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HighEdWeb Content and UX Academy: UX Research

HighEdWeb Content and UX Academy: UX Research

UX research: understanding the spectrum of user experience research methods

Amy Grace Wells

October 07, 2017
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  1. UX RESEARCH
    UNDERSTANDING THE SPECTRUM OF
    USER EXPERIENCE RESEARCH METHODS
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  2. TODAY’S GOAL:
    Explore the range of user
    research methods and feel
    confident setting goals and
    selecting methods to gain
    data that will create
    actionable outcomes.

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  3. HOW WE GET
    THERE:
    Choosing the right methods
    Understanding methods
    Recruiting
    Research tools
    Using research to persuade

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  4. PLANNING FOR THE CREATION,
    DELIVERY, AND GOVERNANCE OF
    USEFUL, USABLE CONTENT.
    Kristina Halvorson
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  5. PLANNING FOR THE CREATION,
    AGGREGATION, DELIVERY, AND USEFUL
    GOVERNANCE OF USEFUL, USABLE, AND
    APPROPRIATE CONTENT IN AN EXPERIENCE.
    Margot Bloomstein
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  6. THE MINDSET, CULTURE AND APPROACH TO
    DELIVERING YOUR CUSTOMER’S INFO
    NEEDS IN ALL THE PLACES THEY ARE
    SEARCHING FOR IT.
    Michael Brenner
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  7. “...REQUIRES GOALS, DIFFERENT FORMS OF
    CONTENT FOR DIFFERENT CUSTOMER
    TOUCHPOINTS, MAPPING THE NEEDS OF
    PEOPLE, THE CHANNELS THEY PREFER AND
    THE CONTENT OR STORIES, ETC.”
    Joe Pullizzi
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  8. USER EXPERIENCE ENCOMPASSES ALL ASPECTS
    OF THE END-USER'S INTERACTION WITH THE
    COMPANY, ITS SERVICES, AND ITS PRODUCTS.
    THE FIRST REQUIREMENT FOR AN EXEMPLARY
    USER EXPERIENCE IS TO MEET THE EXACT
    NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, WITHOUT FUSS OR
    BOTHER.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS
    Nielsen Norman Group

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  9. what you think
    users do
    what users
    actually do
    WUGTVGUVKPI
    JGNRUTGXGCNVJKU

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  10. THE AVERAGE SITE HAS 11
    USABILITY CATASTROPHES.
    (DESIGN ELEMENTS THAT PREVENT USERS FROM
    COMPLETING TEST TASKS)
    Source: Nielsen Norman Group
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  11. 48% OF USERS DIDN’T REALIZE THAT
    THE UNIVERSITY OFFERED THE
    PROGRAM THAT THEY WERE
    LOOKING FOR.
    Source: Nielsen Norman Group study
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  12. RESEARCH QUESTIONS &
    GOALS
    RESEARCH WITHOUT DIRECTION IS THE
    SAME AS TAKING A TRIP WITHOUT GPS.

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  13. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND GOALS
    Begin with brainstorming:
    ▸ What is the business goal?
    ▸ What is the specific element you want to evaluate?
    ▸ Why will this research be useful?
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  14. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND GOALS
    ▸ It helps focus stakeholders and teams.
    “Why do people enter the website and not (apply/
    donate)?”
    versus just dictating methods
    “We need to do focus groups now!
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  15. TASKS VERSUS GOALS
    Car rental company:
    ▸ Task is to rent car easily.

    Solution: provide quick and simple procedure for
    renting a car.
    ▸ Goal is to have a great vacation in other country.

    Solution: besides easy car renting, provide a customer
    with a country map, list of sightseeing, hotels, and
    restaurants.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  16. TASKS VERSUS GOALS
    Tasks are internal jargon and can often become
    distractions or hinderances to user research.
    User goals keep you focused on motivations
    and choosing the most appropriate research
    methods.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  17. ASK YOUR QUESTIONS & SET YOUR GOALS
    Exercise:
    ▸ Write down questions about users, UX, or content you
    need to know more about. Write each question on a
    different sticky note.
    ▸ Work with your team to organize the questions based on
    similarity. Categories that have more questions than others
    will likely become your testing priorities.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  18. IDENTIFY PROBLEMS TO TEST
    With your research questions in mind:
    In your groups, identify issues related to a problem you have at
    work that could be content or user experience related. These
    could include website, physical space, printed materials, etc.
    Example: Donations are down after the site redesign.
    Narrow your list down to one issue each you plan to research
    as a group.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  19. KEY USER RESEARCH
    METHODS
    THE RIGHT METHOD WILL GIVE YOU
    ACTIONABLE DATA

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  20. KEY RESEARCH METHODS
    ‣ In-depth Interviews
    ‣ Field Studies
    ‣ Diary Studies
    ‣ Card Sorting
    ‣ Usability Testing
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  21. INTERVIEWS AND FOCUS GROUPS
    SEVEN THINGS TO REMEMBER WITH USER INTERVIEWS
    ▸ Set proper expectations.
    ▸ Shut up and listen.
    ▸ Minimize biased questions.
    ▸ Be friendly.
    ▸ Turn off your assumptions.
    ▸ Avoid generalizations.
    ▸ Don’t forget the non-verbal cues.
    http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2008/07/preparing-for-user-research-interviews-seven-things-to-remember.php
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  22. INTERVIEWS AND FOCUS GROUPS
    THE INTERVIEW GUIDE SHOULD CONTAIN:
    ▸ The brief description and goal of the study. This is for you to share with
    the participant and use to remind yourself to stay close to the topic.
    ▸ The basic factual or demographic questions for putting the participant’s
    answers in context. These will vary depending on the purpose of the
    interview, but often include name, gender, age, location, and job title or
    role.
    ▸ A couple of icebreaker or warm-up questions to get the participant
    talking. Most people know this as “small talk.” Feel free to improvise
    these based on the demographic information.
    ▸ The questions or topics that are the primary focus of the interview.
    http://alistapart.com/article/interviewing-humans
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  23. FIELD STUDIES
    Basic field study techniques are fairly simple, and everyone
    who works on a design/content team should go on customer
    visits from time to time.
    Visiting a real customer site is an invaluable experience for
    designers, programmers, and marketers.
    https://www.nngroup.com/articles/field-studies-done-right-fast-and-observational/
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  24. FIELD STUDIES
    Field studies give the advantage of delivering the team information
    they just can’t get in any other way:
    ‣ Terminology and processes: What do users do and how do they
    talk about it?
    ‣ Context: What are the external forces that will impact the design?
    Do the user’s requirements change when they are rushed or up
    against a deadline?
    ‣ Similarities and differences: Just compiling a list of similarities and
    differences observed in 4 separate visits can really help a team
    focus on the critical functionality and requirements for a project.
    https://articles.uie.com/field_studies/
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  25. DIARY STUDIES
    In interviews, it can be difficult to get a sense of behavior
    over time because you have to rely on the participant’s
    memory of past activities or circumstances, and artifacts can
    only do so much to prompt that.
    One way to widen your view of someone’s activities without
    shadowing them 24/7 is to ask them to keep a diary.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  26. DIARY STUDIES
    ‣ This can be some-what structured, much like a survey taken
    several times, or can be free-form entry guided by a few
    questions.
    ‣ A diary can take almost any form: written responses to a
    periodic e-mail reminder, a handwritten notebook, a
    narrated video, or photos with written commentary.
    ‣ The main advantage of a diary study is that it allows
    collecting longitudinal information.
    ‣ It focuses on reporting events and experiences in their
    natural context.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  27. CARD SORT
    CARD SORTING IS A METHOD USED TO HELP DESIGN OR
    EVALUATE INFORMATIONAL GROUPINGS.
    ‣ In a card sorting session, participants organize topics into
    categories that make sense to them and they may also help
    you label these groups.
    ‣ Card sorting will help you understand your users'
    expectations and understanding of your topics.
    http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/card-sorting.html
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  28. CARD SORT
    Open Card Sort:
    Participants are asked to organize topics from content within
    your website into groups that make sense to them and then
    name each group they created in a way that they feel
    accurately describes the content. Use an open card sort to
    learn how users group content and the terms or labels they
    give each category.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  29. CARD SORT
    Closed Card Sort:
    Participants are asked to sort topics from content within your
    website into pre-defined categories. A closed card sort works
    best when you are working with a pre-defined set of
    categories, and you want to learn how users sort content
    items into each category.
    Combination:
    Conduct an open card sort first to identify content categories
    and then use a closed card sort to see how well the category
    labels work.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  30. USABILITY STUDIES
    ‣ Usability testing refers to evaluating a product or service
    by testing it with representative users.
    ‣ Typically, during a test, participants will try to complete
    typical tasks while observers watch, listen and takes notes.
    ‣ The goal is to identify any usability problems, collect
    qualitative and quantitative data and determine the
    participant's satisfaction with the product.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  31. USABILITY STUDIES
    Data from studies:
    ‣ Learn if participants are able to complete specified tasks
    successfully
    ‣ Identify how long it takes to complete specified tasks
    ‣ Find out how satisfied participants are with your website
    or other product
    ‣ Identify changes required to improve user performance
    and satisfaction
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  32. USABILITY STUDIES
    ‣ 5 to 10 tasks: Tasks should represent the most common user
    goals (e.g. finding a preferred major) and/or the most
    important conversion goals for the organization (e.g.
    requesting information).
    ‣ Clear success criteria for each task. Such as: “Participant must
    report that they believe they have successfully completed a
    request for information.”
    ‣ Clarify where the participant should begin the task (e.g. at the
    home page of the website), and how task completion and
    starting points may affect the researcher’s ability to
    counterbalance task order.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  33. KEY RESEARCH METHODS
    ‣ In-depth Interviews
    ‣ Field Studies
    ‣ Diary Studies
    ‣ Card Sorting
    ‣ Usability Testing
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  34. RECRUITING AND SCREENING
    GET THE RIGHT USERS AND THE RIGHT DATA

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  35. WHAT IS A SCREENER
    A screener is essentially a script that determines if a potential
    participant matches the characteristics of your target
    audience that you defined in your research criteria.
    Also serves as a way to eliminate any outlying candidates
    who might make their way into your study.
    Having a good screener can reduce costs, ease data analysis
    and reduce the level of response bias.
    https://www.userzoom.com/recruiting/importance-of-screeners-for-recruiting/
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  36. HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY USE YOUR SCREENERS
    ‣ Ask the elimination questions first: This way you’re being
    respectful of their time and not asking them to do too much
    before screening them out.
    ‣ Don’t use the screener to gather information.
    ‣ Eliminate conflicts of interest.
    ‣ Screen for experience: Depending on the kind of feedback
    you’re after, you might want beginners or you might want
    experts. Be sure to screen for experience if it’s important.
    ‣ Eliminate the usual suspects: Be sure to screen out the folks
    whose feedback won’t be pushing forward your research goals.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  37. TOOLS
    MAKE IT EAS(IER)

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  38. OPTIMAL WORKSHOP
    optimalworkshop.com
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  39. OPTIMAL WORKSHOP
    Options start with a free account
    for small studies. 50% discount
    offered for education!
    Best for card sorts or tree testing.
    Excellent reporting options
    including results matrix
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  40. VALIDATELY
    validately.com
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  41. VALIDATELY
    Perhaps the priciest of these tools, but still below
    $2500/year. Unsure if they offer discounts.
    Their motto is “Take the pain out of user testing” and it
    is true!
    Test on mobile or desktop. Moderated or unmoderated.
    Screen and sound recording.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  42. HOTJAR
    hotjar.com
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  43. HOTJAR
    Options start with a free basic plan that tops out at 2K
    page views/day. They offer non-profit discounts.
    All features track and work on desktop, mobile and
    tablet versions.
    Best for heatmaps, form analysis, and visitor recordings.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  44. MAKE IT PERSUASIVE
    HIPPOS, STAKEHOLDERS AND DECISION-
    MAKERS… OH MY!

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  45. IN THEIR WORDS
    USE QUOTES FROM USERS IN YOUR REPORTING.
    “I was really interested in the college until I got to the website.”
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  46. HOLD SIT-INS
    When possible, include stakeholders as an audience to
    interviews, focus groups, usability testing, etc.
    Just be clear on the rules. Observation, not participation.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  47. HIGHLIGHT BUSINESS GOALS
    Whatever your motives, make sure you highlight theirs.
    Having strong research goals will help you show how UX
    problems tie to business problems.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  48. PRODUCTIVE DISCUSSIONS
    Set rules for discussion. Candid but constructive.
    Have rough data ready for referral.
    Keep the focus on the users.
    Find the common ground and point it out.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  49. PRODUCTIVE DISCUSSIONS
    Let others help shape processes, workflows, governance.
    Make sure they understand who will make the final decision.
    Set time limits for discussion items, then recap the
    discussion.
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  50. RESOURCES
    ▸ Research Questions and Goals
    ▸ https://www.usertesting.com/blog/2015/02/05/ux-research-objectives/
    ▸ https://www.sitepoint.com/usability-testing-goals-knowing/
    ▸ http://adaptivepath.org/ideas/e000107/
    ▸ Interviews and Focus Groups
    ▸ https://www.nngroup.com/articles/focus-groups/
    ▸ https://whitneyhess.com/blog/2010/07/07/my-best-advice-for-conducting-user-
    interviews/
    ▸ http://www.slideshare.net/edanzico/user-interview-techniques
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  51. RESOURCES
    ▸ Interviews and Focus Groups (cont.)
    ▸ https://articles.uie.com/three_questions_not_to_ask/
    ▸ http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/focus-groups.html
    ▸ http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2011/07/dos-and-donts-for-focus-
    groups.php
    ▸ Field Studies
    ▸ https://www.nngroup.com/articles/field-studies-done-right-fast-and-
    observational/
    ▸ https://articles.uie.com/field_studies/
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  52. RESOURCES
    ▸ Diary Studies
    ▸ http://www.uxbooth.com/articles/jumpstart-design-research-with-a-diary-study/
    ▸ http://uxpamagazine.org/dear-diary-using-diaries-to-study-user-experience/
    ▸ Card Sorting
    ▸ https://www.nngroup.com/articles/card-sorting-how-many-users-to-test/
    ▸ https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-
    computer-interaction-2nd-ed/card-sorting
    ▸ https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/10/improving-information-
    architecture-card-sorting-beginners-guide/
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  53. RESOURCES
    ▸ Usability Testing
    ▸ http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/usability-testing.html
    ▸ http://www.usabilityfirst.com/usability-methods/usability-testing/
    #HEWEBUX #HEWEB17 @AMYGRACEWELLS

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  54. AMY GRACE WELLS
    [email protected]
    @AMYGRACEWELLS
    CONTACT ME ALWAYS

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