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Similarity metrics for Japanese kanji

Lars Yencken
November 30, 2012

Similarity metrics for Japanese kanji

An overview of my PhD work on calculating the similarity between Japanese kanji, presented to the Melbourne Maths and Science meetup.

Lars Yencken

November 30, 2012
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  1. Similarity Metrics for
    Japanese Kanji
    Lars Yencken / 99designs
    Maths and Science Meetup, 30th Nov 2012

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  2. Linguistics
    Computer
    Science
    Computational Linguistics

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  3. Relative difficulty
    of languages

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  4. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE

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  5. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish

    View full-size slide

  6. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  7. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  8. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  9. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  10. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  11. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  12. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu

    View full-size slide

  13. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu
    Exceptionally difficult for
    native English speakers
    ‭‭‭‭‭‭ 2200 class hours
    Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, Japanese, Korean

    View full-size slide

  14. DIFFICULTY OF LEARNING LANGUAGES
    FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE, US DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    Closely related to English
    ‭‱575-600 class hours
    Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese,
    Romanian, Spanish, Swedish
    Significant linguistic and/or
    cultural differences
    ‭‭‭ 1100 class hours
    Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian,
    Burmese, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finish, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew,
    Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Khmer, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian,
    Macedonian, Mongolian, Nepali, Pashto, Persian (Dari, Farsi, Tajik),
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Tagalog, Thai,
    Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Xhosa, Zulu
    Exceptionally difficult for
    native English speakers
    ‭‭‭‭‭‭ 2200 class hours
    Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin, Japanese, Korean

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  15. /mo(tsu)/ "to carry"

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  16. distance(持, 挂) = ???

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  17. The space of kanji

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  18. View full-size slide

  19. Compare images

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  20. Compare components

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  21. 㣡 ౔ ੇ
    ኱ ౔ ੇ

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  22. Compare strokes

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  23. P R O S P E R I T Y
    P R O P E R T I E S

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  24. P R O S P E R I T Y
    P R O P E R T I E S
    distance: 6

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  25. 3, 11a, 2a, 2a
    3, 11a, 2a, 2a, 2a
    distance: 1

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  26. Compare trees

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  27. tree edit distance

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  28. So what works?

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