An integrated theory of the mind. Psychological Review, 111, 1036-1060. Angela, D.(2016). Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance .New York: Scribner. DeKeyser, R. (2007). Introduction: Situating the concept. In R. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a second language: Perspective from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp. 1– 18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Skehan, P. (1996).Second Language Acquisition Research and Task-based Instruction In Willis J. & Wilis D. (eds.) Challenge and Change in Language Teaching. Oxford: Heinemann. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. White, R. (1988). The ELT curriculum . Oxford: Blackwell. Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. Willis, J. (2004). Perspectives on task-based instruction: Understanding our practices, acknowledging different practitioners. In B. L. Leaver & J Willis (Eds.), Task-based instruction in foreign language education: Practices and Programs (pp. 3-44). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ü„|#(2014).ČTeach, Learn, Use ī¾ĭĤė-Can use Ľsēĺ‚ĴöÙĩÎ+ĬĕčĎÔçu ÌM°µď¹Ű:. ËŨŮŬŭŰũ.ČIM&W’ĪĔĚĺÔçpŒt@īäIJčĎùØÔçuÌM»Ù¹ůű:ď «© ¯^ ĎÔçoSĪĔĚĺ0ˆ¬ĩèĹà“ďIĀX †÷ ť4Õť© (2001)ĎOì¬Ôç´u̖ďjÆD
  22. Åï!iÇ"˜‰þ‡!£q—ƒ!Xš Ô,(»ÏÉ!iÇ"ˆ¿Õ»ÏÉ "€ŠcZÞ!d G@US ,Ÿ!@5I ›+ (G@US1™Õ „# ¬Çù1% »ÏÉ1–”Yæ

    ¡f-Åï"Ÿ!FR7U=PS"ÊĆ!+ (˅!G@US1„2)†ü !. %•"%-"Ć+'/y…G@US +0. × ›íe1~mºÿˆ› ëk1ý  #+ç *  Čuô_w ªâ„ā“Ä!ñ¦ ĈîÛ«±, 2016, p. 230č bzî÷¨é„\á42x}ÎÙ߀\ || =SK>6M­´!î÷¨é!‰¶ ── l¹Õ¤¾!å&ଠç -|| Íp€„ || 20168²21­ @?9TJU?! ӜÃë-î ÷^Ðè$!Œ³ ¸µ®ã
  23. ď @?9TBLT Đ ¥¼!ê°ö÷ÓĀõ đ =QF?TB<5S$!Œ³ Ē %( @?9TJU?! ӜÃë-î

    ÷^Ðè$!Œ³
  24. ˢ̷͆́ˣ ˢÆẒ̨̡̡́˱˺̤̜̀̍œǹ̨˟;̇ʪɅ̊ˍ̋ͺ̄Ƞ˫̢̀ …...................... ĘɆ̍äǔͳ̶͉͙ͤʹ ͹̇ɛ˸ˆ̃̆ţȈǘ̋ţʪɅ̍ͺ̨̄DGˍ(̄˯̇ ƛË˸ …...................... ̚˻˭̢̍[ő̈ʢī̡̤̋Ɏɞ0nj ŹʯGNJ̋ĿɎ̨%˫̤ĤĘ̏š˩̆˱́˶˩ˠ …......................ˇɎɞǘ̼̊ͱͫ

    Ìʽ̋ͳsŠ̋˸̆ʹĤƮ˸̙˺ˠˣ …....................... ÆȞȡ̫̬̋̈̃̆̍ͪͪ͋ͱ
  25. ̷͆́0nj̍]ƶ ͳx̤̊$ɛ̇̎̊˱˟̷̨͆́nj˩̀Ƥoʹ • ̬̻͌́ͱ́˟QÑˏ¨˟Ɏɞ0nj̍Ǜǘ̋č˹̀ȍ_ • ɔË˟Ů ̍Ŷʀ̊²Š̡̤̋ÆȞȡʡˆĐ ͳ̬͚͌ͱ͍̟͙ͬ̈́ͯ͋ͱ̿ͨͯ̇̎̊˱˟̷͆́̔̍€̣ȉ̚ʹ • ğŴǖȿ˟ˢ͓̱͗ͱͯ́͟ˣ˟ȧg̬͙̭̍͌́ͬ̈˸̆̍Ɏɞ0nj̇̎̊

    ˱˟`ˡ̈²̧̤ǀƞ̋Øč˸̆Ǜų̈́ʝğ˸̆˩˱˟ ũü̍ʏeV͙ͭ̓́̈˸̆̍Ɏɞ0nj Ȳɞ̨ɾ̋̄˳̀˭̢̃̀ ̭̬͑͋͘ɨê̈̍Ȳ$ɛ ˢ˛ǷÆŹͽïó˩ɛ˓̋̄˩ ̆˟ǖȿͰɑɦͰƭ̊̉ ɎɞƤǫɯÔ̋,˚˸… ˣ* *ˤă̍ȲɞŋȦ̍ҘͰFÌœǹ̋̄ ˩̆« ─── ̸ͭͱ͒ͫq̋Øč˸̀ ȲɞŋȦŇˉ̍̄̍ĿɎ˥ ͳŏʥǩÆǞ, 2014ñ10Ťʹ ˢ̟̥̏̇˯̡̤˪̤̋̊ˣ ȆŪœƠɦ
  26. ̷͆́ˮţ̝˾̍ǟ3̨ǖŁ˺̡̤̍̎̉̍˪̊0˩œ̨˸̀̈˯˭ ̍Ǹˮ TBLT

  27. Task-Based Golf Teaching ǨˮK$˸̆˩̤́͞ͱ͊Ͱ̷ͩ̋̎͘͵̿ͯ͟Ͱ̀̍͡ʿ̋àQ ̼̍ͫ͗ȖȞ̰̫ͪˮ˨̤ˠGŗɓ̥̀̈˯̠̎̂˪̉ÚÆNJ̼̍ͫ ͗ŋÎ̍śʳ̡́̃̀˪̇͵ͻ̄˨̤ĥë̋ Ͱ˛Æñ̈ḑ̥̤̌Ä 2̀̂ˮK̃̆͝ͱ̨ͫĥ̃̆˩̤̈˵̦́̃̀ˠ ̻ͱ͈̎ͷ̇͵ˍ̋Ä̡̝̉̀̂̍˪˺̨Ɇ̆ž̃̆˩̆͵̠̂ ˪̉Ǩ̍Ǜ̍b̍ĥë̇ȖȞ̨˸̆˩̀½J̍̈˵̦̟̋̃̆ṳ̊̍

    ̎͵-tLJ˭ĥ̃̀̈˵̦̋ͷž̈˩̃̀ˑö̇˨̤ˠ
  28. ɺ˯̆˩̤˵̈ ½J̎ȖȞ̨À̜̆2žǛ˭3žǛ̈˩̃̀̈˵̦̦́˪˭ˠž̍ ̡˪̋ǜDZ˸͵ĵ̣Ä̡̍˪̸̭̊́ͯ̇͵͝ͱͫˮ̙̃̀˱ď˩̡̢̝ ̊˩œ‹̋˖̩̇˩˱˵̝̈˨̥̏͵ǰĵ̨̣˺̤˵̝̈˨̤̈˩˪ǀ ƞ̇˨̤ˠ ˾̥̝̇˾̍½J̎͝ͱ̨ͫĥ̂Ȑ˳͵̟̃̆˯̀ś̻̍ͱ͈ ̎˾̨̥ɆÇ̤˭͵̖̩̍ɎɎ͵-˭ɛ˸˭˳̤́˳̇˨̤ͳ̼ ͫ͗ȖȞ̰̫ͪ̈Ǩ̍˩̤¬ģ̴̎ͩ́̇ʼ̢̥̆̆˩̤̜̀͵°̎ ȣ˵˫̊˩ʹˠ

  29. ²q ˸̢̏˱Ɨ̋˼˻̋˩̆S̑Ų̟̤̈̀̈͵bŋ˫̢̥̀˵̨̈ ď˩V˸̀̍˭͵˾̍ʳ̻̋ͱ͈̋ơĘ˶̥̀̍˭͵˩̄˭̢˭˾̍ ½J̸̭̍́ͯ̎·˯˱ͳȪƺ̖̊̉̋ʹ,̨žʁ˶˼̤̝̍̋² ̧̃̆˩̀ˠ ˾̍ă̝ȖȞ̎Ȑ˯͵-öǛ˭̟̋̃̆ů̀̈˯͵̻ͱ͈̎͛ͯ ̨IJ̃̆˾̍½J̈͵˾̍ʿ̇ĥ̃̆˩̀\̍½J̸̍ͭͱ̋͘y̨ ̄˳̤̈͵-˭ơĘ̨6˸̡̀˪́̃̀ˠ˾̍ŗ̍ȖȞ͋ͱ͟ˮˢ̸ ͉͙ͪ̔̍Ęɪˣ́̃̀̍˭̝˸̥̊˩ˠ

  30. ̫̮͍͙͉͍˟̬͗ͱ̷͎͉͒˟̭͙͉͍ͯ ͷśʳ̈ɔË˶̥̆˩̢̤˸˩͉ͬ́ͯ̍ʳ̋͵Ä̝̉̀̂̎ˬ˾ ̢˱˾̥˿̥200LJ̖̉ĥ̂͵̻ͱ͈̋ͻͼö̖̉ɛ˸˭˳̢̥̆˩ ̀̍̇̎̊˩˭̈ď˪ˠ Ä̝̉̀̂̍ ̋̎͵Ų̈̀Ɇṳ̡́˪̊˺̢̏˸˩̸̭́ͯ̇ ͝ͱ̨ͫĥ̂Ȑ˳̤ǏJ̝ͷ˩̆͵ȖȞ ͵̍Ä̝̉̀̂̎˾̍ Ą́Ǜ̋˸̆˩̀ˠ

  31. ̷͆́ ̷̨͆́nj˩̀Ƥo ŏƠ̈þù̍LjɌ ͳ~Ǟ̈WŲʹ ŋŬQÑ ̍LjɌ ͪ͋ͩ̿ͱͰ ɎɞĨȽ ɎɞĘɪ Ȫåmgę

    ȥËǘȪåB WŲǘďȠg TBLṪ̍ĸƂ ǖˊijÙ ŏƠ̍ɠř̈ȖȞ ɞý̍®û fluency practice ̷͍͖͉ͰQÑ̍ǖá ̫͋ͪͫ͟ ˭̢̍Æ̑ ˢɷNjˣ̨Ƥnj˸ ̆̍˟Œ̀̊Ƥ o̔̍€̣ȉ̚ ʏ́˳̝̇þù́˳̝̇̊˩ ─── TBLT̎ blend ͳMackey, Ziegler, & Bryfonski, 2016ʹ ɯ˭̊ʳĐ ŏqĘɪ űŭŘȁͳ2015ʹˢ˾̝˾̷̝͆́̈̎-˭˟̷͆́̍Ƥnj̡̋̃̆-ˮŧā̇˯̤̍˭ˣ ˤȲɞŋȦ˥ 2015ñ6Ť†, 10-13ˋ TBLṪ̎˩̃̀˩̉˪̟̃̆Œ˸˩˵̨̈Æ̤̍̕˭ͿͳSwan, 2005ʹ
  32. ́˭̢˟̠̂̃̈ɟɌ ˢ…þụ̡̝̀ʏ̍%ʝ̨ʪɈ˸ŏƠijÙ̟ƋŽǘ̊ƤǫţÚʷ̜̤̋̈̉̈˩˪͆́ ̷§ĸƂ…ˣ +Ⱥȩ¸ʤͰǵ{ǯͰƒɶh ˤŗũÆȞȡ̋ˆ̃̀mŴǘȲɞŋĸƠKʰ──EFLlj­̇̍ȲɞȞĆ̍Ljɦ̈Ìɽ˥ řƜ¡š, 2015ñ, p. 19. ˢʏ̋ƹƶ̨ü̷̻͍̆̀ͯ͋́̍˨̤ǀƞ̇Ȫƺ̋˟˨̤˩̻̹̎ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯ̍Č

    Ʌ̋ʋ̢̥̆̍ȞĆ̨ŧā˺̤̍̎…̖̩̈̉ƸLj̇˺ˠˣ Ľšp. 21. ˢ…NJĄ̍Ȫƺ̊ȞĆ̋˒̤̍̇̎̊˱…ˣ Ľšp. 21
  33. ́˳̉˟ǎ˸ɖ̊˭̃̀ˠ ̷͆́ ċ̍ ɎɞijÙ ̈Ɏ̧̢̥̀˟ŏƠ̎ Žʇǘ̊ħ˩̨˳˟ ʪɈ˶̥̊˩̦̍́˪ ̈˟̒̄˪ď˩̙˺̌ˠ

  34. ˢ̷͆́ˮ ċˣ̍ʏ ˢ̷͆́ˮ ªƶ̋˨̤ɎɞijÙˣ ŏƠͳɎɞ̍LjɌʹ̔ ǧ$ǘĘɪ̔ ŏqLjɌ̔ “Æǘďĕ̔ ǡĐ̍ƨ˘̔ Ȫåȿdžg̔

    ─── ̷͆́˭̢˺̨̆̕ǖė˺̤˵̈
  35. TBLT̍]ƶ %˫̀˩˵̈ˮGȼ˸˟˾̜̍̀̋ČɅ̊˵̈˟ạ̇̄̀˩˵̈̍ˢǸ̨ǡ̤ˣ̈˩˪Ȫƺ̊þ̇ŏƠ̋V$˪˵̈̇˟ mŴǘ̋ŏƠˮÆ̥̤̏˵̈ˮŧā̇˯̤ ̻̹ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯˮͳɠř̈ȖȞ̍ă̋ȼ̧̥̀¬ˆ̋ʣ˳̤˵̈ˮ̖̩̈̉„ȧ̊ʹȖȞǘȯÿ̨ì̤̑˵̈ˮ̊˩ ÆȞ̍LƓʺ̇ˢ̇˯̤˵̈ͳcan doʹ8ɗˣˮ̇˯˟NJĄ̟ÆNJ̀̂̎µ˱̍¬ˈ̇ͳ˾̍śƶ̍ȞƼ͚̣ͬͫ̊̋ʹ Ƌȧ̇˯̤Ȳɞͧͱ̾ͱ̥̤̋̊ Əǥ˶̔̍ʛc̊˵̧̣́̈˟ˢÉL̊Å¥ˣ̈˩˪Ȫåɝɪ˭̢ÆȞȡ̨Ɍň˺̤˵̈ˮ̇˯̤ Ĩȧȍˆǘ̊ijŲ̀Ɔğ˺̤˵̈ˮǾẋ˨̤ ŖȞˌ̨Ș̣ʊ˸̆0˩˟˾̢̥̋ơĘ̨‹˳̤Ƌ$ˮɯÔ̋NJ̙̥̤

    NJĄ̟ÆNJ̀̂̎˵̟̣̍œˮ·¾˯̇˨̤ ˢƶƁ§ˣ̇˟ͫͱ̨̬͋ͯ˵̊˺̡˪̊ĸƂ˭̢˟GNJ̝̋̈̃̆ǖɆ̈ƣÕ˟Ƅ˸˶̟š̑̋ư̂̀ĸƂ̤̋̊ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
  36. TBLT̎̐̈̄̇̎̊˩ ͐ͱ͂̈Ƹʴ5̊ȭǘǛų̈́ɔË˺̤ ̡˩ͳR. Ellis; Leung̊̉ʹ ̜́ͳLongʹ ŗî̍ȼƷ̨~Ś˸̊˩ɢ˓̨nj˩̤ ̡˩ͳR. Ellis̊̉ʹ ̜́ͳLongʹ

    ŏƠ̍Ę¡̨IJ̷̨̃̆͆́nj˩̤ ̡˩ͳR. Ellis; Keck & Kim; Robinsonʹ ̜́ͳLong; Skehan; J. Willisʹ Ƥo ̋ÆȞȡ̍Ɏɞ0nj̋K˺̤ ˺̤̕˯ͳLong; Lysterʹ ̜́ͳJ. Willisʹ Ƥoă̋þùijÙ̍śʳ̨\̋ɔË˺̤ ČˎͳJ. Willisʹ ̜́ͳLongʹ PPP§ĸƂ̈ ȼ˸̆ʖ̜̤ ɝ̜̤ͳR. Ellisʹ ȏØ̋ɕ˶̊˩ͳLongʹ ˢ´£̇Ŀż˶̥̆˩̤̫͙ͭͱ̨͈˾̙̙̍ŗũ̋IĴʈ̛̕˯̇̎̊˩ˠˣ ! ´£̋˟˾̥̔̍ʍąˮɫġ˶̥̊˳̢̥̏̊̊˩̡˪̊ the way ̩̊̆̊˩
  37. ˢ˨̊̀̎̉˪ď̤̩̃̆̇˺˭Ϳˣ ͐ͱ͂̈Ƹʴ5̊ȭǘǛų̈́ɔË˺̤ ̡˩ͳR. Ellis; Leung̊̉ʹ ̜́ͳLongʹ ŗî̍ȼƷ̨~Ś˸̊˩ɢ˓̨nj˩̤ ̡˩ͳR. Ellis̊̉ʹ ̜́ͳLongʹ

    ŏƠ̍Ę¡̨IJ̷̨̃̆͆́nj˩̤ ̡˩ͳR. Ellis; Keck & Kim; Robinsonʹ ̜́ͳLong; Skehan; J. Willisʹ Ƥo ̋ÆȞȡ̍Ɏɞ0nj̋K˺̤ ˺̤̕˯ͳLong; Lysterʹ ̜́ͳJ. Willisʹ Ƥoă̋þùijÙ̍śʳ̨\̋ɔË˺̤ ČˎͳJ. Willisʹ ̜́ͳLongʹ PPP§ĸƂ̈ ȼ˸̆ʖ̜̤ ɝ̜̤ͳR. Ellisʹ ȏØ̋ɕ˶̊˩ͳLongʹ ˢ´£̇Ŀż˶̥̆˩̤̫͙ͭͱ̨͈˾̙̙̍ŗũ̋IĴʈ̛̕˯̇̎̊˩ˠˣ ! ´£̋˟˾̍˵̈ˮɫġ˶̥̊˳̢̥̏̊̊˩̡˪̊ the way ̩̊̆̊˩
  38. ď @?9TBLT Đ ¥¼!ê°ö÷ÓĀõ đ =QF?TB<5S$!Œ³ Ē %( @?9TJU?! ӜÃë-î

    ÷^Ðè$!Œ³
  39. Nʑɝɪ ˢTBLT̋ʴċ̨IĴ˟˾̍mŴ̨ɝ̜̤ˡ̋̎˟Ɏɞ̟˾̍ǖʝ˟ɒĝ̟ÆȞ ̳̍͐͂̋͢͡ʴ˺̤Nʑ˸̀ɝɪˮ˨̤̈ḑ̥̤̌ˠˣ

  40. ǶɎɞ̍ȞĆ̋̄˩̆̍ȭǘLjɌ ͳǞǓʹ l ÆȞȡ̎Qǘ̊̿ͩ͒́̋ą˩˟ǖʝƓʺ̨Ȋ̆Ɏɞ̨ǃĆ˸̆˩˱̍̇˨̣˟ŋ˫ ̀̈ˬ̣̇˯̡̤˪̋̎̊˭̊˭̢̊̊˩ ͳLong, 2016, etc.ʹ l ĘɪǘͰĘ¡ǘ̻͍̊ͯͭͱ̡̢ͫ̋̊˩˟ŝ˜ǘ̊ɒĝ˟ǡɪ˟ÆȞ˟ȼƷ̳̍͐͢

    ͂͡ˮ˨̤ ͳPolanyi, 1966; Reber, 1989; Williams, 2009; ƚɮ, 2013, etc.ʹ l ʏ̟̣̍€̣̋ą˺̤ÆȞȡˮǝ/nj̍ɣǭɅɥ˶̥˟˾̍ ̇þù̈ ʏ̸͉͖̍ͯ̋͟ơĘ̨‹˳̤˵̨̈ʑ˸̆˟Ɏɞ̎ţ̝mŴǘ̋Æ̥̤̏ͳMackey, 2013, etc.ʹ l ǝ/nj̙̋̎̀˟ØɛǝĤ˭̢˳̤˶̙˷̙̊ņł̟Â̡̋̃̆ÆȞȡˮɎ ɞ0nj̨Ȫåȍ_̋ț˱˵̨̈6˺A˯ˮ˨̤ (Foster & Ohta, 2005, van Lier, 2004, etc.ʹ l Ɏɞ̍ǖʝ̎Ɏɞ˟lj­˟ÆȞȡ̋ʴ̧̤µ˱̍ɅŸˮǝ̋ʴ˸ˆ˪Ƀ˂˟ˇ Ȕþǘ̇˟eǖǘ̊ĐŻ̨ì͙̑̀ͭ̓́̇˨̤ͳLarsen-Freeman & Cameron, 2008;, etc.ʹ ͳEllis, 2015ʹ
  41. Ǩ̍ ̍TBLT Genes ˛Źŋ’̈˸̆ŋ˫̀̍̎˟ˬȼC̡˱nû̊̉˼˻˟WŲǘ̊ÆȞ̟ǡɪ̍LjɌͰɒĝ̈ ȖȞ̍œƠɦ̋ƛ˸̆̊˹̛˵̈̍̊˩˛ŹNJ̀̂́̃̀ ·Æʸś̍Ǥǯ̎˟ǶɎɞͳȲɞʹ̍˶̙˷̙̊>ˈ̍ ̋˟ǃĆ̜̍̀̋Č˻˸̝ŋ ˫̢̥˟ȖȞ˶̥̤ČɅ̍̊˩̝̍ˮ˨̤˵̨̈Ǧ”˸̆˩̀ ·ÆNJˮTBLT§̍ijÙ̡̥̖͈͚̋̃̆̉̉ͣͱ̨̿ͨͯ˛̜˟Ȫ9̈ưɼę̨IJ̄˭̨ Ǜ̍ḃɆ̆˯̀

    ȩǑŧ̈˘Ȧlj­˟N‰ơĘ̍Ād˟Ɣɞˬ̡̑ǶɎɞ̍ǖʝ̨6ʖ˟˨̤˩̎ʶÏ ˺̤ɝǡ̈lj­̍Ů ˟Ȫƺ̟ʳ̍ɝǡ̍Ƀ˂Đ˟lj­̈NJƾ̍ʴ̧̣̋ʴ˺̤̫ ̱͗ͱ͇ͯ́Ljɦ̊̉̋ʴċ̨IJ̃̆˩̤ ˨̙̣̍Ɏ˪˵̨̈ȣ˳̊˩́ ͷ ͸ ͹ ͺ ͻ
  42. 9˹̆˩̤˵̈ • Ɏɞ̍ǖʝ̎ Ƀ˂͙̊ͭ̓́̇˟˾˵̋̎ǡɪͰˌǛ̍ȷǮ̈Ȫoq̍˵̈ˮŒ̙̥̤ • ɝǡ̈lj­̍ǝ/nj̍ ̇µŌ̍ˢɎɞ̍ȱˣˮȋ̑̄˯˟ʴ5Đ̍ ̇Ǡ̜̀̋ČɅ̊ NJĚȀ̈˸̆̍ũü̍ʏ̟̣̍€̣̍ ¬ˮĿ2˶̥̤ČɅˮ˨̤

    • ŋÎ̍ ̋˟Ɏɞǖʝ̜̍̀̍ţ˜̍lj­̨/̣V˸̟̣̆̀˩ ͳŋÎ̍´̋˾̍lj­ˮ̊˩̢̊˟̊ˬ˶̢ʹ • Ɏɞ̨ͳÛ̊˱̝̈˾̍þğʛǫ̇̎ʹÍɋǘ̊Øɰƾ˟ȪĂǘ̇˟ŜʚĐ̨IJ̃̀ĭɰǘ̊ƅ Ď̈˸̆ħ̧̊˩̖˪ˮ˩˩ • lj­ͳǑʹ̈Ż̈ɝǡȧg̈ɎɞȞĆ̎ͷ̄̍˵̈̇˨̣˟˾̍˵̨̈~Ś˸̀ɎɞijÙ ̍œǪ̛Ĺnj˺̤̍ˮ˩˩
  43. TBLT̍˵̨̈Ɏ˪̀̂ ˢ˨̤̍ˮ˵˪˩˪ŋŬ́˭̢ˣ ˢKəˮ˾˵̋˨̤˭̢ˣ ˢŗũ̇̎…́˭̢ˣ ŵ˭̢̎Ƞ˫̎˹̜̊˩ ͳ˾̢̥̋̉˪ØU˺̥̏˩˩˭̨˟ă˭̢Ƞ˫̎˺̤ʹ

  44. ď @?9TBLT Đ ¥¼!ê°ö÷ÓĀõ đ =QF?TB<5S$!Œ³ Ē %( @?9TJU?! ӜÃë-î

    ÷^Ðè$!Œ³
  45. ͐ͱ͂Ϳ ũü̋͐ͱ͂̎̊˩̍˭Ϳ • ãƂ˛Ź̨V̆ÜȤ˸˟NJNjdž¬̇ʿ̍̈Ȳɞ̻̹̇ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯ˸̊˱̆̎˩˳̊˩ ͳſȺ, 2016ʹ • ạ̇̄̀˩Ĕ«̍š˩̆˨̵̤̮̬̬̫͛͌ˮȲɞƽ́˳̊̍̇˟˸˭̀̊˱Ȳɞ̇ɡ̛ ˢŗũ̋̎Ȳɞ̨ŗîǘ̋0˪͐ͱ͂ˮ̊˩̍́˭̢ TBLT̍œƠɦ̎̒˶̧˸˱̊˩ˣ

    ťm̟̣̊œ˭̈˩˪˵̈̈˟͐ͱ͂̍ťƸ̎\̍ɛ ͳcf., Ä2̍ˢ̼ͫ͗Ͱ͐ͱ͂ˣͿʹ
  46. ͐ͱ͂˭̢ǖė˸̊˩̻ͱ́ɔɐ NJĄ̍ȫ˟ˢ ¶ˣ˟Ljė̍Ȫåͳ ideal self ʹ̭̍͢ͱ̀˭̢Vǖ̇˯̤ NJĄ̋̎˟ȲɞÆȞ̨À̜̀̈˯˟ˢ˨˨˩˪̒˪̣̋̊̀˩ˣˢ˵̩̊˵̈ˮ̇˯̡̤˪̣̋̊̀˩ˣ̈ ď˩ľ˩̀Áˮ˨̤̎˻ ˾̨̥˟˾̙̙̍þ̋˸̟̥̆̏˩˩ NJƤ̟ȤƂ̍›Ȓ̍ČɅĐˮ̊˩˭̢˵˾˟̛˸̦ȪǍ

  47. • K£ǻLjÊ˟ɫÊ̊̉Mǘ̊̈ ̍Ļɍ • ÒƟ̍Ĥʨ • ˗̍Ĥʨ • ɳ˩ƾ •

    MNʑƋʴ̍]nj • ;ǘ̊ǪoĤƓͳɿ̊̉ʹ̍]nj • ˆɛǷ̡̤̋Ĕ«̽ͱ͕́̍]nj • ȜȽ˙˟f¬̊̉MNƋʴ̍]nj • ʦ4Ý˟ʮȼ̊̉MN̽ͱ͕́̍ ]nj • ǢŧÞ*ȡ̜̍̀̍ŋȦ • ȼ˯G̍ƿË • ̋ˬ˳̤̻̹ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯ • ;ǘ̊Ǝā ȟɖ̎Īʫͳ2013ʹ ̿ͩ͒́Ͱ̭͌̾ͯ̔̍ʜ van EK, J. A., & Trim, L. M. (1991) Threshold 1990. CUP. ñʳ̿ͩ͒́ Ťʳ̿ͩ͒́ ̇˯̡̤˪̣̋̊̀˩Ͷ˶˼ ̀˩˵̈ • Œȣ̟˂ɜ̍ó˭̢õ̟ ɱ±‘Ǜ̍Ĕ«̨Ć̤ • –‘̟ɱ±þĚ̍ɠř̨ɡ ̩̇LjɌ˺̤ • ́ͱ͓ͱ͟ͱ̹͉͍̊̉̍õ Q̍żQ̨ɡ̛ • –‘̍¥÷ˮ˨̤˭ǥɝ˺̤ • ƿË̍–‘̨ʢ͉͍̓ͪ̋̄͢ ˩̆ɛ˸ˆ˪ • 3Ż̟ɹKŮ ̍ƭ̨˺̤ • ʭ̟ČɅ̊ʍiŐʭ̨ņ Ħ˪ • Ȯ‘̟Ʌ̊‘ƾ̍ʊ‘˟ ʊʭ˟ŀ̨˺̤ Ǭˡ̍ŋÎnj̷͆́̈ ˸͓͉̹̆ͱ̀ n ́ͱ͓ͱ͟ͱ̹͉͍õQ ̍Ǫ̑0̃̀Ĕ«̶͉ͤ ͙§̷͆́;{ŬŐˮš˩ ̆˨̤͚ͩͫ̍ƕʄ n ʷ̢̥̀Ǻ̇³˗Ͷ ͓ͱ̬͋ͱ̍ǂDZ̨ƛ̜˟ ČɅ̊˗Ų͍̆̍ͪ́/ ̤Ęďƛ˧̷͆́ n oǐ˟Śǐ̊̉̋ȿ̥̤ ́ͱ͓ͱ͟ͱ̹͉͍̇̍ ɳ˩ƾ¬ˈ̨nj˩̀͏ ͬͱ̿ͨͯ§̷͆́̊̉ ˶̢̋QÑ̍ǖá u ˗‘̍ÈL̈Ÿ˘ 3 u Ǒ̍˗‘NjƂ˟ ʆƂlAȡç¬̈ Żä u Ƨɴȡȼo̍WŲ ̈́ͱ͓ͱ͟ͱ̹͉ ͍̍ȊœĢǓ u ʐ£NJNjȡ̍8 ɭ̯̫̈͗Ͱ͍ͬͱ͎ ̍Ęȝ̊̉
  48. LjɌ˸̆˱́˶˩ ̷̵̷̭͙͆́̍͆̈ͤͩ͆ͱ ͳűŭ, 2016 ̨ʥŇ²ʹ

  49. ɔËͳ͓ͩ͢ͱ͆ͱʹ ̷͆́Ͱ̫͋ͪͫ͟ • ͅͱ́ͳ̭͢ͱ̀˭̷͍͋́˭ʹ • QÑ̍ɊʉĐ • ɅȆ̍µÖ • QÑ̍Ƀ˂˶ͳWŲǘ˟ɦLjǘď

    Ƞ̍ČɅĐʹ • ɌǸͶžǸ̲͙̿ͨͯ̍µÖ ̷͆́ʗȼś̋ijË˶̥̤Ů • ͅͱ́̍|ƻ„ȧĐ • ͆ͱͯŢ̍_ć • ɐǐśʳ̍ťƸ • Ƥośʳ • ̻̹ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯͰͣͱ͎ • ƤoŌ • |iȡ̍Ƽʝö̶͉͙ͤ • ʝğ̍Ċô ̷̡̭͙͆́̍͆̋̃̆˾̥˿̥̍ʴ̈mŴ̍ʞ˩ˮ˨̤ ( Matsumura & Fukuta, in preparation) ̷̟͆́Ƥőʴ̧̤-̨²˫̆˟˄˸˶̨̻͍ͯͭͱͫ˸˟mŴ̍ʞ˩ ̨Ù˱˵̈ˮ̇˯̤˭ Ĕ«̍€̣ħ˩ • śǰ • ͓ͱ̷̬́͛͋͘ͶɈƶ • Ĕ«ȕˀ̍ČɅĐ • Ĕ«̍ƥ̥̍œ‹Đ
  50. ̸̀ͅͱ 1˫̏˟ˢƤoǬ®̟˺ˣ WhichMan     Vocabulary counseling advice

    brusque unfriendly flirter a person who tries to atbact Read and Consider       Approximately 2.5 million couples get married in the United States every year. Some couples get married quickly: other couples take a long time to decide. You work for Rocky Mountain Marriage Counselors, Inc., located in Denver, Colorado. Every day people come to you for marriage counseling. You try to help them choose a husband or wife. Today, Susan Carson has come to you for advice. Read Susan's biography carefirlly. HeIp her decide whom to marry. Susan Carson Age:29 years old, Job: Policewoman ($24,O01tyr.) Height: 5' 10", Weighl 150lbs. Hobbies: Hunting weightlifting, playing the piano Personality: Quiet and shy Decide and \{rite susan believes that it is rime for her to get married. She knows five men. AII of the men would like to marry her. Before talkiDg with your group, write down.your in- dividual preferencqs and reasons. 1. MikeSmith Age: 25,Job: Attiletic Club Director ($22,000/yr) Height: 6'3", Weight: z20lbs. Hobbies: Weightlifting Personality: Ioud and social Susan says, ..I met Mike at the athletic club. we have a good time weightlifting to- gether. Fie's tall and very handsome, but he's younger tban me and his salary is n$ io gr.ut. I like his personality. I think he loves me a lol but sometimes he still looks at other women. What do you think?" Order: Reason: 2. Harry Walters Age: 32, Iob'. Bank Manager ($47,Affilyt.) Height: 6', Weight: 170lbs. Hobbies: Opera, Coin collecting PersonalitY: Kind and gentle Susan says, "I have known Harry since we were children' We grew up next door to each other. Harry is not very good-Iooking, but he would do anything for me. He's been asking me to marry him for ten years. He has a good job, but he wants me to quit my lJb because he thinks it is too dangerous' I like my job and want to keep working. What do You think?" Order: oo ,r/, ,v- 3. ParvizGhorbani Age:29, Graduate Student ($?yr.) 'Height:5' 11", Weighti 165 lbs. Hobbies: Chess, cars Personality: Rornantic and talkative Susan says, "I met Parviz when I gave him a sp66fling ticket three months ago. It was love at 6rst sight--dis iyes are so beautifirl-and when I asked him why he was driving so fast, he began speaking Persian poetry. I really don't know much about hiru He says he is going to be a doctor in his couDtry after he finishes study- ing here. He says 165 femily is rich. What do you think?" Order: Reason: 4. PauI Nelson Age: 47, Job: Policeman ($42,000/yr.) Height:6'4", Weight 195 lbs. Hobbies: Mountain climbing, boating Personality: Stroug and quiet Susan says, "Paul is my boss in the poliqe department. I lnow he's a lot older than mg but he's so exciting to be with. He was married before and divorced. I Uke him a loq married life qri$1 him would never be boring!.He also has a very nice family, and we have a lot of 'the same friends. What do you think?" Order: 5. Adrian Tinsley Age: 34, Job: Professor ($52,000iyr.) Height: 5'7", Weight: L45 lbs. Hobbies: Reading and writing Personality: Quiet and brusque Susan says, "Of all the men I know, Adrian is the smarlest. I met him when I took a criminology class at the University of Colorado. He's very difficult to get to know so he doesn't have any Aiends. I think he likes me because I understand him. He's handsome and dresses very well. What do you think?" Order: Reason: Reason: ĘďƛË —˓Ɍƛ       C ˢ̙˻̟̤̃̆̚ˣ ̍TBLT͖͉͍́ͪ̇€̣ȉ̜̏˟Ȋ˚̡̋̃̆Ȫƺ̋˩̦˩̦̄˭̜̆˱̤ ̷̛͆́̍˻˭˸˶̈˟̟̣€̣̍ɸ
  51. ď @?9TBLT Đ ¥¼!ê°ö÷ÓĀõ đ =QF?TB<5S$!Œ³ Ē %( @?9TJU?! ӜÃë-î

    ÷^Ðè$!Œ³
  52. ̍ • NjƂͰȊƬǑ̍͐ͱ͂ Ù̍˟ȊƬ{Lj̋ª̅˱ ŋȦ̍ȸø ͳƙ]â, 2013̊̉ʹ • ğŴǶ ȝ̍ŋȦ̈Ƌȧ˺̤Ŭ̔̍ɅƘ

    • ̫̳̮͕̬ͯ͆ͪ͋ͱ̔̍Ʌɥ̈˟mDŽʪɈ˟ɲ!ʍƘ§̶̶̍́́˸̀Ǜƈʝ ğŷË̿́͋̍͡û_ ̷͆́˟TBLT̎˵˪˩˪̶̶́́˸̀ś̍ǎ˸Ä̊̍˭Ϳ
  53. Longͳ2015ʹ̍Ɇ̤ ĩ¤̈ȪǍͳ̫̳ͪ͢ʹ ǧ$ͰʼnƜ,_˟Ɗg˟ˁnjȡ˟ ń€ ,˟ɷũÐ˟‰q¤g ń€̈şgǘņʨ̨I̥˟ǧ$̍ ̇ɼ¬̨ǽ˯˟Ȫ̢ ̍Ũų̊X̣ʲ˩̆˩˱̍̋ČɅ̊Ɏɞȧg

  54. ŗũÆȞȡ̋̈̃̆̍ˢɌňˣ ,ǘ̋ŋ˘̨ǃĆ˸˟3=ɋ̨eNJ˸˟Ǯƃǘ̋̚˻˭̢̍ Ǫ̌/̣V˸̆˩˱ªṳ̈̌̈̊Ɏɞȧg̈˟˾̥̋ʴʔ˺̤ ǡĐͰeʓĐ Ȳɞ̨0˪Ƌ$̝˟˾̍ČɅ̝̊˩ǧ$̍ ǧ$ɇǼͰ3=ɋ˟ʳ˟NjƂƆʓ̈ɷũ ɦLj˟ŖĆƊǙȡ˟ěȞ˟ƖŕǘƿĐ ˾˪˩˪g̨ũü̋mDŽǘͰmŴǘ̋Ȧ̛˵̈̍̇˯̤ɎɞŋȦ̍œƠɦ̈̎Ϳ

  55. sçªÌ Čag!?Q5DW ¯Ú )!č Brumfit, C. J. (1979). ’Communicative’ language

    teaching: An educational perspective. In C. J. Brumfit, & K., Johnson (Eds.), The communicative approach to language teaching (pp. 183-191). Oxford University Press. Byrne, D. (1976). Teaching oral English. Harlow: Longman. Foster, P. & Ohta, A. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms. Applied Linguistics, 26, 402-430. Geddes, M., & Sturtridge, G. (1979). Listening links. London: Heinemann. ÆûòZ (2013).räìĎóĉÜ·[ēúøÛ. Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford University Press. Long, M. (2015). Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Long, M. (2016). In defense of tasks and TBLT: Nonissues and real issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 3, 5-33. Mackey, A. (2013). Input, interaction, and corrective feedback in L2 learning. Oxford University Press. ¸µ®ã (2016)@?9~©!—j1ç@?9T@5I!Àžá46xXā{nî÷¨é„\VÀ\, 20166²26­, ąċoÒ Ý„€„, ąċŽ ½ðØö (2016).î÷;LOE:U=PSëk!éž1Ö£z÷¨éNB43„\á87x§āÙ߀\=SK>6M, 20165 ²28­, Ą|„怄, vt‹Ž Polanyi, M. (1966). The tacit dimension. New York: Anchor Books. Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 118, 219-235. Swan, M. (2005). Legislating by hypothesis: The case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 26, 376-401. ¢ăÑ゠(2013).CAN-DOR?C]žTÈÐî÷hĀ’£ÁCEFR-J85DHA9·[ē€`Ċ±‘. van Lier, L. (2004). The ecology and semiotics of language learning: A sociocultural perspective. Boston: Kluwer. Williams, J. (2009). Implicit learning in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition. Bingley: Emerald. Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Harlow: Longman.
  56. ęɩ masanori@meijo-u.ac.jp ǖȿQÑ̍ʥ̎ŗũÆȽĵȫ$̡̣ǩÆǤǯɴͳNo. 26370716ʹ̍Ɂj̨˳̆ȼ̧̥̀Ǥǯ̋ª˩̆˩̙˺ˠ

  57. AI¸‚‹>|¸&K ―Lb¶:N¸p¼k³@·²¤³y¦Á― AI#xz·’®°Ÿ=‰PPPÄÓÜàÎ „  “ } (sato.rintaro@nara-edu.ac.jp) ÆàÝàÑëPPPäTBLTäEFL#xz

  58. ðìîð»¸`/7`b‡ˆ

  59. Serious issue of TBLT š Too much dependence on implicit

    knowledge/learning and incidental learning › Improbability of learning new language ß TBL in Asia 2014 (May 17-18, 2014,Kinki University ) “How can students learn new language?” … teachers can teach in the post-task, and learners can possibly learn from other students during the task” Skehan, (2014). ß “… learners are not ‘taught’ the language they will need to perform the task…, (In Ellis and Shintani, 2013, p. 135). ß“… there is no presentation phase in the lesson … (Shintani,2016, p.83) œ incompatible with textbooks  Lack of enough practice
  60. What do you think of this? Excerpt 1 A:Student's are

    boring in the Grammar translation class. T: Boring ? (sÀ® repetition) A: Yes. Boring because they don’t speak a lot of English in the class. B: Yes. Grammar explanation is not interesting at all for students. T: OK. Then, Is it impossible to do it in an interesting way? C: I think … … (2014+-m>i>|Tíííâ Need for explicit knowledge or partially acquired EK
  61. What do you think of this? Excerpt 2 S: I

    think it was really great for me because I changed a little bit and knew a lot of things. T: Oh, you learned a lot of things. á←ÚÆÖÌÐâ S: I learned a lot in America. Excerpt 3 S: The Spanish student was a trouble maker. We every… often, we often fight with her. T: Oh, you often fought with her. á←ÚÆÖÌÐâ S: Yes. Fought with her. (Sato,2016) Need for explicit knowledge or partially acquired EK
  62. Student A: “I really enjoyed doing the task. It was

    like playing a game”. Student B: “I used the past and future tense but I did not have to use the present perfect to complete the task”. Student C: When I couldn’t say in English what I really wanted to mean, I spoke in Japanese. Student D: I don’t know if I learned something in the activity, but anyway it was fun. (Sato,2010)
  63. =‰ïïï ;háPresentationâ >)¸ÌÕàÛÐàÇ·¾ÁXS¶ÅÞÓÏеÅÞÍÙÇËØÞ¸P AI‹·¾Á(!ÿ®°\3¸Ã/ª«ÁBhbWtb? TB £Á¤¹‚‹·¾Á*ob9' ⇒ ¤¯Â¸½ÊàÛ ¹BhbeŽ¸[4 ↓

    rxáPracticeâ PMbrx ã ?~ñ° ·–‘¸£Á‚?Ã]¤³¸1.µ6·ZYà 0³°rx ⇒Rg5·”ªÃuªcO?T¸$d ↓ ]áProductionâ (¬¬´ ÍÌÇâ cO?Tà ¥U áRg­žVE­âã (D·"¹­ÂÁ©âcO?T ]Ãw«¶¤€^- ¸™¤U áVE­â ⇒ÉÔ×ÒÈàËØÞ}¸|8
  64. References Anderson, J. R., Bothell, D., Byrne, M. D., Douglass,

    S., Lebiere, C., & Qin,Y.(2004). An integrated theory of the mind. Psychological Review, 111, 1036-1060. Angela, D.(2016). Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance .New York: Scribner. DeKeyser, R. (2007). Introduction: Situating the concept. In R. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a second language: Perspective from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp. 1– 18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Skehan, P. (1996).Second Language Acquisition Research and Task-based Instruction In Willis J. & Wilis D. (eds.) Challenge and Change in Language Teaching. Oxford: Heinemann. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. White, R. (1988). The ELT curriculum . Oxford: Blackwell. Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. Willis, J. (2004). Perspectives on task-based instruction: Understanding our practices, acknowledging different practitioners. In B. L. Leaver & J Willis (Eds.), Task-based instruction in foreign language education: Practices and Programs (pp. 3-44). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. —HC (2014).ŸTeach, Learn, Use ¸qº²ª-Can use Ã<¦ÁG½”†¶}¹ ¨ ¡‚‹> |#fj¢lé. {áçåæéâ.Ÿ#+Q·§«Á‚‹:N=¸Š¼ ¡–…‚‹>|#n†lèê¢ a_ e2 ¡‚‹9'·§«ÁLb¶ŒÀ‰R¢ ˜F, J•ßƒß_ (2001)¡%b‚‹i>|T¢8v
  65. PPPáʲ̍Ɓɑ

  66. ˵̥̙̇̍ijÙ̍ƒĎ̊̈˵̦ ͳǞǓʹ 1. WŲǘ̇ɎɞǘǡĐͳʡĐʹ̍˛˩ÆȞȡ̋˸˭ʡˆ˼˻˟˾̥´̍ÆȞȡ̋̎K̢̥̥̊˩ 2. ˾̜̍̀˟NJĄ̨̀̂Ȳɞ˰̢˩̋˸˟µŌ̍Ȩȴȡ̨/̣V˸̆˯̝̀̈̈̋˟NJĄ̀̂̍µ˱̋ˢ̝˪˵̩̊˵̈̎˩̟́ˣ̈˩˪ď˩̨IJ̀˼̆ÆŹ ̨vƂ˶˼̆˩̤ 3. Ɏɞ̍ȞĆ̈̎ŏǪ̛Æ̓˵̈̇˨̤̈˩˪LjɌ̨ÆȞȡ̋ƀ˫̄˳̆˩̤ 4.

    ˾̍ȋŴ˟Ȳǫ̆ː̍ ̇ȉ̚DZ̆̆˭̢‚̋V˾˪̈˺̤Ěǫ̈ʖ˸˟˾̍ȋŴȼ˯ɚ̙̃̆Ɏ̝ɛ˼̊˩̈˩˪NJĄˮµŌNJ̚V˶̥̆˩̤ 5. NJĄ̀̂̋ͳvƂăʹČɅˮNJ˹̆Ȳɞ̋S̑€̣ȉ̛̈˯̝̋˟̙˻ŏƠ̍nû˭̢À̜̤ͳÀ̜̊˳̢̥̏̊̊˩ʹ̈˩˪Ƞ˫̨NJ̚ͳ˾̥´̟̍ ̣œ̨ǡ̢̊˩̍́˭̢ʹ˟Ȳɞˮî̋ˢ˩̟˩̟̊ˮ̢ͶÃ˩́˳̉ͶˈǗ˱̊˩˳̉˟̟̤Ͷ̢̟̊˳̢̥̏̊̊˩˵̈ˣ̤̋̊ 6. ȍ_ǘ˟Ǯ̚˴ù̍ÆȞɋˮɎɞȞĆ̍ÌĔͰÌĘ̌~Ś˸̆ˬ̢˻˟˾̥ˮ̒˶̧˸˱̊˩ˏ¨̋˟ˢȞĆ̈Ƥnjˣ{ąʡnj˸̆˩̤ 7. ÆȞȡ̝̋ijÙȡ̍>̝̋ˢƏǥ˶̲͉̓̿ͨͯ͘ˣͳ̯͗ͱ͂QÉLĐ̔̍©Ǡʹ̨NJ̚V˸̆˸̙˪ 8. Ȳɞ̨Í,ͰØɰƾ̈˸̆Ķ˫̆˩̤ȋŴ˟Ɏɞ0nj̈ǖʝ̍ũɸǘ̊Ɏɞ̈ɾ,˟Ȋ˚˟;Ǒ̷̍ͪͯˮþğ˶̥̋˱˩ 9. Ęɪ̋Ø˺̤Ƴ¥Ęɪ˟ŝ˜ǡ̍ɯ˭˶˟Ɏɞȧg̍eǖǘƿĐ̨ʃɈ˸̆˩̤ͳÛ̊˱̝̈˾̜̍̀̍Ů ̨Ǯƃǘ̋ō˫̡˪̈̎˸̆˩̊˩ʹ 10. ɯ˭̊Ș̣ʊ˸̍Ƌ$̨Œ̩́˟ụ̈̀ḃȪƺ̊Ɏɞ0nj̍Ƌ$̨8ɗ˸̋˱˩ 11. ƿ̋ČɅ̝̇̊˱ȫ̝IJ̃̆˩̊˩ŏƠ̍ɠř̝˟ȖȞƤo̝˟̇˯̆üƺ̍ȿVƤo̝˟̢̙̄̊˩ 12. ɠř̈ȖȞƓʺͳˬ̡̑˾̢̥̋ʻ˺̤ȲŏLjɌʹ̇̍Ȋ˚˭̢˟Ȳɞ̍nû̈̎Ȳǫ̆ɖ˸̆LjɌ˺̤˵̈˟Ȳɞˮ̇˯̤˵̞̩̈̈̎̂̈ɖ˼̤ ˵̈́̈˩˪ɟ̃̀9Ď̨ÆȞȡ̋Ĭ˭˼ˮ̂̇˨̤ 13. Ɏɞ̨ǡĐ[Ë̍ʜÖɆ̆˾̜̍̀̋]nj˺̤˟ʡX̊ɘ3ȼƷ̨NJ̚V˸̆˩̤ 14. ̇˯̤˵̈ʪɈͳCan Doʹ˟ȧgªǚͳcompetency-basedʹ˟Ƌȧṷ̴̈́͒ͪͯͫ̊̉˟ɎɞŋȦ̍džǘ̊áʲ̟ŗũ̍ȲɞŋȦ̍LjĎͰǛƈ̋ˬ˳ ̤œ‹Đ̈ǝĐˮĒ˱˟ DZˮ˄˸˩
  67. PPP̍Q¥ǘ—˓ͳͷʹ ──1ŏ̍ˢŸ˘3ˣ—˓── ŏƠˌǛ̍ĿǦ˟ȖȞ̇V$˪˟-̝ˢʏˣ̧̍˭̢̊˩ŏ John kicked Mary a ball. ĿǦ̈ȖȞ̍śʳ̋˟ÆȞȡ̋˵̡̍˪̊þ̇Ɏɞ̨Ȋ˚˶˼̤˵̨̈ʣ˳ ̢̥̊˩

    • ǀƞ̝˟Ɏ}˶̥̆˩̤̍˵̝̈˟ǖɛˮ̡̉̍˪̊˵̨̈ˢʏˣ˸̆˩̤̍˭̝˟̙̃̀˱ ̧˭̢̊˩ • ˾̍ ̇˟ÆȞȡ̎˾̍ʏ̨LjɌͳpĤ̋ļËʹ˸̆˟ŏ§̟Ɔǫ̆ˢËǠ˶˼̤ˣ˵̨̈ ɅƘ˶̥̆˩̤ • ȋŴ˟Ɏɞˮˢȡ̍˵̈̏ˣ̈˸̆˟džÌ˭̢ʘ˃˸̀ ǰ̋Å¥˺̤
  68. NjV̇˟ÆȞȡ̍ɟ̨̣ɕÑ̇˯̤˭ ̇˯̊˩───˾̥̇̎˾̍b̋˸̆˯̀˵̈̍ʏˮ̊˭̃̀˵̤̈̋̊˭̢ NjV̇˟ÆȞȡ̍nj˩̤ȿdž̨ȪǍ̋̇˯̤˭ ̇˯̊˩─── ˢ˾̍ȿdž̨0̝̃̆0̧̊˱̝̆˩˩ˣ̈˺̢̤̊˟˾̍b̋˸̆˯̀˵̈̍ʏˮ̊˱̤̊˭̢ ˝ Ȳɞ̨0̃̆-˭̨ˢ̇˯̤˵̈ˮ·Xˣ̈˩˪Ƌȧǘ̊Ƞ˫œ˟DZ¬ ̋ũü̋DZ̄˵̈ˮ˟PPP̟̣̍œ̛̇̎˻˭˸˩ PPP̍Q¥ǘ—˓ͳ͸ʹ ──ˢƋȧ˺̤Ɏɞ0njȡˣƅĎ̷̻͍̈̍ͯ͗ͪ—˓──

  69. PPP̍Q¥ǘ—˓ͳ͹ʹ ──ˢÌ̎PPP̖̍˪ˮˇmDŽ̊̍̇̎Ϳˣ—˓── ŏƠ̻̹̈ͦ͐͠ͱ̨̿ͨͯW˃˸̆˟͸̄̋W˳̆ijÙ˺̤˵̈̇˟Ȫå˭̢˃̥̆Å¥ ˺̤Ɏɞ̨˾˵˭̢ž˸˟̚˻˭̢̍Ɏɞ̈˸̆SƆğ˸̊˳̢̥̏̊̊˩Ĥʳ µʥʰƆğ P-P-Pͳ-Pʹ-Fͳʳʞ̃̀̈˯̍ɏƏʹ 1 2 3 4

    5 |Ƞ [task-based interaction] – [language focus] 1 2
  70. ŋ˫̆˱́˶˩

  71. ȆŪ̊Ǖ— ´£ɞlj­‹˳ Y§ͣ̀ͦͱͫͰ̫͙ͭͱ͈* ŏƠͣ̀ͦͱͫ ̻̹ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯͰͣ̀ͦͱͫ Zȅ ȅ TBLT P -

    P - P ŇɏƽPPP ̇ˢȪǍ̊NjVˣ̨˟ ˾̍śƶ̙̇̍ÆȞǛƈ̟Ƥo̍ŵ̨€̣Ħ̃̆ȼ˪̢̊ ˾̥̈ Y§ͣ̀ͦͱͫͰ̫͙ͭͱ͈ ̈̎̉˪ʞ˪̍˭Ϳ *űŭŘȁͳ2012ʹˤ̷̨͆́Ƥnj˸̀ȲɞĸƂ̭̍͌̾ͯ˥ Űͽ·:˙šõ
  72. ȆŪ̊Ǖ— ŏƠͣ̀ͦͱͫ ̻̹ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯͰͣ̀ͦͱͫ Zȅ ȅ TBLT P - P -

    P - P ŇɏƽPPP ̇ˢȪǍ̊NjVˣ̨˟ ˾̍śƶ̙̇̍ÆȞǛƈ̟Ƥo̍ŵ̨€̣Ħ̃̆ȼ˪̢̊ ˾̥̈ Y§ͣ̀ͦͱͫͰ̫͙ͭͱ͈ ̈̎̉˪ʞ˪̍˭Ϳ ´£ɞlj­‹˳ Y§ͣ̀ͦͱͫͰ̫͙ͭͱ͈* *űŭŘȁͳ2012ʹˤ̷̨͆́Ƥnj˸̀ȲɞĸƂ̭̍͌̾ͯ˥ Űͽ·:˙šõ
  73. ÆȞͰǖʝ̍ṳ̌̊Ɇ˭̀ ǣ̨Ȭʜ̋Ŏ˯ɚ̜̤ ˅Džˮʁˮ̣̊ˮ̢˟ ·˯˱̊̃̆˩˱

  74. ͳǶʹ Ɏɞ̍ṳ̌̊Ķ˫˭̀ lj­̨ĺȇ˸˟ɝɪ˸˟Ǒ ̨LjɌͰƆǽ˸̆˩˱̜̀̍ ̫ͯ͋͏ ģť˸̆˩̤ȳƾ̋ɵ̢̥ ͚̀ͩͫ

  75. Ɏɞȧg̍ṳ̌̊Ķ˫œ ̸̀ͤͯͫͰ̀͡Ͷ͉͍͑ͮͱ̷ ̴̯̀ͯͶ̼ͬ

  76. ȆŪ̊ɸ— ̉˪ď˩̙˸̀˭Ϳ

  77. ˬ˔˩˟źĮ̇ ...W˭̤̜̀̍ÆȞ̈ě̥̤̜̀̍ÆȞ̍˩˻̥̝ˮČɅ̈˩˪bĿ̋DẐ̝̄̄͵ŗũ̍ȲɞŋȦ̡̍˪̋ʷ̢̥̀ĸ ƂśŌ̝̍̈̇̎͵W˭̤̜̀̍ÆȞ˭̢À̜̆͵ě̥̤̜̀̍ÆȞ̋ʖ̩̖́˪ˮmŴǘ˭̝˸̥̙˼̩ˠ #ŰƜåˢ̻̹ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯȧgȦğ̜̍̀̍4ĨȧijÙͳȓɦʹˣˤȲƁȲɞĔ«˥2013ñ4Ͱ5Ť†, p. 37 ̻̳̬ͦ͐͋͘͠ͰŋĸƠ̡̍˪̋˟Ęɪǘ̋ŏƠĿǦ̨˼˻̋ȖȞ̍ ˭̢ŏƠɇąɾ̋˳˶˼̤˵̨̢̈̌˪ŋĸ Ơ̝˨̣̙˺ˮ˟ŗũ̋ˬ˳̤ȲɞĸƂ̍ȉ̚DZ̨̆Ƞ˫̤ʽ̋̎˟PPP̎džÌǘ̇˟˭̄ťṁ˨̤̈ḑ̥̙̌˺ˠ ˤ͐ͦͱ̭ͩ͂ͯ͜Newsletter˥

    2, Űšǿ, 2005ñ, p. 2 …CLT̟TBLṪ̎ˢǛƈ̈˺̤ŏƠ̟ɞý̨ȞĆ̇˯̊˩ˣˢƏǥ̊ǡɪ̨ȞĆ̇˯̊˩ˣˢƥŞ˶̍'ʯ̝ŧā̇˯̊˩ˣˢ̫ ̮͍͙͉͍̍ ̨8ʾͳ͟͟ʹ̇˯̊˩ˣˢNJĄ̍Ƥo̔̍ĘƍͰoƋ̅˳̨ȑIJ̇˯̊˩ˣˠˢ̇˯̊˩ˣˮµ˺˰̤̍̇˺ˠ +Ⱥȩ¸ʤ ˢ̎˹̜̋ˣ in +Ⱥȩ¸ʤͰǵ{ǯͰƒɶh ˤŗũÆȞȡ̋ˆ̃̀mŴǘȲɞŋĸƠKʰ──EFLlj­̇̍ȲɞȞĆ̍Ljɦ̈Ìɽ˥řƜ¡š, 2015ñ, pp. 2-3. ÆͰ˛Ź̋ˬ˩̆˟ǡɪ̍LjɌ̈ËĄ̇̄ʪɈ˸̀ijŲ̟̜̀˟QÑ̟ʙnj̨ʪɈ˸̀ijÙƠ̋Ǫȼ˺̥̏˟ŗũ̍Ȳ ɞʙnjȧg̙̎˺̙˺ĖĞ̤̝̤̀̍̋̊̍̇̎̊˩̇˸̠˪˭ˠ‰š p. 25 …ŗũ̍ ˛NJ̎Ȟ̃̆ȖȞ˸̀˵̨̈˟Ìʽ̻̹̍ͦ͐͠ͱ̿ͨͯ̍ ̇0˩˟ȞĆ˸̆˩˱̈˩˪ƥ̥ˮmŴǘ̇˨̤̈ Ƞ˫̙˺ˠ‰š p. 29
  78. ďɬ ʏ̋ȣ˯̀˩ˠ̊˽˟ ˢͳă̇ ˤ˨˨̤̖̊̉˥ ̈˩˪˟̜̤̀̋̊˵̈ŋ˫̆˨˴̤˭̢̌˟̝̇˾̍b̋ʹ ͷž˟̍ȪW̍ġ̥̎̉˲̢˩̇˯̤˭˟̈̋˭˱̟̃̆ ̊̚ˠˣ ̈Ɏ̢̟̃̆˼̤˵̈ˮ˟̉˪˸̆˾̩̊̋̇˯̊˩ͳ˩̟̊̍ʹ˭Ϳ

  79. ࿦఺ʢ༧ߘूp. 634ʣ • ֶशऀूஂͷ஌ࣝɾٕೳɾ৘ҙ໘ͷ͹Β͖ͭ • খதߴେͷʢฏۉతͳʣֶश؀ڥ • γϥόεɾΧϦΩϡϥϜฤ੒ͱධՁ๏ • ڭһཆ੒ɾݚम

  80. શࠃӳޠڭҭֶձୈ42ճ࡛ۄݚڀେձ 2016೥8݄21೔ 14:00-15:40 ೔ຊͷӳޠڭҭͷকདྷ ޮՌతͳतۀͷ૊Έཱͯํʹ͍ͭͯߟ͑Δ ίʔσΟωʔλʔ݉࢘ձ ࿱ཧ ཅҰʢ੩Ԭେֶʣ γϯϙδετ ࠤ౻

    ྟଠ࿠ʢಸྑڭҭେֶʣ দଜ ণلʢ໊৓େֶʣ KBTFMFTZNQP