a critical role both vertically and horizontally in organizational life. Vertically, it starts as deep as the data architecture. Data structures are pure language, structured and deﬁned for machines. Get something deﬁned wrong or conﬂated down in a database entity structure, and it can cripple an organization’s effectiveness. There are the software services that connect the data with everything above. Those, too, are developed based on deﬁnitions and requirements or user stories that were discussed, composed, and organized into priorities and structures. Then there are business rules -- the “if this then that,” cause and effect deﬁnitions that do the work of making a company’s business model be an active, working mechanism in the world. Of course, there are also what I’m calling here “corporate semantics” -- a catch-all term for how the organization culturally talks about what it does, the narratives in the organization, and even the acronyms and taboo phrases. Then all of this bubbles up to customers and end-users, in various interfaces -- digital or analog. Horizontally, everything in the vertical stack touches all the various channels that the organization needs to manage, from websites to product names, to customer support scripts and store signage. Information architecture has a role to play in all of these areas, because as a practice it’s about architecting coherent structures across all of these contexts. Systems that make sense.