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开放原码手机操作系统 Ubuntu Phone 架构、移植与刷机

Rex Tsai
September 20, 2014

开放原码手机操作系统 Ubuntu Phone 架构、移植与刷机

软件自由日(Software Freedom Day)——中国科学院大学站

Rex Tsai

September 20, 2014
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  1. 开放原码手机操作系统 Ubuntu Phone
    架构、移植与刷机
    2014-09-20 Rex Tsai
    Software Freedom Day @ Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Beijing
    © 2014 Canonical Ltd. Ubuntu and Canonical are registered trademarks of Canonical Ltd.

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  2. Introducing Canonical and Ubuntu
    London
    Boston
    Beijing
    EMPLOYEES
    600+
    COUNTRIES
    30+
    FOUNDED
    2004
    Canonical has been developing operating
    systems since 2004, and is now extending
    the Ubuntu OS on mobile devices.
    Ubuntu is an open-source operating
    system, currently established on server,
    cloud, desktop and thin client.
    Taipei

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  3. 各种屏幕,优雅体验
    融合的操作系统
    支持桌机、智慧型手机、平板等
    单一开发平台
    支持跨产品应用与服务
    以及
    嵌入系统安全
    用户认证系统
    交易服务
    完单一平台
    多种大小、功能的硬件外貌

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  4. 桌机版本与行动版本差异性
    软件包
    Rootfs is still debian package
    New click packages
    安全性 OTA 升級
    Readonly rootfs
    Upgrading the whole system image.
    app confinemen environment and security
    policies.
    Sandboxing by Apparmor

    软件架构
    Mir display server
    Qt-based software framework
    HTML5

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  5. Ubuntu Phone 支持以下开发方式
    Scopes
    C++ backend code (no UI)
    Lowest effort
    Greatest visibility
    HTML5
    Native/QML
    Declarative Language (C++ optional)
    Great developer support/Documentation (Digia)
    High Developer productivity
    Aligned with HTML5 developer critical mass :

    Chrome, Android, iOS

    Webkit/Blink rendering engine

    Apache/Cordova API for offline

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  6. Scopes terminology
    Scope
    The search engine itself, talking to a web service or a local database. Its visible representation is a
    Dash page.
    Standalone scope
    A scope that presents a single set of results and queries one single source
    Aggregating scope
    A scope that acts as a container for multiple standalone scopes. Every scope can be an aggregating
    scope, which enable richer content on their Dash pages
    Dash page
    The visible part of the scope: dash pages present the scope’s search interface and its results. Dash
    pages can be marked as favourites, so that they are always pinned in the Dash.

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  7. Ubuntu is designed to allow for OEM and
    Operator differentiation, at the default
    service layer, without fragmentation
    Ubuntu enables partners to build their own
    footprint on Ubuntu devices, creating a rich
    core OS experience with scopes
    Unprecedented customization capabilities
    in comparison to Android and other platforms:

    user account - own user identity

    default UX - with scopes and default apps

    branding and theming - own visual identity

    backend integration -i.e. carrier billing
    Differentiate where it matters with Ubuntu
    2
    3
    1

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  8. Scopes are a a UI toolkit to present
    local or remote content and services
    in the home screen
    Differentiate your device with scopes
    to deliver your own default experience
    Discoverability of apps, services and
    content from multiple sources:

    users are no longer forced to decide
    which store to use

    users can focus on finding content
    quickly
    Scopes | A New UI Paradigm
    A user experience where content is front and center

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  9. Scopes are fast and engaging
    Scopes are a fast and engaging way to embed your services in Ubuntu
    Self Service Deal finder LBS Service

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  10. Scopes expose content and services in a rich and engaging
    way - allowing OEMs and Operators to differentiate their
    offerings in an unprecedented fashion.
    Scopes are the tool that defines the core OS experience
    delivering content as part of the device UI - a direct channel
    to the user.

    The default pages use Scopes to deliver music, video and
    apps curated from a number of different sources.

    A scope can deliver information and content to existing
    pages or can exist as dedicated device pages.

    Harness the power of Scopes to mix and match a variety of
    content to create targeted services (e.g. dedicated pages
    for sports fans, city guides, operator self-service etc.)

    Scopes are a breeze to develop. Through a common UI
    toolkit, pages are easy to design and layout and the results
    are always elegant.
    Scopes explained

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  11. Scopes registry

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  12. Scopes data flow

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  13. 架构概览

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  14. Ubuntu 软件堆栈

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  15. High level architecture using ARM or x86 Android chipset
    Using Android BSP
    We recommend choosing
    a stable and proven
    hardware platform
    Hardware bring up and validation
    significantly shortened due to
    common architecture
    1 2
    Apps Scopes Shell, Home
    Linux Kernel
    Ubuntu Platform
    Libraries: OpenGL ES, WiFi, Sensors
    Unity 8, QT, Application Services
    AAL
    Android Devices Drivers

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  16. Ubuntu License

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  17. List of ports by community
    ● Acer Iconia A700
    ● AT&T S3
    ● Dell Streak 7
    ● Desire HD
    ● Droid 3
    ● Droid bionic
    ● Galaxy Nexus 4/7/10
    ● Galaxy Note N700 port
    ● Galaxy R
    ● Galaxy S
    ● Galaxy s2
    ● Galaxy s2 skyrocket [AT&T]
    ● Galaxy s3[sprint]
    ● Galaxy s3 [Verizon]
    ● Galaxy tab 2
    ● HP Touchpad
    ● HTC Desire
    ● HTC Desire S
    ● HTC EVO 4G LTE
    ● HTC one X+ AT&T
    ● HTC Sensation
    ● HTC Vision Desire Z/G2
    ● Huawei mediapad
    ● Iconia A500
    ● Infinity tf700
    ● Kindle fire
    ● Kindle fire 2
    ● Kindle fire HD 8.9
    ● LGE Optimus Black
    ● LG optimus 2x
    ● LG Optimus L9
    ● LG P930 NITRO HD
    ● Micromax Canvas HD
    ● Motorola Defy/ DEfy+
    ● Motorola droid razr
    ● Motorola zoom
    ● My touch 4g
    ● Nexus One
    ● Nexus S
    ● Note 10.1 N8000
    ● Note 2
    ● One X
    ● RK2918 Tablets
    ● S3 International i9300
    ● Samsung Galaxy Tab 7 inch (original)
    ● TF101 Eee Pad Transformer
    ● T-Mobile s3
    ● Verizon Galaxy Nexus
    ● Wave and wave 2 (yes bada)
    ● Xperia Neo V
    ● Xperia S
    http://forum.xda-developers.com/showthread.php?t=2182442
    https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Touch/Devices

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  18. Hardware enablement

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  19. Boot process

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  20. Stages
    1. Kernel enablement & Ubuntu core.
    o A busybox shell through adb
    console
    o Test disk I/O using gzip
    compression/decompression on
    various partitions. This process can
    help find driver level errors
    2. Integrate LXC & Android system service.
    o A Ubuntu prompt through adb, and
    LXC is running properly
    o Observe upstart-property-watcher
    running in the background
    3. Full system integration.
    o Ubuntu Unity UI appears on the
    screen
    o Start verifying higher level
    functionality such as Wifi,
    telephony, etc.

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  21. Image Components
    Device tarball
    The Device tarball contains the Ubuntu equivalent of an Android BSP. Each individual mobile device
    will have its own specific device tarball.
    Ubuntu tarball
    The Ubuntu tarball is considered the “standard” Ubuntu Touch image. As much as possible, it is
    common across all Ubuntu Touch devices. This design helps to prevent fragmentation of deployed
    devices.
    Custom tarball
    The Custom tarball is the officially supported method for all Ubuntu Touch downstream consumers,
    ranging from commercial OEMs to community remixes, to modify the look, feel, and behavior of
    Ubuntu Touch.

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  22. Images
    – Boot imageThis is flashed to the boot partition and is given control by the bootloader in ROM.
    This is a device dependent image containing the kernel and the initramfs needed to boot
    Ubuntu. The initramfs userland bits follow the armhf ABI since it is built from Ubuntu sources.
    The kernel is ABI agnostic since it does not use floating point functionality.
    – Recovery (Clockworkmod Recovery image)Optional for running the device but necessary for
    OTA upgrades and also usually a good first step when porting Android to a device. This is a
    Clockworkmod Recovery image with Ubuntu patches, so it is built from the Android tree.
    git://phablet.ubuntu.com/CyanogenMod/android_bootable_recovery
    – System images This is built from the Android source tree and contains only the bare
    minimum needed for Ubuntu (Android HAL, initramfs, bionic, vendor blobs and daemons).
    Building Android apps, assets and the Dalvik runtime are disabled among other things.
    This image is mounted inside an LXC container in the Ubuntu host filesystem and it contains
    the Android proprietary drivers and is running the Android helper daemons needed to have
    proper support for all the hardware peripherals that are not natively supported by Ubuntu and
    open source drivers. Executables in this image use the armel ABI.
    – The Ubuntu root file system imageThis is a device independent image containing the Ubuntu
    Touch userland, the closes equivalent to a regular Ubuntu Desktop filesystem. This gets
    booted to, and in turn mounts and runs the Android system image inside an LXC container.
    This is built from the official Ubuntu package archives and by adding a few prebuilt Click
    packages.

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  23. Deploying Ubuntu system
    Recovery utils
    ● ubuntu-device-flash (lp:/ubuntu/goget-ubuntu-touch)
    o File upload & config protocol - adb
    Recovery system
    o based on CWM.
    o adb is always on.
    o system-image-upgrader
     /cache
    ● Read restore script from /cache/recovery/ubuntu_command
    o GPG verification
     archive-master.tar.xz
     archive-master.tar.xz.asc

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  24. Dual boot

    Ubuntu Dual Boot Installer is provided to developers who want
    to contribute to development of Ubuntu Touch and give them
    an ability to run Ubuntu and Android on a single device.

    Installer script to deploy apk

    Replace the original recovery image as boot image.

    An Android app to manage image and reboot to right O.S.
    https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Touch/DualBootInstallation
    https://launchpad.net/humpolec

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  25. Easy customization of look, feel, and
    behavior

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  26. Image Components
    Device tarball
    The Device tarball contains the Ubuntu equivalent of an Android BSP. Each individual mobile device
    will have its own specific device tarball.
    Ubuntu tarball
    The Ubuntu tarball is considered the “standard” Ubuntu Touch image. As much as possible, it is
    common across all Ubuntu Touch devices. This design helps to prevent fragmentation of deployed
    devices.
    Custom tarball
    The Custom tarball is the officially supported method for all Ubuntu Touch downstream consumers,
    ranging from commercial OEMs to community remixes, to modify the look, feel, and behavior of
    Ubuntu Touch.

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  27. Customization
    ● Backgrounds
    Normal Unity Shell background and the Welcome Screen background.
    o Shell background
    o Welcome Screen background
    ● Color Schemes
    o Customized themes
    o Infographic color scheme
    the series of circles on the Welcome Screen that displays user’s data
    ● Audio
    ● Default Browser settings
    o Bookmarks
    o home page
    ● Preinstalling Content
    o click packages
    o sample content.

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  28. References
    ● Ubuntu Developer http://developer.ubuntu.com/
    o Scope http://developer.ubuntu.com/scopes/overview/
    ● Mir: Welcome to Mir http://unity.ubuntu.com/mir/
    ● Touch - Ubuntu Wiki https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Touch
    o Touch/Porting https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Touch/Porting
    o Touch/Deploying https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Touch/Deploying
    ● OEM Customization http://developer.ubuntu.com/resources/oem/
    o Ubuntu Image Architecture http://developer.ubuntu.com/resources/oem/architecture/
    ● Ubuntu Touch Ports http://forum.xda-developers.com/ubuntu-touch/android-ports
    ● Ubuntu Phone - https://lists.launchpad.net/ubuntu-phone/

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