Towards a model of the Samoan syntax-prosody interface

20a8ff44959a902d76386e2a75592154?s=47 krisyu
January 23, 2017

Towards a model of the Samoan syntax-prosody interface

Yale Department of Linguistics Colloquium Series

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krisyu

January 23, 2017
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  1. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Towards a model of the Samoan syntax-prosody interface Kristine M. Yu krisyu@linguist.umass.edu Department of Linguistics, UMass Amherst Yale Department of Linguistics Colloquium Series January 23, 2017 Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 1
  2. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Collaborators Matthew Frelinger Deniz Özyıldız Ed Stabler UMass Amherst UMass Amherst UCLA/Nuance Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 2
  3. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Bringing prosody into the grammar to inform the parser Challenges: Many theories of syntax-prosody interface with many moving parts Many interacting, conditioning factors on prosody that may obscure informativity of prosodic information for syntax Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 3
  4. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Bringing prosody into the grammar to inform the parser Strategy: Define and compare computational models which capture fundamental properties that distinguish proposed theories from one another Start with case studies where syntax is clearly the primary determining factor for prosody Today: a first case study on Samoan Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 4
  5. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background A fine-grained model of the syntax-prosody interface Indirect and direct reference theories agree that phonological rules refer to cross-categorical relationships rather than specific syntactic categories. (Kaisse and Zwicky 1987, p. 7). Here for Samoan interface: We place tones by individual rules that refer to specific morphosyntactic constructions. In Samoan, prosodic constituents do not appear to be unified by sharing some common syntactic relation. Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 5
  6. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Other fine-grained models of interface Similar examples from languages where word-level tone overlays apply in specific morphosyntactic contexts: Dogon languages of Mali (Heath and McPherson 2013, McPherson and Heath 2016), also Papuan languages Awa and Usarafu, and Nigerian languages Nkoroo and Kalabari. In Tommo So (Dogon): gamma ‘cat’ HH; also in ‘three cats’ and ‘the cat’ but ‘black cat’, ‘one cat’, ‘Sana’s cat‘: LL Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 6
  7. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Samoan’s ergative-absolutive case system Subject of transitive clause receives “ergative” case, marked with prepositional element [e] Subject of intransitive clause and object of transitive clause receive “absolutive” case, said to be unmarked Prepositional element [i] marks “oblique” case on indirect objects, locatives, etc. Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 7
  8. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Basic sentences (1) Transitive clause na past lalaNa weave *(e) erg le det malini marine le det mamanu. design ‘The marine wove the design.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 8
  9. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Basic sentences (1) Transitive clause na past lalaNa weave *(e) erg le det malini marine le det mamanu. design ‘The marine wove the design.’ (2) Intransitive clause na past Nalue work le det malini marine (i obl le det mamanu). design ‘The marine worked (on the design).’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 8
  10. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Word order Primarily VSO word order in transitive clauses, although VOS possible Fronted arguments, with SVO or OVS word orders in clefted structures Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 9
  11. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Word order Primarily VSO word order in transitive clauses, although VOS possible Fronted arguments, with SVO or OVS word orders in clefted structures (3) Fronted argument [Po [topic le det malini] marine] na past lalaNa weave le det mamanu. design ‘It was the marine that wove the design.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 9
  12. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Basic word prosody Described as a non-tonal language in a non-tonal language family Basic primary stress pattern: moraic trochee at right edge (Zuraw, Yu, and Orfitelli 2014) Primary stress on final vowel if long, otherwise on penultimate vowel ◦ ("manu) ‘bird’ , ma("lini) ◦ la("va:) ‘energized’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 10
  13. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Basic sentence-level prosody Rising pitch accent associated to primary stressed syllable (“LH*”) (Orfitelli and Yu 2009, Calhoun 2015) appears on every content word, presence seems insensitive to discourse conditions Sentence-medial high edge tones (“H-”) including before an absolutive (Yu 2011, 2016) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 11
  14. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Fieldwork/data All consultants from (Western) Samoa Primary consultant: born in Samoa, moved to United States at age 15, age 19-23 during elicitations ◦ Data collected in 2008-2009, and later in additional elicitation sessions through 2016 Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 12
  15. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Fieldwork/data All consultants from (Western) Samoa Primary consultant: born in Samoa, moved to United States at age 15, age 19-23 during elicitations ◦ Data collected in 2008-2009, and later in additional elicitation sessions through 2016 Work with 5 additional speakers in trips to Apia, Samoa in November 2011 and to Carson, CA in January 2012 Work with 4 additional speakers in trips to Auckland, New Zealand in July 2015 Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 12
  16. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Fieldwork/data All consultants from (Western) Samoa Primary consultant: born in Samoa, moved to United States at age 15, age 19-23 during elicitations ◦ Data collected in 2008-2009, and later in additional elicitation sessions through 2016 Work with 5 additional speakers in trips to Apia, Samoa in November 2011 and to Carson, CA in January 2012 Work with 4 additional speakers in trips to Auckland, New Zealand in July 2015 Data primarily elicited in tautala lelei (formal language) Data primarily elicited out-of-the-blue, unless pronominal elements present, in which case referent introduced Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 12
  17. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background Fundamental frequency contour: transitive clause 100 125 150 175 Fundamental frequency (Hz) Time (s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 LH* LH* H- LH* L-L% LH* LH* H- LH* L-L% na lalaNa e le malini le mamanu na la la Na e le ma li ni le ma ma nu F0 contour for transitive clause in (1) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 13
  18. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    Background F0 contour: intransitive clause 100 125 150 175 Fundamental frequency (Hz) Time (s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 LH* H- LH* LH* L-L% LH* H- LH* LH* L-L% na Nalue le malini i le mamanu na Na lue le ma li ni i le ma ma nu F0 contour for intransitive clause in (2) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 14
  19. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur Absolutives: at right edge of word preceding absolutive (Yu 2011, 2016) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 15
  20. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur Absolutives: at right edge of word preceding absolutive (Yu 2011, 2016) Coordination: at right edge of first coordinate (Orfitelli and Yu 2009, Yu 2011, 2016) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 15
  21. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur Absolutives: at right edge of word preceding absolutive (Yu 2011, 2016) Coordination: at right edge of first coordinate (Orfitelli and Yu 2009, Yu 2011, 2016) Clefts: at right edge of fronted argument (Orfitelli and Yu 2009, Yu 2011, 2016; Calhoun 2015) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 15
  22. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur Absolutives: at right edge of word preceding absolutive (Yu 2011, 2016) Coordination: at right edge of first coordinate (Orfitelli and Yu 2009, Yu 2011, 2016) Clefts: at right edge of fronted argument (Orfitelli and Yu 2009, Yu 2011, 2016; Calhoun 2015) None of these syntactic environments can coincide: an H- can be uniquely traced back to its syntactic source Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 15
  23. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur (4) Absolutive na past lalaNa weave *(e) erg le det malini marine H- abs le det mamanu. design ‘The marine wove the design.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 16
  24. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur (4) Absolutive na past lalaNa weave *(e) erg le det malini marine H- abs le det mamanu. design ‘The marine wove the design.’ (5) Coordination na past lalaNa weave [*(e) [erg le det malini marine H- coord ma conj Malu] Malu] H- abs le det mamanu. design ‘The marine and Malu worked on the design.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 16
  25. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Where H- tones invariably occur (4) Absolutive na past lalaNa weave *(e) erg le det malini marine H- abs le det mamanu. design ‘The marine wove the design.’ (5) Coordination na past lalaNa weave [*(e) [erg le det malini marine H- coord ma conj Malu] Malu] H- abs le det mamanu. design ‘The marine and Malu worked on the design.’ (6) Fronted argument [Po [topic le det malini] marine] H- front na past Nalue work i obl le det mamanu. design Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 16
  26. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s A closer look at the phonetic realization of H- 150 165 180 195 210 Fundamental frequency (Hz) Time (s) 0 0.2 0.4 ma li ni No H- [LH* not followed by H-] 150 165 180 195 210 Fundamental frequency (Hz) Time (s) 0 0.2 0.4 ma li ni [LH* followed by H-] Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 17
  27. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Evidence that H- tones are edge tones: Bach test Is steady/rising pitch over the last mora in a H- correlated with stress position or the word edge? Problem: Samoan primary stress is realized no further left than on penultimate mora → tonal crowding Solution: Separate the influence of primary stress and boundary tones by doing a Bach test Use a nonce stress pattern, with primary stress aligned to the left edge Introduce as English personal name to be codeswitched in Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 18
  28. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s More on Lise Menn’s Bach test (Halle 1978) Traditional wug test can’t rule out a list grammar over an alphabet of segments Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 19
  29. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s More on Lise Menn’s Bach test (Halle 1978) Traditional wug test can’t rule out a list grammar over an alphabet of segments Bax test: use a nonce form that ends in a nonnative phoneme x is [-voice] /bax-z/ → segment-based rules /bax-s/ → feature-based rules Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 19
  30. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s The Bach test for intonation: task naturalness Codeswitching between Samoan and English is a common everyday occurrence Loanwords may receive aberrant stress, cf. [ > tsai´ ami > tsa] ‘diameter’ [Audio] Great liberty and variety in personal names in Samoan, e.g. (in Samoan orthography) pese ‘song’, moa ‘chicken’, lagi ‘sky’ mauaituaolefaleolemalo ‘found behind the government house’, maua for short alofa | ile | lautusi | o | le | salamo ‘love the pages of the song’, names split up among children in same family Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 20
  31. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Example: f0 contours and stress position S1 S2 S3 Following 160 180 200 220 240 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Time slice in word Mean fundamental frequency (Hz) Stress position initial penult final Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 21
  32. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Homophonous H-’s No positive evidence that H-’s are realized differently depending on syntactic structure Lengthening at right edges with H-’s compared to baseline when no H- is present Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 22
  33. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Homophonous H-’s No positive evidence that H-’s are realized differently depending on syntactic structure Lengthening at right edges with H-’s compared to baseline when no H- is present Other examples of “homophonous” tones: overlapping tonal inventory for lexical and grammatical tones in Bantu languages; high tones can be edge tones or pitch accents in head/edge-prominence languages, e.g. Turkish, French Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 22
  34. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Sensitivity of presence of to speech rate (7) Sensitivity of prosodic phrasing to speech rate in Calcutta Bengali (Hayes and Lahiri 1991) a. (Omor) Armor (čador) scarf (tara-ke) Tara-obj (díečhe) deliberate speech gave ‘Armor gave a scarf to Tara’ b. (Omor čador) (tara-ke) (díečhe) faster speech c. (Omor) (čador tara-ke) (díečhe) faster speech d. (Omor čador tara-ke) (díečhe) very rapid speech Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 23
  35. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Sample minimal pair from speech rate stimuli (8) A sample minimal pair from speech rate data set a. Transitive clause na past laNona hear e erg malini marine H- abs le det.sg liona lion i obl le det.sg aoauli. afternoon ‘The marines heard the lion in the afternoon.’ b. Intransitive clause na past manoNi smelly H- abs malini marine i obl le det.sg liona lion i obl le det.sg aoauli. afternoon ‘The marines were smelly to the lion in the afternoon.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 24
  36. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Invariability in presence of H-: speech rate (a) subject under slow speech rate (b) subject under normal speech rate Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 25
  37. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Invariability in presence of H-: speech rate (c) subject under normal speech rate (d) subject under fast speech rate Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 26
  38. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Properties of Samoan registers tautala lelei ‘good language’: used in literary contexts and and Westernized contexts, with foreigners tautala leaga ‘bad language’: used in traditional ceremonies and meetings, with family and friends Case markers often dropped (Mosel and Hovdhaugen 1992, Mayer 2001) (9) Mergers from tautala lelei to tautala leaga a. /t/ and /k/ → /k/ b. /n/ and /N/ → /N/ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 27
  39. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Invariability in presence of H-: register (10) Transitive sentence minimal pair in tautala leaga a. VSO word order Na past laNoNa hear ∅ erg le det.sg lioNa lion H- abs le det.sg malie. shark ‘The lion heard the shark.’ b. VOS word order Na past laNoNa hear H- abs le det.sg lioNa lion ∅ erg le det.sg malie. shark ‘The lion was heard by the shark.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 28
  40. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Invariability in presence of H-: register (a) f0 over 3-syll verbs (b) f0 over 3-syll ARG 1 Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 29
  41. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    The phonetic realization of the H- Invariability in the presence of H-’s Other invariability in presence/placement of H-’s Word order Prosodic length (number of syllables/words in arguments) Information structural manipulations (Contrastive and informational focus) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 30
  42. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Defining the syntax/prosody interface Define beginnings of a formal Minimalist Grammar for Samoan (Yu & Stabler to appear) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 31
  43. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Defining the syntax/prosody interface Define beginnings of a formal Minimalist Grammar for Samoan (Yu & Stabler to appear) Adopt a particular syntactic perspective on Samoan case, but other syntactic alternatives could be defined as well Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 31
  44. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Defining the syntax/prosody interface Define beginnings of a formal Minimalist Grammar for Samoan (Yu & Stabler to appear) Adopt a particular syntactic perspective on Samoan case, but other syntactic alternatives could be defined as well Why Minimalist Grammars? Regular derivation trees makes it easy to interface with: Regular (tree) transducer to do spellout Regular transducers defined for the prosodic/phonological grammar Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 31
  45. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? What is the absolutive H-? Following Collins (2014, 2015, 2016) (and Legate (2008)): Absolutive is default, syncretic marking of nom and acc Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 32
  46. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? What is the absolutive H-? Following Collins (2014, 2015, 2016) (and Legate (2008)): Absolutive is default, syncretic marking of nom and acc Collins: S and P behave different in nominalized clauses: S must be genitively marked, while P can have same marking as in finite clauses Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 32
  47. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? What is the absolutive H-? Following Collins (2014, 2015, 2016) (and Legate (2008)): Absolutive is default, syncretic marking of nom and acc Collins: S and P behave different in nominalized clauses: S must be genitively marked, while P can have same marking as in finite clauses In nominalizations, H- possible for transitive object P but not for intransitive subject S Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 32
  48. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? What is the absolutive H-? Following Collins (2014, 2015, 2016) (and Legate (2008)): Absolutive is default, syncretic marking of nom and acc Collins: S and P behave different in nominalized clauses: S must be genitively marked, while P can have same marking as in finite clauses In nominalizations, H- possible for transitive object P but not for intransitive subject S Case markers adjoined to arguments in spellout, additional spellout rules for coordination and clefted structures Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 32
  49. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? What is the absolutive H-? Following Collins (2014, 2015, 2016) (and Legate (2008)): Absolutive is default, syncretic marking of nom and acc Collins: S and P behave different in nominalized clauses: S must be genitively marked, while P can have same marking as in finite clauses In nominalizations, H- possible for transitive object P but not for intransitive subject S Case markers adjoined to arguments in spellout, additional spellout rules for coordination and clefted structures Verb-initial ordering derived by fronting the VP to a function head F below T after the arguments have been raised out of it (Collins) Head movement moves T na to C (Collins) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 32
  50. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? What is the absolutive H-? Following Collins (2014, 2015, 2016) (and Legate (2008)): Absolutive is default, syncretic marking of nom and acc Collins: S and P behave different in nominalized clauses: S must be genitively marked, while P can have same marking as in finite clauses In nominalizations, H- possible for transitive object P but not for intransitive subject S Case markers adjoined to arguments in spellout, additional spellout rules for coordination and clefted structures Verb-initial ordering derived by fronting the VP to a function head F below T after the arguments have been raised out of it (Collins) Head movement moves T na to C (Collins) Other ideas about abs: (1) material preceding abs fronted into high Spec position, (2) abs arguments extrapose Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 32
  51. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Derived syntactic trees (Yu & Stabler to appear) Absolutive Coordination Clefting Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 33
  52. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Absolutive H- is distinct from other H-’s Anecdotal mentions of “always optional” particle, ia, that precedes absolutives (Hovdhaugen 1987, Mosel and Hovdhaugen 1992, Vonen 1988) Frequency of usage of absolutive ia currently seems very sporadic, but speakers still have systematic intuitions about distribution Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 34
  53. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Absolutive H- is distinct from other H-’s Anecdotal mentions of “always optional” particle, ia, that precedes absolutives (Hovdhaugen 1987, Mosel and Hovdhaugen 1992, Vonen 1988) Frequency of usage of absolutive ia currently seems very sporadic, but speakers still have systematic intuitions about distribution ia illicit in syntactic environments where other segmental case markers also illicit (Yu and Özyıldız 2016) ia licit only where absolutive H- occurs, not where cleft or coordination H-’s occur (Yu & Özyıldız 2016) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 34
  54. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Absolutive illicit in naPo constructions Calhoun (2014) noted that no absolutive H- occurs after naPo. My consultants don’t accept ia with naPo either: (11) No absolutive ia, H- na past laNona hear e erg Melina Melina *H- *abs *ia *abs naPo only *H- *abs *ia *abs le det.sg liona. lion ‘Melina heard only the lion.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 35
  55. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? NaPo ‘only’ cannot occur with any case morpheme (12) No ergative e na past laNona hear *e *erg naPo only Melina Melina *e *erg H- abs (ia) (abs) le det.sg liona. lion ‘Only Melina heard the lion.’ (13) No oblique i na past leaNa bad H- abs (ia) (abs) Melina Melina *i *obl naPo only *i *obl le det.sg liona. lion ‘Melina was bad to only the lion.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 36
  56. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Hypothesis for origin of absolutive H- Hypothesis: Absolutive H- emerged diachronically from segmental [ia] particle: segmental deletion and reassociation of orphaned tone ia is bimoraic and receives penult stress; pitch accent provides source tone for reassociation H H = manu i a Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 37
  57. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? A unifying syntactic relation? Suppose we take an H- as a diagnostic for some phonological constituent. What could be a general syntactic relation between the H-’s that maps to a common phonological constituent? Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 38
  58. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? A unifying syntactic relation? Suppose we take an H- as a diagnostic for some phonological constituent. What could be a general syntactic relation between the H-’s that maps to a common phonological constituent? Why is it that H-’s always appear, and don’t disappear with fast speech rates or decreasing prosodic length (Yu & Stabler to appear) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 38
  59. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? A unifying syntactic relation? Suppose we take an H- as a diagnostic for some phonological constituent. What could be a general syntactic relation between the H-’s that maps to a common phonological constituent? Why is it that H-’s always appear, and don’t disappear with fast speech rates or decreasing prosodic length (Yu & Stabler to appear) In contrast, appearance of sentence-medial L edge tones variable within/across speakers Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 38
  60. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Variable appearance of L- tones: example sentences (14) L- before erg Po top le det.sg mamanu design H- front na past lalaNa-ina weave-INA L- e erg le det.sg malini marine i obl le det.sg aso: day ‘It was the marine that wove the design today.’ (15) L- before obl na past malaNa journey H- abs le det.sg malini marine L- i obl le det.sg moana sea i obl le det.sg aso: day ‘The marine journeyed to the sea today.’ Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 39
  61. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Variable appearance of L- tones: f0 contours We don’t expect syntactically conditioned H-’s where these L- tones showed up. 150 175 200 225 250 Fundamental frequency (Hz) Time (s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 LH* H- plateau *? L- resetLH* LH* L-L% LH* H- plateau *? L- reset LH* LH* L-L% ’o lemamanu na lalaNaina e le malini le aso: 150 175 200 225 250 Fundamental frequency (Hz) Time (s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 LH* H- *? L- reset LH* LH* L-L% LH* H- *? L- resetLH* LH* L-L% na malaNa le malini i le moana i le aso: (a) L- in fronting, before ergative (b) L- in VSO, before oblique Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 40
  62. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Phonological constituency and succinctness Why posit phonological constituents? To make phonological grammars more succinct. (see also Yu submitted) Here: does positing phonological constituents where H-’s appear help make phonological grammars more succinct? Not clear. Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 41
  63. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Phonological constituency and succinctness Why posit phonological constituents? To make phonological grammars more succinct. (see also Yu submitted) Here: does positing phonological constituents where H-’s appear help make phonological grammars more succinct? Not clear. Additional phonological constituency tests besides distribution of H-’s? Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 41
  64. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Defining prosodic grammars with xfst Why xfst (Beesley and Karttunen 2003)? Finite state sequence transducers expressive enough to define diverse phonological formalisms Common formalism allows for assessments of which approaches are the most succinct Easy to interface with the defined minimalist grammars Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 42
  65. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Disfluencies and phonological constituency Not clear whether we would want to say H-’s are placed at the right or left edge of a phonological constituent. Placement of abs H- to the left: could be explained if Samoan tends to group case markers leftward, prosodically. Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 43
  66. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Disfluencies and phonological constituency Not clear whether we would want to say H-’s are placed at the right or left edge of a phonological constituent. Placement of abs H- to the left: could be explained if Samoan tends to group case markers leftward, prosodically. Evidence for this: asymmetric chunking in disfluencies—higher frequency of function words being “enclitic” rather than “proclitic” in disfluencies/hesitations (Himmelman 2014) Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 43
  67. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? f¯ agogo from The Archive of M¯ aori and Pacific Music Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 44
  68. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Hypothesis 1: H- does not demarcate a prosodic constituent (16) The absolutive H- is an edge tone but does not demarcate a prosodic constituent. (Verb H-)PWd ( . . . and (Verb e)PWd ( . . . Length can appear to support contour tones, which are not necessarily edge tones; length isn’t necessarily always a correlate of a prosodic boundary. Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 45
  69. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Hypothesis 2: Prosodic phrasing of abs and erg the same (17) The prosodic phrasing of the absolutive and ergative arguments is the same even though no H- appears before the ergative, and there are non-tonal phonetic correlates of prosodic constituency. (Verb H-)PPh ( . . . but (Verb e)PPh ( . . . Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 46
  70. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Hypothesis 3: H- demarcates a PPh (18) The absolutive H- demarcates a prosodic constituent higher than a prosodic word, e.g. a phonological phrase. That is, an absolutive argument induces a prosodic domain higher than the prosodic word. (And what about coordination, fronting?) (Verb H-)PPh ( . . . but (Verb e)PWd ( . . . Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 47
  71. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Conclusion In Samoan, placement of sentence-medial high edge tones entirely predictable with knowledge of syntactic structure But not clear that a cross-categorial syntactic relation unifies configurations where H- appears Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 48
  72. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Conclusion In Samoan, placement of sentence-medial high edge tones entirely predictable with knowledge of syntactic structure But not clear that a cross-categorial syntactic relation unifies configurations where H- appears Opportunity to carefully evaluate assumptions underlying why we posit phonological constituents Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 48
  73. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Conclusion In Samoan, placement of sentence-medial high edge tones entirely predictable with knowledge of syntactic structure But not clear that a cross-categorial syntactic relation unifies configurations where H- appears Opportunity to carefully evaluate assumptions underlying why we posit phonological constituents Starting point for defining and comparing computational models of the interface which capture fundamental properties that distinguish proposed theories from one another Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 48
  74. Introduction Sentence-medial high edge tones A unified source for H-’s?

    A general syntactic relation? A general phonological relation? Acknowledgements Primary consultants: John Fruean, Kare’l Lokeni Coordination of Samoan fieldwork: Gladys Fuimaono, Peone Fuimaono; Coordination of Auckland fieldwork: Jason Brown Adam Albright, Ryan Bennett, Rajesh Bhatt, Seth Cable, Sandy Chung, James Collins, Lyn Frazier, Alice Harris, Larry Hyman, Sun-Ah Jun, Diana Massam, Jim McCloskey, Masha Polinsky, Russ Schuh, Lisa Selkirk, Donca Steriade, Ellen Woolford, Kie Zuraw Funding: from UCLA Academic Senate’s Committee on Research, Department of Linguistics at University of Maryland College Park and University of Massachusetts Amherst Kristine M. Yu www.krisyu.org Towards a model of Samoan syntax-prosody 49