DevOpsDays Victoria 2019: Continuous Security with Kubernetes

DevOpsDays Victoria 2019: Continuous Security with Kubernetes

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Chris Van Tuin

May 31, 2019
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  1. 1.

    A DEVOPS STATE OF MIND: CONTINUOUS SECURITY WITH KUBERNETES Chris

    Van Tuin
 Chief Technologist, NA West @chrisvantuin cvantuin@redhat.com
  2. 3.
  3. 5.
  4. 7.

    DEV QA OPS SECURITY IS AN AFTERTHOUGHT | SECURITY |

    “Patch? The servers are behind the firewall.” - Anonymous (far too many to name), 2005 - … | Security | SECURITY IS AN AFTERTHOUGHT
  5. 8.

    DEVSECOPS + + End to End Security DEV QA OPS

    Culture Process Technology Linux + Containers IaaS Orchestration CI/CD Source Control Management Collaboration Build and Artifact Management Testing Frameworks Open Source
  6. 9.

    DEVSECOPS Continuous Security Improvement Process Optimization Security Automation Dev QA

    Prod Reduce Risks, Lower Costs, Speed Delivery, Speed Reaction
  7. 11.

    BARE METAL VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD PUBLIC CLOUD Automated Software Factory


    Speed, Resiliency, Scalability, Security 
 BARE METAL VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD PUBLIC CLOUD Automated Software Factory
 Speed, Resiliency, Scalability, Security 
 BARE METAL VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD PUBLIC CLOUD Automated Software Factory
 Speed, Resiliency, Scalability, Security 
 Speed, Agility, Resiliency, Scalability, Efficiency, Security
  8. 12.

    • No security on K8s dashboard • IT infrastructure credentials

    exposed • Enabled access to a large part of Weight Watchers' network • K8s dashboard exposed • AWS environment with telemetry data compromised • Tesla’s infrastructure was used for crypto mining THE CONTAINERS NEWS YOU DON’T WANT • 17 tainted crypto-mining containers on dockerhub • Remained for ~1 year
 with 5 million pulls and • Harvested ~90k in crypto currency.
  9. 15.

    docker.io Registry Private Registry FROM fedora:1.0 CMD echo “Hello” Build

    file Physical, Virtual, Cloud Container Image Container Instance Build Run Ship CONTAINERS ENABLE DEVOPS CONTAINERS ENABLE DEVSECOPS FROM registry.redhat.com/rhel7 RUN groupadd -g 999 appuser && \ useradd -r -u 999 -g appuser appuser USER appuser CMD echo “Hello”
  10. 17.

    Config Data Kubernetes configmaps secrets Container image Traditional 
 data

    services, Kubernetes 
 persistent volumes TREAT CONTAINERS AS IMMUTABLE To keep containerized apps portable Application Language runtimes OS dependencies
  11. 18.

    KUBERNETES CONFIGMAP Decouple configuration from container image Application Language runtimes

    OS dependencies Environment Variable or Volume/File CONTAINER INSTANCE key:value from directories, files, or values KUBERNETES
 CONFIGMAP APPLICATION CONFIG FILE Application Configuration File e.g. XML etcd Pod Source Code Repository EnvVar require pod restart Files refresh in time
  12. 19.

    NODE MASTER Container Distributed Store Container KUBERNETES SECRETS ! Secure

    mechanism for holding sensitive data e.g. ◦ Passwords and credentials ◦ SSH Keys ◦ Certificates ! Secrets are made available as ◦ Environment variables ◦ Volume mounts ◦ Interaction with external systems ! Encrypted in transit and
 support for encryption at rest ! Never rest on the nodes, stored in memory (tmpfs)
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    • Treat build file as a Blueprint • Don’t login

    to build/configure • Version control build file • Be explicit with versions, not latest • Always list registry pulling FROM • Each Run creates a new layer • Specify USER, default is root BUILD FILE BEST PRACTICES FROM registry.redhat.com/rhel7 RUN groupadd -g 999 appuser && \ useradd -r -u 999 -g appuser appuser USER appuser CMD echo “Hello” Build file
  14. 21.

    CONTAINER IMAGE SIGNING Validate what images and version are running

    • Authenticating authorship • Non-repudiation • Ensuring image integrity
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    Java Build Environment Language runtimes OS dependencies Build Image Java

    Code Application Language runtimes OS dependencies Container Image Image Registry Source Repository Image Registry REPRODUCIBLE BUILDS Source to Image with Build Images Source v3.1 v1.0.1 v3.1 Java Build Environment Language runtimes OS dependencies Build Image Java Code Application Language runtimes OS dependencies Container Image Image Registry Source Repository Image Registry REPRODUCIBLE BUILDS Source to Image with Build Images Source v3.1 v1.0.1 v3.1 + REPRODUCIBLE BUILDS with build images
  16. 29.

    AUTOMATED SECURITY SCANNING with OpenSCAP Reports & Remediation Scan SCAP

    Security Guide for RHEL CCE-27002-5 Set Password Minimum Length Content Scan physical servers, virtual machines, docker images and containers
 for Security Policy Compliance (CCEs) and known Security Vulnerabilities (CVEs)
  17. 31.

    CI/CD PIPELINE WITH KUBERNETES BARE METAL VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD PUBLIC

    CLOUD CI/CD PIPELINE WITH KUBERNETES BARE METAL VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD PUBLIC CLOUD Automated Software Factory
 Speed, Resiliency, Scalability, Security 

  18. 32.

    CI/CD DEPLOYMENT STRATEGIES
 Automate and reduce deployment risk DEPLOYMENT STRATEGIES

    • Recreate • Rolling updates • Blue / Green deployment
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    Version 1 Version 1 Version 1 Version 1.2 ` Tests

    / CI RECREATE WITH DOWNTIME RECREATE WITH DOWNTIME
 Using Recreate deployment strategy Kubernetes
 Service
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    Version 1 Version 1 Version 1 Version 1.2 ` Tests

    / CI RECREATE WITH DOWNTIME RECREATE WITH DOWNTIME
 Shutdown existing deployment Kubernetes
 Service
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    Version 1.2 Version 1.2 Version 1.2 RECREATE WITH DOWNTIME Use

    Case • Non-mission critical services Pros • Simple, clean • No Schema incompatibilities • No API versioning Cons • Downtime RECREATE WITH DOWNTIME
 Shutdown existing deployment Kubernetes
 Service
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    Version 1 Version 1 Version 1 Version 1.2 ` Tests

    / CI ROLLING UPDATES with ZERO DOWNTIME Rollingupdate
 maxUnavailable=0 maxSurge=1 ROLLING UPDATES
 Replace each pod using RollingUpdate deployment strategy Kubernetes
 Service
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    Deploy new version and wait until it’s ready… Health Check:

    readiness probe e.g. tcp, http, script Version 1 Version 1 Version 
 1.2 Version 1 Rollingupdate
 maxUnavailable=0 maxSurge=1 ROLLING UPDATES
 Deploy new version, wait until it’s ready Kubernetes
 Service
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    Each container/pod is updated one by one Version 1.2 50%

    Version 1 V1 V1.2 ROLLING UPDATES
 Requires backward compatibility, as two versions run side-by-side Kubernetes
 Service
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    Each container/pod is updated one by one Version 1.2 Version

    1.2 Version 1.2 100% Use Case • Horizontally scaled • Backward compatible API/data • Microservices Pros • Zero downtime • Reduced risk, gradual rollout w/health checks • Ready for rollback Cons • Require backward compatible APIs/data • Resource overhead ROLLING UPDATES Kubernetes
 Service
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    BLUE Version 1 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT

    Using Ingress 100% BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Single service, run two complete Deployments BLUE Version 1 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% Service
 selector:
 production=BLUE Kubernetes
 Deployment
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    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% Health Check: readiness probe e.g. tcp, http, script BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Using Deployments, Ingress Service
 selector:
 production=BLUE Kubernetes
 Deployment Kubernetes
 Deployment
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    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% Health Check: readiness probe e.g. tcp, http, script BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Using Deployments, Ingress Service
 selector:
 production=BLUE
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    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% Health Check: readiness probe e.g. tcp, http, script BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Using Deployments, Ingress Service
 selector:
 production=BLUE
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    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Route all new request to Green, Blue sessions Service
 selector:
 version=GREEN
  32. 48.

    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Using Deployments, Ingress Service
 selector:
 production=GREEN
  33. 49.

    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Scale-down, reduce resources Service
 selector:
 production=GREEN
  34. 50.

    BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE

    / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Hot Backup Service
 selector:
 production=GREEN Version 2
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    BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Rollback BLUE GREEN Version 1 Version

    2 Ingress Use Case • Self-contained micro services (data) Pros • Low risk, never change production • No downtime • Production like testing • Rollback Cons • Resource overhead • Data synchronization BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT
 Rollback Service
 selector:
 production=BLUE
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    Deployment Frequency Lead Time Deployment
 Failure Rate Mean Time to

    Recover 99.999 Service Availability DEVSECOPS METRICS Compliance Score
  37. 54.

    KUBERNETES ARCHITECTURE Authorization API Server Controller Scheduler etcd etcd etcd

    Kubernetes Master API UI CLI Node 3 Node 1 Node 2 Node 4 Cluster User
  38. 55.

    KUBERNETES ARCHITECTURE Authorization API Server Controller Scheduler etcd etcd etcd

    Kubernetes Master API UI CLI Node 3 Node 1 Node 2 Node 4 Cluster User Network, DNS Linux, Container Runtime Management, Monitoring, Logs, Security, Registry Storage
  39. 56.

    ARCHITECTURE CONSIDERATIONS Optimize for… Cluster 
 per app / data

    / location, Short lived Data Sensitive, e.g. Finance Multi-AZ, Multi/
 Hybrid
 cloud Production, Mission 
 critical Bare metal HPC, AI/ML Security Scale Availability Latency Portability Performance Large cluster, multi/
 hybrid cloud Internet, SaaS Efficiency Large cluster, Bare Metal, Recreate Many apps, Large scale Consistent
 OS & Kubernetes version 1 app anywhere, e.g. ISVs Local, Small Cluster IoT, Retail
  40. 57.

    Kubernetes 
 Logical Network Model NETWORK SECURITY • Kubernetes uses

    a flat SDN model • All pods get IP from same CIDR • And live on same logical network • Assumes all nodes communicate
 Traditional 
 Physical Network Model • Each layer represents a Zone with
 increased trust - DMZ > App > DB,
 interzone flow generally one direction • Intrazone traffic generally unrestricted
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    NETWORK SECURITY MODELS Co-Existence Approaches One Cluster Multiple Zones Kubernete

    Cluster Physical Compute 
 isolation based on 
 Network Zones Kubernete Cluster One Cluster Per Zone Kubernete Cluster B Kubernete Cluster A Kubernetes Cluster B C D https://blog.openshift.com/openshift-and-network-security-zones-coexistence-approaches/
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    NETWORK POLICY example: 
 all pods in namespace ‘project-a’ allow

    traffic 
 from any other pods in the same namespace.”
  43. 61.

    KUBERNETES: POD SECURITY POLICIES Cluster level, Implemented as an Admission

    Controller apiVersion: policy/v1beta1 kind: PodSecurityPolicy metadata: name: privileged annotations: seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: '*' spec: privileged: true allowPrivilegeEscalation: true allowedCapabilities: - '*' volumes: - '*' hostNetwork: true hostPorts: - min: 0 max: 65535 hostIPC: true hostPID: true runAsUser: rule: 'RunAsAny' seLinux: rule: 'RunAsAny' supplementalGroups: rule: 'RunAsAny' fsGroup: rule: 'RunAsAny' apiVersion: policy/v1beta1 kind: PodSecurityPolicy metadata: name: restricted annotations: seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: 'runtime/default' spec: privileged: false # Required to prevent escalations to root. allowPrivilegeEscalation: false # This is redundant with non-root + disallow privilege escalation, # but we can provide it for defense in depth. requiredDropCapabilities: - ALL # Allow core volume types. volumes: - 'configMap' - 'secret'' # Assume that persistentVolumes set up by the cluster admin are safe to use. - 'persistentVolumeClaim' hostNetwork: false hostPID: false ......
  44. 62.

    CONTROLLING ACCESS TO KUBERNETES API Authorization User BLUE GREEN Version

    1 Version 2 Ingress e.g haproxy BLUE / GREEN DEPLOYMENT Using Ingress 100% Pod (Service Account) etcd 1 Kubernetes API Server Authentication Authorization Admission Control 2 3 4 5
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    MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS Kubernetes* Container* Host Cluster services, services, pods, 


    deployments metrics Container native metrics Traditional resource metrics - cpu, memory, network, storage prometheus + grafana kubernetes-state-metrics probes Stack Metrics Tool node-exporter Kubernetes metrics server: kubelet:cAdvisor Microservices Distributed applications - traditional app metrics - service discovery - distributed tracing prometheus + grafana jaeger tracing istio
  46. 64.

    Chris Van Tuin Chief Technologist, NA West / Silicon Valley

    cvantuin@redhat.co Be • Don’t ru • If you m limit Lin • Limit SS • Use nam • Define r • Enable • Apply S • Apply S and se • Run pro unprivile http://blog.kubernetes.io/2016/08/security-best-practices-kubernetes-deployment.html Kernel Hardware (Intel, AMD) or Virtual Machine Containers Containers Containers Unit File Docker Image Container CLI SYSTEMD Cgroups Namespaces SELinux Drivers seccomp Read Only mounts Capabilities CONTAINER HOST SECURITY CONTAINERS ARE LINUX
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    SELINUX - MANDATORY ACCESS CONTROLS Password Files Web Server Attacker

    Discretionary Access Controls 
 (file permissions) Mandatory Access Controls 
 (selinux) Internal Network Firewall Rules Password Files Firewall Rules Internal Network Web Server selinux policy
  48. 68.

    SECCOMP AND LINUX CAPABILITIES
 FILTERING SYSTEM CALLS and DROPPING PRIVILEGES

    SECCOMP AND LINUX CAPABILITIES Filtering 300+ system calls & limiting root privileges
  49. 70.

    KUBERNETES NODE Network, DNS kube- proxy kubelet Kubernetes Master Linux,

    Container Runtime Management, Monitoring, Logs, Security, Registry Storage Chris Van Tuin Chief Technologist, NA West / Silicon Valley cvantuin@redhat.co Best Practices • Don’t run as root • If you must, 
 limit Linux Capabilities • Limit SSH Access • Use namespaces • Define resource quotas • Enable logging • Apply Security Errata • Apply Security Context and seccomp filters • Run production 
 unprivileged containers 
 as read-only http://blog.kubernetes.io/2016/08/security-best-practices-kubernetes-deployment.html Kernel Hardware (Intel, AMD) or Virtual Machine Containers Containers Containers Unit File Docker Image Container CLI SYSTEMD Cgroups Namespaces SELinux Drivers seccomp Read Only mounts Capabilities CONTAINER HOST SECURITY
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    KUBERNETES NATIVE ADD-ONS kubevirt github.com/kubevirt operators coreos.com/operators knative github.com/knative istio

    istio.io Virtual Machines Day 2 Operations Server-
 less Service Mesh CI/CD tekton tekton.dev
  51. 73.

    OPERATORS AUTOMATED OPERATIONS WITH OPERATORS Automate operational lifecycle at Scale


    including packaging, deploying, managing
 of Kubernetes applications Takes human operational
 knowledge and encodes 
 it into software Watches over your Kubernetes environment
 and uses its current state to make decisions in milliseconds.