"...And suddenly, the memory revealed itself”. The role of IT in supporting social reminiscence

"...And suddenly, the memory revealed itself”. The role of IT in supporting social reminiscence

Slides of my Ph.D. dissertation discussion, by which I became a Dr. in Information and Communication Technologies :-)

On my dissertation, I discuss the ageing phenomena and the concept of active ageing (AA), present the state of the art of ICT for enabling AA, describe the participatory action research approach we used to gain insights that later led to a participatory design process that resulted in "Reminiscens", a tablet application for stimulating social reminiscence as the means for motivating intergenerational social interactions. The dissertation concludes with the comprehensive description, analysis and discussion of a 3-months longitudinal study bringing young volunteers together with older adults to share stories and digitalize them using Reminiscens.

Transcript

  1. 1.

    “…And suddenly, the memory revealed itself” The  role  of  IT

     in  suppor/ng  social  reminiscence   Cristhian  Parra   Ph.D.  Disserta,on  in  Informa,on  and  Communica,on  Technologies   University  of  Trento,  Italy  -­‐  Universidad  Católica  “Ntra.  Señora  de  la  Asunción”,  Paraguay   11th  April,  2014  
  2. 5.

    Goals To  understand,  design  and  evaluate  informa,on  technologies   that

     enable  a  more  happy  and  ac/ve  ageing     by  enhancing  opportuni,es  for  social  interac,ons   To  design  and  evaluate    IT-­‐supported  social  reminiscence  as  the   means  for  enabling  ac/ve  ageing   @Bryancalabro   Wikimedia  Commons  
  3. 6.

    Problem Domains & Research Questions Can,  and  if  so  how,

     IT  enable  a   more  happy  and  ac,ve  ageing?   Ac,ve  Ageing  (AA)   Social  Determinants   of  AA   Social   Reminiscence  for   AA   Can,  and  if  so  how,  IT  enhance   social  interac,ons  as  we  age?     Can,  and  if  so  how,  IT-­‐ supported  social  reminiscence   s,mulate  face-­‐to-­‐face   (intergenera,onal)  social   interac,ons?  
  4. 7.

    Problem Domains & Contributions •  Evalua,on  Framework  of  IT  for

     AA   •  Exploratory  IT  for  (intergenera,onal)   social  interac,on   •  Par/cipatory  Ac/on  Research  on  IT  and   community  engagement   •  (Par,cipatory  Design)  of  IT  for   intergenera,onal  engagement  through   social  reminiscence   •  Extended  theory  of  IT-­‐supported  social   reminiscence     •  Propose  new  design  spaces  for   intergenera,onal  engagement   Ac,ve  Ageing  (AA)   Social  Determinants   of  AA   Social   Reminiscence  for   AA  
  5. 11.

    Active Ageing Defini,on  by  the  WHO  Ac've  Ageing  Policy  Framework,

     2002.   Personal   Health   Services   Behavioural   Economical   Environmental   Social   Health   Par,cipa,on   Security   Lifestyle  (e.g.,  physical   ac,vi,es,  alcohol   consump,on)   Social  Support  in   the  family  and   the  extended   community  
  6. 12.

    Problem Domain of AA Personal   Health   Services  

    Behavioural   Economical   Environmental   Social   Health   Par,cipa,on   Security  
  7. 13.

    Solution Domain of Active Ageing Aler,ng   Exergames   Monitoring

      Training   Assis,ve   Social   Serious   games   Communica,on   Type  of  IT  applica/ons   (From  an  IT  perspec/ve)   Prevention Care Compensation Enhancement Objec/ves  of  IT  for  AA  
  8. 14.

    Aler,ng   Exergames   Monitoring   Training   Assis,ve  

    Social   Serious   games   Communica,on   Type  of  IT  applica/ons   Prevention Care Compensation Enhancement Objec/ves  of  IT  for  AA   Solution Domain of Active Ageing (From  an  IT  perspec/ve)  
  9. 15.

    IT for Active Ageing: Lessons Learned Enhancement Social  Applica,ons  

    Social  Determinant  of   AA   Participation [1]  Journal  Survey  submiUed  to  Founda'ons  and  Trends  in  Human  Computer  Interac'on,  2014.     •  The  key  importance  of  social   support  for  happiness   •  IT  serves  not  only  to  mi/gate  the   down  side  of  ageing,  but  also  to   enhance  life  with  new  opportuni,es     •  Emergence  of  enhancement   (par,cularly  social)  applica/ons   among  older  adults  
  10. 16.

    Problem Domains & Contributions •  Evalua,on  Framework  of  IT  for

     AA   Ac,ve  Ageing  (AA)   Social  Determinants   of  AA   •  Exploratory  IT  for  (intergenera,onal)   social  interac,on   •  Par/cipatory  Ac/on  Research  on  IT  and   community  engagement  
  11. 18.

    •  4  Interfaces   –  No  buUons   –  Request

      –  Feedback   –  Complete   •  Groups  (28)   –  16  Young-­‐Old  (65-­‐74)   –  6  Middle-­‐Old  (75-­‐84)   –  6  Old-­‐Old  (85+)   •  Think  Aloud  Study   Technical Exploration: What’s Up
  12. 20.

    Social Exploration: Workshops A  Nursing  Home  (RSA   Brentonico).  They

     loved   Google  Maps  to  find  their   old  memories  places…  and   mostly,  our  company.   An  Elderly  Services   Center  (CSA   Kaleidoscopio).  They   loved  blogging,   social  networking…   and  mostly,   learning.    
  13. 21.

    Participatory Action Research (Par/cipatory)  Ac/ve   involvement  of  the  people

     whose   lives  are  affected  by  the  issue   under  study.  This  includes  also  the   researchers  themselves…  
  14. 22.

    Participatory Action Research …for  the  purpose  of  educa,on  and  

    taking  (Ac/on)  or  affec/ng  social   change,  while  also  extending  our   knowledge  on  a  subject  (Research)   [Lawrence,  2005;  Potvin  2010]  
  15. 30.

    IT for Socializing: Lessons Learned •  The  importance  of  company

     (face-­‐to-­‐face  socializa/on)   •  Sharing  past  life  stories  as  a  prac/ce  of  interest     •  ICT  tools  and  PAR  ac,vi,es  as  means  for  community   engagement   •  The  development  of  a  trust  rela4onship   [2]  Ar/cle  about  What’s  Up  in  Interna'onal  Reports  on  Socio-­‐Informa'cs  (IRSI).  Special  Issue  on  Designing   for  Inter/Genera'onal  Communi'es,  2012.   [3]  Conference  Paper  about  the  Laboratory  in  Community  Informa'cs  Research  Network  Conference,  2012.    
  16. 31.

    Problem Domains & Contributions •  Evalua,on  Framework  of  IT  for

     AA   Ac,ve  Ageing  (AA)   Social  Determinants   of  AA   Social   Reminiscence  for   AA   •  Exploratory  IT  for  (intergenera,onal)   social  interac,on   •  Par,cipatory  Ac,on  Research  on  IT  and   community  engagement   •  (Par,cipatory  Design)  of  IT  for   intergenera,onal  engagement  through   social  reminiscence   •  Extended  theory  of  IT-­‐supported  social   reminiscence  and  design  space  for   intergenera,onal  engagement  
  17. 32.

    @garlandcannon   Flickr   “...an  exquisite   pleasure  had  

    invaded  my   senses,  something   isolated,   detached,  with  no   sugges'on  of  its   origin…     And  suddenly  the   memory  revealed   itself”     Marcel  Proust         .   Reminiscence
  18. 33.

    Why is it good to reminisce? increase  life  sa,sfac,on  

    reduce  depression     (Haight  2007)     Reminiscence  Therapy   (WaU  2000)   To  a  lesser  extent,  it  has  also   been  seen  to  improve  social   interac/ons    
  19. 34.

    That’s not for me. I am young! …not  so  fast

      How  much  and  why  we  reminisce  it  is   not  really  different  according  to  age…   except  for  life  review   (Cohen  1998)   New  func,on  for  social   media:  cura,ng  our  historical   self-­‐image  and  reminiscence   (Zao  2013,  Best  of  CHI)  
  20. 35.

    IT for Social Reminiscence: Related Work S,mula,on   Storytelling  

    Preserva,on   Technology  Heirlooms  [Banks,   2012],  Rememble.com,  SenseCam   [Hodges,  2011]     Pensieve  [Cosley,  2009],  CIRCA   [Gowans,  2004],  SoundScapeRadio   [Blythe,  2010]   Digital  Storytelling  [Hartley,  2009],   Project  Greenwich  [Thiry,  2013]  
  21. 45.

    Life Questions Module ETL Controller RKB: reminiscens knowledge base Personal

    Contexts Personal Contexts Module Knowledge Base Controller Context Creation Module Context Algorithms RKB ETL modules Flickr Module DBPedia Module Catinabib Module Trentino OpenData Module Events, People, Pictures People Photos Postcards Signature Generator Duplicates manager ETL Launcher Others Events, People, Pictures ETL Crawler Reminiscens Platform
  22. 46.

    Reminiscens Platform Personal C RKB ETL modules Flickr Module DBPedia

    Module Catinabib Module Trentino OpenData Module Events, People, Pictures People Photos Postcards Others Events, People, Pictures
  23. 47.

    ETL Controller RKB: reminiscens knowledge base Knowledge Base Controller Context

    Creation Module Context Algorithms RKB ETL modules Flickr Module DBPedia Module Catinabib Module Trentino OpenData Module Signature Generator Duplicates manager ETL Launcher Others ETL Crawler Reminiscens Platform
  24. 48.

    Life Questions Module Personal Contexts Personal Contexts Module Context Creation

    Module Context Algorithms dule Others Reminiscens Platform
  25. 51.

    Longitudinal Study 8  weekly  sessions  with  diff.  tool  versions  

    Par/cipants:  intergenera,onal  groups  of  older  adults  narrators  and   younger  listeners  and  observers     Data:  Par,cipant  Observa,ons  +  Ques,onnaires  +  Applica,on  Logs   face-­‐to-­‐face  interac,on  
  26. 52.

    Web  version  home  usage  during  weeks  and  2  months  aoer

     study   Par/cipant  Diaries  (mood  and  reflec,ons)  +  Applica/on  Logs   Longitudinal Study home  usage  
  27. 53.

    In  the  end  of  the  study,  each  narrator  received  a

     physical  book  of     his/her  stories,  co-­‐authored  also  by  the  listener   Interviews  +  Post  Study  Ques/onnaires   Longitudinal Study final  gio  
  28. 56.

    Long Study: Analysis Qualitative: •  Grounded Theory inspired analysis (to

    construct a theory grounded in data without previous assumptions) Quantitive: •  ANOVA for the difference if stimulation by versions of Reminiscens during sessions (with respect to the number of stories being shared)
  29. 57.

    Longitudinal Study 17  Narrators     Age:  [65,  90]  ~

     mean  =  74   15  women,  2  men     16  Listeners     Age:  [18,  40]  ~  mean  =  28   10  women   6  men     9  stable  groups   6  one-­‐session  groups     74  sessions   66  sessions  in  the  stable-­‐track   Mean  dura,on  =  1h03m     3  Families  
  30. 61.
  31. 63.

    Quantitative Analysis No  differences  between  app  versions.  S,mula,on  also  from

      collabora/on,  storytelling  and  the  final  book   App  version   Mean  #  of   stories     created  per     session   Difference  of  mean  values  for  each  pair  of   app  versions  
  32. 64.

    Quantitative Analysis Evolu,on  of  app  usage  over   weeks  of

     the  study   Note:  a  bug  in  our   system  prevent  us  from   logging  edi,ons  of   stories  due  to  addi,on  of   pictures  and  detailed   context  views  of  videos  
  33. 65.

    Further observations: Ludic Engagement Ques/ons  as  the  means  for  

    self-­‐reflec/on  and  playing,   mainly  from  home   “I  read  the  ques'ons  and  I  have  felt  many   emo'ons  to  which  I  responded  with   pleasure,  remembering  the  days  of  my   childhood  and  youth”  (Narrator  3  Diary,   Week,  26/10/2013)     “(narrator’s  name)  was  highly  interested   in  the  ques'ons  and  insisted  to  answer   them  almost  as  if  we  were  in  a   race”  (Listener  13  Diary,  Week  2,   25/10/2013)  
  34. 66.

    Further observations: Context •  Timeline  s,mulated  a  sequen/al  storytelling  

    •  Context  (ques,ons+mul,media)  s,mulated  a  more   diverse  storytelling   •  Contextual  s,mula,on  many  ,mes  by  searching  freely   the  web  outside  reminiscens  
  35. 68.

    Long Study: Breakdowns “I  was  a  bit  disappointed  because  (a\er

     having   remembered  and  shared  so  many  memories  in  the   previous  mee'ngs)  I  verified  that  what  was  wri?en  was   li?le  or  nothing  and  that  among  the  li]le  that  was  wrote,   it  lacked  some  parts.  Moreover,  there  appears  to  be  a  bit   of  chaos  in  the  logical  order  of  events”  (Narrator  8  Diary,   Week  6,  28/11/2013)   When  technology  fail:     frustra/on  and    poten/ally  transference  of   responsibility  to  listeners  
  36. 69.

    Long Study: Self-Reflections “When  you  are  young  you  think  that

     life  is   fun  and  beau'ful  just  up  to  a  certain  age,   but  I  think  it’s  beau4ful  at  any  age  and  as   we  age  we  experience  the  joys  and  sorrows   more  ‘deeply’  ”  (Narrator  1  Diary,  Week,   07/09/2013)  
  37. 70.

    Long Study: Volunteering   “It  is  o\en  difficult  to  find

     young  people  to  help,   but  with  this  tool  it  makes  it  easier  [because]  it   brings  together  young  people  and  older  adults   in  a  natural  and  relaxed  manner”  (CSA   Coordinators  Interviews,  20/12/2013)  
  38. 71.

    Design Spaces for Social Reminiscence Conversa,on   Self-­‐Reflec,on   Collabora,on

      S,mula,on   Storytelling   Prepara,on   Preserva,on   Cura,on   Enhancement  of  pictures   Inser'on  of  public  content   Search   Sharing   Shared  'melines   S4mula4on   Free  contextual  explora'on   Ludic  engagement     Storytelling  &  Self-­‐Reflec4on   Audio-­‐recording   Speech-­‐to-­‐text   Digital  diaries     Digital  diaries  
  39. 73.

    IT for Reminiscence: Lessons Learned •  IT  for  reminiscence  as

     the  “/ckets  to  talk”,  the  excuse   that  s,mulates  engagement.     •  Physical/digital  IT  for  preserva,on  and  storytelling  of   life  stories  as  the  driver  of  the  socializa/on   •  Collabora,on  as  the  most  enjoyable  interac/on   •  Ques,ons  for  ludic  engagement   •  Mul,media  for  story  diversity   •  IT  for  mo,va,ng  volunteering   [3]  Ar/cle  about  the  Par,cipatory  Design  of  Reminiscens  presented  in  CHITALY  2013.   [4]  Ar/cle  about  the  Par,cipatory  Design  and  cultural  assymetries  submiYed  to  PDC  2014.   [5]  In  prepara,on,  Longitudinal  study  results  and  analysis  for  NordiCHI  2014.  
  40. 75.

    Evaluation Framework of IT for AA Aler,ng   Exergames  

    Monitoring   Training   Assis,ve   Social   Serious   games   Communica,on   Prevention Care Compensation Enhancement Personal   Health  Services   Behavioural   Economical   Environmental   Social   Health   Par,cipa,on   Security   1  
  41. 80.

    Some last reflections Heterogeneity of “the elderly” Create opportunities Put

    possibilities at the center… …and also people In the end, everything makes sense J
  42. 90.

    •  Evalua,on  Framework  of  IT   for  AA   • 

    IT  for  (intergenera,onal)   social  interac,on   •  Par,cipatory  Ac,on  Research   on  IT  and  community   engagement   How  does  IT  enhances  social  interac/ons  as  we  age?     Problem Domains & Contributions
  43. 91.

    Ac,ve  Ageing  (AA)   Social  Determinants  of  AA   Social

     Reminiscence  for  AA   •  Evalua,on  Framework  of  IT   for  AA   •  (Par,cipatory  Design)  of  IT   for  intergenera,onal   engagement  through  social   reminiscence   Can  IT-­‐supported  social  reminiscence  s/mulate  face-­‐to-­‐face   intergenera/onal  social  interac/ons?.   Problem Domains & Contributions •  IT  for  (intergenera,onal)   social  interac,on   •  Par,cipatory  Ac,on  Research   on  IT  and  community   engagement  
  44. 92.

    Ac,ve  Ageing  (AA)   Social  Determinants  of  AA   Social

     Reminiscence  for  AA   •  Evalua,on  Framework  of  IT   for  AA   •  IT  for  face-­‐to-­‐face   intergenera,onal  social   interac,on   Problem Domains & Contributions •  IT  for  (intergenera,onal)   social  interac,on   •  Par,cipatory  Ac,on  Research   on  IT  and  community   engagement   How  does  IT  enables  a  more  ac/ve  ageing?    
  45. 93.

    Does  web-­‐collected  contextual  content  s,mulates  reminiscence?     Does  promp/ng

     contextual  ques/ons  facilitates  storytelling?     Does  collabora/on  in  entering  stories  increases  social  interac,on?   Field Study
  46. 95.

    Methodology Explora,on  Phase   Key  Research  Ac/vity:     • Literature

     review   • Exploratory  works   • Exploratory  workshops   • The  Laboratory  of  technologies   Methods:   • Par,cipant  observa,ons   • Grounded  theory  inspired   qualita,ve  analysis   Design  Phase   Key  Research  Ac/vity:   • Design  and  engineering   • Par,cipatory  design  workshops     Methods:   • Storytelling   • Low  fidelity  prototypes   • Co-­‐design   • Par,cipant  observa,ons   • Grounded  theory  inspired   qualita,ve  analysis   Evalua,on  Phase   Key  Research  Ac/vity:   • Field  Studies     Methods:   • Par,cipant  observa,ons   • Ques,onnaires  and  Interviews   • Diaries  and  Automa,c  logging   • Quan,ta,ve  analysis   • Grounded  theory  inspired   qualita,ve  analysis   Par,cipatory  Ac,on  Research  
  47. 96.

    Problem Domains Reminiscence   Socializa/on   Ac/ve  Ageing   Conceptual

     Framework  of  IT  for   AA  +  Exploratory  Workshops   Explora/ons:   What’s  Up  +  EngAge  +  Laboratory   of  Technologies   Core:   PD  Workshops  +  Reminiscens  
  48. 97.

    Ageing Time   Mark  S,bich.  Why  We  Age.  Theories  and

     Effects  of  Aging.  2009.   A.  Stone  et.  al.  A  snapshot  of  the  age  distribu,on  of  psycho-­‐logical  well-­‐being  in  the  united  states.  2010.   “Learning  Curves”  from  R.  A.  Dewey.  Psychology:  an  introduc,on.  2007.