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Problem Solving at Toyota

Problem Solving at Toyota

Descrives how Toyota works and its fundamental technique called Problem Solving.

This presentation was made for Repro internal.

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Asei Sugiyama

March 26, 2020
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Transcript

  1. Problem Solving at Toyota Asei Sugiyama

  2. Summary Problem Solving (A3 thinking) is a systematic PDCA process.

    Problem Solving is the foundation for almost all work at the Toyota group and practiced by all employees at all levels at all companies. The first half of the steps (the left side) are extremely important to ensure that we are tackling the right problem. At the root cause analysis, 5 why is not the truth. It's too shallow. No wasteful work. Work or waste (muda).
  3. TOC . Why should we know Problem Solving? <- .

    The Toyota Way . Problem Solving . Other famous methods of Toyota . Recap
  4. Why should we know Problem Solving? Why should we know

    the Toyota Production System (TPS)? Why should we know Problem Solving? How can we learn to adopt the Toyota way on software development?
  5. Why should we know the Toyota Production System (TPS)? It's

    the origin of software development style, Scrum, Lean, LeSS. Lots of useful ideas such as "muri, mura, and muda"
  6. Why should we know Problem Solving? SHANG, GAO. The toyota

  7. How can we learn to adopt the Toyota way on

    software development? Lean from the Tranches, Managing Large-Scale projects with Kanban has a short and clear description with some examples (Chapter 20).
  8. TOC . Why should we know Problem Solving? . The

    Toyota Way <- . Problem Solving . Other famous methods of Toyota . Recap
  9. The Toyota Way . Toyota Global Vision . Five Main

    Principles of Toyoda (豊⽥綱領) . Guiding Principles at Toyota . Toyota Way (2001) . Toyota Way (Book) by Jeffrey K. Liker Toyota Code of Conduct
  10. Toyota Global Vision After the recall of Toyota vehicles in

    the US, Akio Toyoda (CEO of Toyota) announced Toyota Global Vision on March 9, 2011. The roots of the tree are Toyota principles; the foundation of Toyota. Toyota Global Vision | Vision & Philosophy | Company |
  11. Five Main Principles of Toyoda (豊⽥綱領, 1935) Always be faithful

    to your duties, thereby contributing to the Company and to the overall good. Always be studious and creative, striving to stay ahead of the times. Always be practical and avoid frivolousness. Always strive to build a homelike atmosphere at work that is warm and friendly. Always have respect for spiritual matters, and remember to be grateful at all times. TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE | 75 Years of TOYOTA | Current Conditions | Five Main
  12. Guiding Principles at Toyota (1/3) . Honor the language and

    spirit of the law of every nation and undertake open and fair corporate activities to be a good corporate citizen of the world. . Respect the culture and customs of every nation and contribute to economic and social development through corporate activities in the communities. . Dedicate ourselves to providing clean and safe products and to enhancing the quality of life everywhere through all our activities. Toyota Code of Conduct
  13. Guiding Principles at Toyota (2/3) . Create and develop advanced

    technologies and provide outstanding products and services that fulfill the needs of customers worldwide. . Foster a corporate culture that enhances individual creativity and teamwork value, while honoring mutual trust and respect between labor and management. Toyota Code of Conduct
  14. Guiding Principles at Toyota (3/3) . Pursue growth in harmony

    with the global community through innovative management. . Work with business partners in research and creation to achieve stable, long-term growth and mutual benefits, while keeping ourselves open to new partnerships. Toyota Code of Conduct
  15. The Toyota Way (2001) Challenge Kaizen Genchi Genbutsu Respect Teamwork

    Toyota Way 2001 / Toyota Code of
  16. The Toyota Way (Book) 14 management principles in four sections

    . Long-Term Philosophy . The Right Process Will Produce the Right Results . Add Value to the Organization by Developing Your People . Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organizational Learning The Toyota Way - Wikipedia
  17. 1. Long-Term Philosophy . Base your management decisions on a

    long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals. 2. The Right Process Will Produce the Right Results . Create a continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface. . Use "pull" systems to avoid overproduction. The Toyota Way - Wikipedia
  18. 2. (Continuing) . Level out the workload (heijunka, eliminating muri,

    mura, and muda). . Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right the first time (jidoka). . Standardized tasks and processes are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment (kaizen). . Use visual control so no problems are hidden (5S). . Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes. The Toyota Way - Wikipedia
  19. 3. Add Value to the Organization by Developing Your People

    . Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others. . Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company's philosophy. . Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve. The Toyota Way - Wikipedia
  20. 4. Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organizational Learning . Go

    and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu). . Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options and then implement rapidly (nemawashi). . Become a learning organization through relentless reflection (hansei) and continuous improvement (kaizen). The Toyota Way - Wikipedia
  21. Hansei (Reflection meeting) This process contains "root cause analysis", or

    "5 whys". "5 whys" is misunderstood, "5" is too shallow. Furthermore, it is only a part of the whole process of the fundamental framework called Problem Solving. Even if a task is completed successfully, Toyota recognizes the need for a hansei-kai, or reflection meeting; a process that helps to identify failures experienced along the way and create clear plans for future efforts. Within the process, no problem is itself a problem. “ “ Hansei - Toyota Production System guide - Toyota
  22. TOC . Why should we know Problem Solving? . The

    Toyota Way . Problem Solving <- . Other famous methods of Toyota . Recap
  23. Problem Solving Problem Solving is 8 step PDCA process to

    realize measurable improvements in issues. It is also called "A3 thinking" after its report format using A3 paper. The first half steps called "left half side" are to identify the right problem to solve and these steps are extremely important. Problem Solving with A3 Thinking - Francesco Attanasio -
  24. A3 Thinking A3 problem solving - Wikipedia

  25. 8 (9) steps of Problem Solving (2017) . Backgrounds .

    Clarify the problem . Breakdown the problem . Set a target . Analyze the root cause . Develop countermeasures . See countermeasures through . Monitor the process and results . Standardize successful processes
  26. 0. Backgrounds Describe the background of the problem and add

    context. Describe why you thought that solving the issue is important.
  27. 1. Clarify the problem Describe the current condition where the

    issue appears. At this step, you should draw the entire workflow, define the metrics, and measure the workflow by the metrics. Define the target condition of the workflow. You should add the metrics. DO: 0 acaccidents per week, 3 minutes per processing. DON'T: safe, fast. Define the problem by the difference between the current condition and ideal condition.
  28. Remove a zero from zeros ¥ 600,000,000 -> ¥ 60,000,000

    episode from トヨタ式「スピード問題解決」
  29. 2. Breakdown the problem Analyze the entire workflow and find

    the Point Of Cause where most issues came from. In this step, a lot of charts, tables, and diagrams (e.g. value stream map) are used to find the Point of Cause. A key principle at this point is Genchi genbutsu; go and see things by themselves. Don't rely on indirect information. Go to the source. This step is extremely important.
  30. None
  31. What color is the wire?

  32. 3. Set a target Describe what you will do to

    solve the Point Of Cause. The description should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely) Also, the Description should answer Five Ws. Management will forgive a decision that does not work out as expected, if the process used was the right one. “ “ SHANG, GAO. The toyota way model: an implementation framework for large chinese construction firms.
  33. Left side Step 0-3 called the "left side" from A3

    paper. The left side is extremely important to target the right problem.
  34. Recap The left side of the Problem Solving contains; .

    Backgrounds . Clarify the problem . Breakdown the problem . Set a target The purpose of the left side is to target the right problem. Problem Solving with A3 Thinking - Francesco Attanasio -
  35. 4. Analyze the root cause Using 5 whys method, break

    down the Point of Cause into root causes. 5 whys are too shallow. Our responsibility, not other's responsibility. Genchi genbutsu. image from'Lean from the Tranches, Managing
  36. 5. Develop countermeasures Broadly considering alternative solutions and developing a

    detailed rationale for the preferred solution. Evaluate costs for the solutions. Rack your brain before throw money. 6. See countermeasures through Simply do the solution we choose. Just do it.
  37. 7. Monitor the process and results Evaluate the result of

    your solution and the process of your Problem Solving. Recap: No problem is itself a problem. Recap: "Management will forgive a decision that does not work out as expected, if the process used was the right one." 8. Standardize successful processes If you succeed to solve the problem, standardize your solution by making standard operation manual and holding study sessions.
  38. Recap . Backgrounds . Clarify the problem . Breakdown the

    problem . Set a target . Analyze the root cause . Develop countermeasures . See countermeasures through . Monitor the process and results . Standardize successful processes Problem Solving with A3 Thinking - Francesco Attanasio -
  39. TOC . Why should we know Problem Solving? . The

    Toyota Way . Problem Solving . Other famous methods of Toyota <- . Recap
  40. Other famous methods of Toyota TPS (Toyota Production System) 5S

    muda Own Process Completion (⾃⼯程完結)
  41. TPS jidoka (⾃働化; autonomation) Never let a defect pass into

    the next station and freeing people from machines. Just-in-Time To produce the required quantities at the required time with the slim and fast line. SHANG, GAO. The toyota way model: an implementation
  42. 5S . Seiri; Sort . Seiton; Set in order .

    Seiso; Shine . Seiketsu; Standardize . Shitsuke; Sustain SHANG, GAO. The toyota way model: an
  43. Muda (by Taichi Ohno) Waste of . Transport; 運搬のムダ .

    Inventory; 在庫のムダ (raw materials, WIP, finished goods) . Motion; 動作のムダ . Waiting; ⼿待ちのムダ . Over-production; 造りすぎのムダ . Over-processing; 加⼯のムダ . Defects; 不良・⼿直しのムダ
  44. Own Process Completion (⾃⼯程完結) (1/2) The purpose of Own Process

    Completion (Ji Koutei Kanketsu; JKK) is to improve the productivity and satisfaction of employees. This method is applied not only to production lines but also for office workers. In all processes, predetermined procedures must be carried out according to instructions in order to ensure that no defective items proceed to the next stage. “ “ from Doing All We Can to Maintain and Improve Quality
  45. Own Process Completion (⾃⼯程完結) (2/2) To improve the quality of

    decision making in your work; . Clarify the purpose and goals . Define the process of decision making and its input/output, break it down into tasks, and clarify dependencies between the tasks . Identify information, capabilities and the various conditions required for good decision-making, and putting them in place 1. and 3. from Own-Process Completion as the Basis of Lean Quality – Gemba Academy
  46. TOC . Why should we know Problem Solving? . The

    Toyota Way . Problem Solving . Other famous methods of Toyota . Recap <-
  47. Recap Problem Solving (A3 thinking) is a systematic PDCA process.

    Problem Solving is the foundation for almost all work at the Toyota group and practiced by all employees at all levels at all companies. The first half of the steps (the left side) are extremely important to ensure that we are tackling the right problem. At the root cause analysis, 5 why is not the truth. It's too shallow. No wasteful work. Work or waste (muda).