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The Role of the Architect(ure) in Young Enterprises

The Role of the Architect(ure) in Young Enterprises

Das Informationszeitalter hat vieles auf den Kopf gestellt, unter anderem auch die Anforderungen an Unternehmen. Um für Kunden relevant zu bleiben, müssen sich diese kontinuierlich neu erfinden. Dieser stetige Wandel hat nicht zuletzt auch Einfluss auf die Software und Systeme sowie die Personen, die diese entwickeln. Eine dabei bedeutende Aufgabe kommt den (Software-)Architekten zu. Der Vortrag geht auf die Besonderheiten der (Produkt-)Entwicklung in jungen Unternehmen ein.

Ausgehend davon, was dieses Umfeld auszeichnet, wird die Rolle des Softwarearchitekten abgeleitet und zu gängigen Rollendefinitionen sowie anderen Industrien abgegrenzt. Dabei wird auch darauf eingegangen, mit welchen modernen Methoden Unternehmen (und insbesondere die Produktentwicklung) diesen Anforderungen begegnen, warum sie selbst für dieses Umfeld oft nicht weit genug gehen.

Anhand von zwei Praxisbeispielen wird die Theorie auf die Realität angewandt. Dabei wird jeweils auf die spezifischen Problemstellungen, Lösungsansätze sowie die Rolle des/der Architekten in diesem Kontext eingegangen.

André Neubauer

October 16, 2019
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  1. The Role of the Architect(ure) in
    the Digital Product Development
    Young Enterprises
    André Neubauer, 2019

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  2. “Tech' enthusiast, advocate
    on modern leadership and
    opponent of standstill.
    Shaping tech env' for more
    than a decade. Love to work
    at @Misterspex, acting as
    CTO”
    @devpg data experts - Immobilienscout24 -
    DP DHL - Mister Spex

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  3. What’s an (software) architect(ure)?

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  4. "The highest level concept of a
    system in its environment. The
    architecture of a software system
    (at a given point in time) is its
    organization or structure of
    significant components
    interacting through interfaces,
    those components being
    composed of successively
    smaller components and
    interfaces."
    – IEEE Recommended Practice
    for Architectural Description,
    IEEE Std P1471
    "In most successful software
    projects, the expert developers
    working on that project have a
    shared understanding of the
    system design. This shared
    understanding is called
    ‘architecture.’ [...]
    These components are usually
    composed of smaller components,
    but the architecture only includes
    the components and interfaces
    that are understood by all the
    developers."
    – Ralph Johnson
    "Architecture is about the
    important stuff. Whatever
    that is."
    – Who needs an architect?,
    by Martin Fowler
    "Stuff that's hard to change
    later."
    – Neal Ford
    Software Architecture

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  5. The Role of an Architect (so far)
    4 fields of expertise:
    ● Design
    ● Technology
    ● Domain
    ● Methodology
    Source: Information Technology Architecture
    Body of Knowledge (ITABoK)
    Purpose:
    ● Reduce cost of change
    ● Minimize impact
    ● Ensure long-term maintainability
    ● Make it easy to understand

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  6. Understanding Then and Now

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  7. Then
    Industrial age
    ● Mass production
    ● Standardization
    ● Automation (replacement of
    co-worker by machines)
    ● ...

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  8. Now
    Information age
    ● Discontinuous change
    ● Short product life cycles
    ● Continuous price declines
    ● Little customer loyality
    ● Based on knowledge work

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  9. Discontinuous Change
    2005 2013
    Source: http://www.businessinsider.com/vatican-square-2005-and-2013-2013-3?IR=T

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  10. Discontinuous Change
    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQB2NjhJHvY

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  11. Short product cycles
    I - VII: 39 years
    I - X: 10 years
    Source: http://pngimg.com/download/1806
    Source: https://pixabay.com/de/iphone-[...]

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  12. The Fundamental Change

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  13. ● Focus on through-put and
    time-to-market
    ● Culture of continuous discovery
    ● “Digital Business”
    ● Context: Unknown unkown
    Discover
    Optimized
    Stable
    Complaint
    Economy of Speed
    Economy of Scale
    ● Focus on utilization
    ● Costs advantages via scaled
    operations with less costs per
    unit
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economies_of_scale

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  14. The Known/ Unknown Matrix aka.
    “The Rumsfeld Matrix”
    Source: https://medium.com/[...]/known-unknown-matrix

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  15. The Issue with (Un)known Unknowns!
    Time/ Continuous discovery
    Window of
    opportunity

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  16. What’s the Architectural Answer
    on the Economy of Speed?

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  17. Evolutionary Architecture &
    Emergent Design
    Source: https://www.ibm.com/[...]/j-eaed10/

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  18. Evolutionary Architecture & Emergent Design
    evolve:
    To move in regular procession through a system.
    [de]: sich entwickeln
    emergent:
    emerging; coming into view or into existence; nascent; new.
    [de]: entstehend

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  19. Spectrum of Architecture
    BDUF Cowboy
    hacking
    Some
    DUF
    EA+ED
    Waterfall Agile

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  20. Economy of Speed is about ...
    ● Speed
    ● Change
    ● Fast decision-making
    → ...
    → EA/ ED
    → ...
    You have to have an answer for that.
    Business will not wait for you!

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  21. EA/ ED is just not enough!
    Well then?

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  22. #2 Examples
    to Enable Speed and Decision Making

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  23. Many obstacles
    ● Legacy systems
    ● High dependencies
    ● Cash-cow driven business
    Challenges
    ● Lot’s of new product ideas
    ○ 80-90% (urban legend)
    40%* will fail
    ○ High costs for integration but
    also for de-integration
    #1: Architect(ure) as Organisation Designer
    * Based on: https://newproductsuccess.org/white-papers/new-product-failure-rates-[...]

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  24. Use powerful architectural concepts like isolation, interfaces and cohesion also on
    organisational level
    ● Don‘t mix ideas with core business
    ● One team, one focus
    ● Provide simple environment and data access
    #1: Architect(ure) as Organisation Designer

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  25. #1: Bimodel IT
    “Bimodal IT is getting a lot of focus as
    CIOs and IT leaders strive to build IT
    organizations capable of responding to
    the threats and opportunities of the digital
    economy, while maintaining and
    enhancing traditional infrastructure and
    services…
    Mode 1 is traditional IT;
    Mode 2 is agile IT.”
    Source: https://www.gartner.com/doc/2901217/[...]-bimodalaware-it
    “Classic” Business
    ● Industrial speed
    ● Stability
    ● Good at
    conventional
    processes
    Digital Business
    ● Digital speed
    ● Agility
    ● Good at innovation

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  26. #1: Pioneers, Settlers, Town Planners
    Source: http://blog.gardeviance.org/[...]/on-pioneers-settlers-town-planners-and.html Source: http://blog.gardeviance.org/2012/06/pioneers-settlers-and-town-planners.html

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  27. #2: (Foresighted) Architecture Alignment
    Ever got overrun by the business?

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  28. #2: (Foresighted) Architecture Alignment
    Possible technical concepts you
    need to have in place:
    Personalization, Recommendation, Apps, Skills,
    A/B testing, IoT, ...
    What the business requests:
    Cloud infrastructure, Micro-service architecture,
    API, Big Data, ML, AI

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  29. #2: (Foresighted) Architecture Alignment
    Most architectural changes require time (for
    conception, S/CPoC, …)

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  30. #2: Business Vision and Beyond
    Time/ Continuous discovery
    Window of
    opportunity
    Understand the future ...
    … to take the right decisions now
    Weird but true:
    In a fast
    environment you
    have to look
    even more
    ahead.

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  31. Architectus Reloadus*?
    No, but … →
    Source: https://juristr.com/blog/2015/06/guide-as-in-mountaineering/
    * Based on: http://files.catwell.info/[...]-martin-fowler-who-needs-an-architect.pdf

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  32. #2: The last responsible moment
    Benefits of deferring
    the decision
    Cost of change
    Sad but true:
    Too late decisions with
    pressure on
    time-to-market often
    results in legacy
    software/ systems.
    Don’t take decision upfront but latest at …

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  33. Need More Input?
    Source: https://www.gartner.com/[...]gartner-hype-cycle[...]-2017
    Source: https://www.thoughtworks.com/de/radar

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  34. Anti-Pattern: Going Fast Without Having a Plan
    Source: https://www.tagesspiegel.de/[...]-am-ber-funktioniert-nicht-mal-was-fertig-schien/20619992.html

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  35. Long Story Short ...
    Source: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/17/bd/64/[...].jpg

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  36. The Digital Architect
    “A digital architect is a modern business and technology architect that is driven by
    customer experience to utilize technology to transform business, increase revenue
    and profitability and improve the competitive position of a business. Digital
    and quantum architects focus on the synergy and cross discipline integration of
    the following disciplines: (1) customer experience; (2) cloud, webscale, iot; (3)
    data science including analytics; (4) business, application, information, technology
    and security architecture; (5) artificial intelligence, cognitive science,
    neuroscience, robotics and artificial creativity; (6) traditional science and
    mathematics including physics, quantum physics, chemistry and biology; and (7)
    digital 3D printing and nano-manufacturing”
    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_architect

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  37. The Role of the Architect(ure) in the Digital Product
    Development
    The Architect(ure) plays an even more important role in the Digital Business.
    ● Strong connect with business strategy and vision
    ● Not only about maintainability anymore but speed and changeability
    ● Not exclusively technology-focussed but responsible to provide a powerful
    environment on all levels
    ● Tactic and strategic architecture management is first-class citizens

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