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Manion spiral model

Forest Research
December 15, 2017

Manion spiral model

Chronic oak decline

Forest Research

December 15, 2017

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  1. 15/12/2017
    Decline Spiral Model – evolving concepts
    The Decline Spiral Model
    (Manion, 1981)
    Decline: Arises from factors that interact sequentially or simultaneously and have a cumulative effect over
    time. Certain factors may have key roles. Predisposition/altered host condition probably essential.
    Root health
    Secondary pests and diseases are of primary importance in causing tree mortality
    Wargo, 1996

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