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Oat Malt / Oatmeal Stout

Oat Malt / Oatmeal Stout

This month (February, 2022) Peter Symons gave us a great talk on the origins of Oat Malt / Oatmeal Stout along with a few recipes to try.

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London Amateur Brewers

February 21, 2022
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  1. Peter Symons 21 February 2022 Oat Malt / Oatmeal Stout

  2. Brief Bio Brewing since 1998 Graduate Certificate in Brewing –

    Ballarat University Siebel Institute’s WBA Concise Course BJCP Recognised Judge Researching old beers since 2009 Self published: Bronzed Brews, Second Edition, 2020 6 o’clock Brews, 2017 and Guile Brews, 2019 and working on the next tome.
  3. Agenda • Oats • Origins Maclay – Oat Malt Stout

    (OMS) – Patent Recipe – 1909 Maclay OMS Recipe • Australian OMS vs UK OMS – 1930s UK OMS – 1933 Tooheys OMS Recipe • 2021 BJCP 16B Style Guidelines – 2015 Anderson Valley Barney Flats Oatmeal Stout Recipe • Conclusions
  4. Oats • Oats have been used for a long time

    in brewing • Oats regarded as being a ‘Health Food’ • Rich in beta glucans • Main forms – Oat Malt – Flaked/Rolled Oats – Whole Oats (Groats)
  5. Oats Oats - pregelatinised Instant oats – not oaty enough?

    Rolled/Flaked Oats – neutral flavour, add texture, mouthfeel Oats (Groats) maybe steel cut Boil first (cereal mash) Crystal Oats – Simpsons Golden Naked Oats – too edgy? Toasting Oats? Suppliers of Malted Oats Crisp (UK) Bairds (UK) Thomas Fawcett (UK) Simpsons (UK) Gladfield (NZ) Big O Voyager (AU) Viking (EU) Malted oats for the best flavour?
  6. Malted Oats Malted Oats Tasmanian White Giants Diastase 15—29 °Lintner

    Colour 1.5—4.0 °Lovibond Mash Odour Oaty Malty Grainy Kilned 150—155 °F (pale) Descriptors Flaked (Unmalted) Oats (up to 20%) neutral silky Creamy Malted Oats (5—20%) Creamy, velvety smooth mouthfeel, porridge oat Crystallised Malted Oats (up to 10%) Creamy, Nutty, Breakfast Cereal Bar https://www.simpsonsmalt.co.uk/our-malts/ 1941—1944 Tooheys Malting Records, Auburn Archives
  7. Selected 19th Century Scottish Breweries Arrol Calder George Younger Maclay

    Thistle Brewery Bernard Drybrough Usher William Younger Tennent Alloa Falkirk Edinburgh Glasgow Aitken Closed 2001 Thistle Brewery https://scottishbrewingheritage.org/buildings.php?p=206
  8. Maclay & Co. Ltd. - Thistle Brewery, Alloa • Maclay

    & Company, – established 1830 by James Maclay, Thistle Brewery built 1875 • Maclay & Company Limited, 1 July 1896 – Alexander Fraser, Esq., Brewer – Assets included: Thistle Brewery, with new three storey block of cellarage, goodwill, and Patent Rights • Brewery burnt down - 9 July 1910 – Seat of fire in mash house (two storey building), then spread to adjacent three-storey building with tun room, coolers, maltings, engine room and boiler house – Estimated loss £20,000—30,000
  9. 1895 Maclay Oat Malt Stout THE BEVERAGE OF THE CENTURY!

    It is brewed from malt produced from the Finest Scotch Oats. Protected by Her Majesty’s [Queen Victoria] Royal Letters Patent. The Midlothian Journal - Friday 24 April 1986, p8
  10. 1896 BMJ & The Lancet on Maclay OMS British Medical

    Journal: analysis showed 5.5% of extractives, 11.0° of proof spirit, and 0.09% acidity expressed in terms of acetic acid. SG when partly deprived of its carbonic anhydride was 1014. This stout had all the characters of an agreeable beer similar to that made from barley malt. 11° Proof UK = 6.3% ABV Attenuated to 1.014 The Lancet: analysis showed 5.2% of extractives, 11.21° of proof spirit, and 0.32% mineral constituents, containing the soluble phosphates of the cereal. Free from objectionable excess of acidity and possesses a ripe flavour. It possesses a peculiar oaten flavour, which, of course, is quite distinct from that of ordinary stout. 11.21° Proof UK = 6.4% ABV On dietetic grounds there is no raison d'être for the substitution of oat for barley malt, and the flavour is not nearly as good.
  11. Patent No 4627 1895, April 27 This invention relates to

    improvements in or relating to the manufacture of oat malt stout, that is to say porter, the object being to provide a liquid which shall be rich in invigorating and strengthening properties, and which shall be a highly nourishing beverage. https://worldwide.espacenet.com/patent/search?q=pn%3DGB189504627A
  12. Original Gravity Estimation Type Extract Mash effy. Fermentables Estimated Gravity

    % lb/Qr 88% lb Qr in Brewers Pounds Oat Malt 70.6 75 66 2,016 6.0 396 Barley Malt 11.8 96 84 336 1.0 84 Amber Malt 5.9 80 70 168 0.5 35 Caramel [Syrup] 7.8 74 74 224 1.0 74 Sugar [Syrup] 3.9 73 73 112 0.5 37 100 2,856 9.0 626 brl mash only Volume in FV 28.0 2,520 Hops lb Unspecified type 56 Hopping rate 56/28 2 lb/brl 6.2 lb/Qr 5.54 g/L g/L less 1/2 2.77 g/L Liquorice 5 0.18 lb/brl 0.5 g/L Ground Linseed 14 0.50 lb/brl 1.39 g/L lb/brl OG lb/ 626 22.4 brl 28.0 Mash efficiency 98% OG 1.068 95% 1.066 90% 1.063 88% 1.062 22.4 85% 1.060
  13. 1895 Maclay’s Patent Oat Malt Stout Batch 24 L 75%

    mash efficiency Water – Black Balanced – Bru’n Water % Fermentables 70.6 TF Oat Malt 11.8 TF Golden Promise Pale Malt 7.8 No. 3 Invert Sugar 5.9 TF Amber Malt 101 EBC 3.9 White Cane Sugar 2.1 g/L Parisian Essence Caramel Single Infusion Mash 65°C 90 mins. Rice hulls suggested. OG 1.062 FG 1.014 EBC 100 IBU 34 ABV 6.3% Boil 70 mins. 2.8 g/L EKG 4.0α at boil At 15 mins add sugars, caramel, ground Linseed 1.4 g/L and liquorice 0.5 g/L. Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale Pitch at 18—19°C let rise to 23°C Carbonate ~ 2.5 vol.
  14. 1895 Maclay’s Oat Malt Stout OG 1.062 FG 1.014 ABV

    6.3% EBC 100 IBU 34
  15. Adulteration To make impure by adding extraneous, improper, or inferior

    ingredients.
  16. 1834 Brown Stout 12 Qr Brown 4 Qr Amber 4

    Qr White 2 cwt hops 28 lb sugar 14 lb Spanish Liquorice 4 lb Cocculus indicus berry 6 lb Fabia Amara Spanish Liquorice “Boiled root – pleasant smell” Cocculus indicus berry “its effect is of an inebriating nature” Fabia Amara “hop substitute” A Practical Treatise on Brewing, 8th Ed., 1834, Alexander Morrice (Common Brewer)
  17. Darkness and Thickness = Strength? Cocculus indicus berry – Strong

    narcotic – Imparts fulness and thickness – Fictitious strength Fabia Amara Bitter Bean – Additive much in use around 1800, widely condemned as an adulterant. – Same genus as Strychnos – Extremely bitter The Theory and Practice of Brewing, 4th Ed., Tizard, 1857, p 442, p426 Hop Substitutes 1 Narcotics 2 Bitters gentian, quassia Bitter is not so pleasant as that of the hop 3 Sources of Tannic Acid Acacia catechu, Pale catechu, Indian, or Ceylon catechu Assist clarification of wort The manual of brewing: scientific and technical EG Hooper, 1891, p 205—206
  18. Gentian Root • This root is one of the best

    stomachic Bitters in the Materia Medica; it promotes the appetite, and greatly assists digestion. • Also extolled as a certain remedy for the bite of a mad dog! A Practical Treatise on Brewing, Alexander Morrice, 1834, p126 – 127
  19. Protection After 1908 Porters Malted Oats % Truman’s 4.6 John

    Groves 5.8 Flower & Sons 4.6 1912 Light Tonic Stout Eldridge Pope 7.0 Range of oats used 4.6—7.0% TO BREWERS, BOTTLERS, AND THE PUBLIC. Referring to Advertisement by the NOTTINGHAM BREWERY LIMITED. stated to be trading also as the WELLOW BREWERY COMPANY. intimation is hereby given by MACLAY & COMPANY. LIMITED. Brewers, Alloa, that the OAT-MALT STOUT Brewed and Sold by them is not an infringement of the Patent mentioned in said advertisement. The Oat-Malt Stout of Maclay & Co. Limited , is made in accordance with Patent No. 4627 of the year 1895, granted to ALEXANDER FRASER, who assigned it to them. The granting of the Patent was opposed before the Comptroller General by James Rose in whose place the Nottingham Brewery. Ltd., appear now to stand, but the opposition was overruled. JOHN WILSON , Secretary. Maclay & Co., Limited . The Scotsman - Saturday 11 May 1901, p1
  20. 1907 Likely Process Sugars & Hops Sugars & Hops Grits

    & Oatmeal Amber, Pale, & Oat Malts Double Brown Stout Oat Malt Stout
  21. 1909 Maclay’s Oat Malt Stout Batch 24 L 75% mash

    efficiency Water – Black Balanced – Bru’n Water % Fermentables 45.7 TF Golden Promise Pale Malt 29.4 TF Oat Malt 6.9 Bairds Black Malt 6.4 No 1 Invert Sugar (Lyles) 4.8 White Cane Sugar/Dextrose 3.4 TF Amber Malt 101 EBC 3.4 TF Flaked Maize 0.6 g/L Parisian Essence Caramel Mash 69°C 90 mins. Rice hulls suggested. OG 1.062 FG 1.013 EBC 90 IBU 61 ABV 6.4% Boil 70 mins. 1.8 g/L Fuggle 4.3α at boil 1.4 g/L Cluster 7.0α at boil 0.9 g/L Hallertau Mittelfrueh 3.0α at boil At 15 mins add sugar, caramel, ground Linseed 0.64 g/L and liquorice 0.33 g/L. Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale Pitch at 16°C let rise to 19°C Carbonate ~ 2 vol.
  22. 1930s - Australia • Ingredients • Comparisons • Sample Recipe

    – 1933 Tooheys Oatmeal Stout
  23. 1933 Toohey’s Oatmeal Stout Vital Statistics Brewers lb/brl 21.7 Original

    Gravity S.G. 1.060 Apparent Gravity 1.019 Proof Spirit by Vol % 9.42 Alcohol by Weight % 4.32 Alcohol by Volume % 5.4 Degrees fermented 34.25 Degrees unfermented 26.10 Acidity % - Type of fermentation Top Colour 1/16" cell 18 Preservatives - Packaging Bottled
  24. Tooheys (AU) vs Ushers, Wiltshire (UK) Tooheys 5.4% ABV Ushers

    3.6% ABV Tooheys 28% Malted Oats Ushers 1.2% Malted Oats
  25. 1930s Tooheys Oatmeal Stout ABV 5.4%

  26. 1930s Ushers Oatmeal Stout ABV 3.6%

  27. 1932 Whitbread OMS London Stout Oatmeal Stout Extra Stout O.G.

    1.047 1.047 1.055 F.G. 1.013 1.013 1.017 ABV % 4.5% 4.5% 5.0% % 60.0 Eng 2-row 8.7 Cali 6-row 8.7 Brown Malt 8.7 Chocolate 8.7 No.3 Invert 4.5 Caramel 0.7 Oats =
  28. % Oats in total Grist 1959 Hammerton Stout 1939 Devenish

    Oatmeal Stout Flaked Oats 5.3% 1.039—1.011 3.6% ABV * Flaked Oats 8.1% 1.044—1.018 3.4% ABV * 1938 Eldridge Pope OMS 1.0356—1.012 3.4% ABV * % 49.5 Mild Ale Malt 12.8 No 3 Invert 11.0 Wheat Malt 8.4 Crystal 7.3 Caramel 5.5 Oats 3.7 Carameline 1.8 Malt Extract 25% of the total were sugars and Malt Extract BUT no roasted malts! * after priming
  29. 1933 Tooheys Oatmeal Stout Batch 24 L 75% mash efficiency

    Water – Black Full – Bru’n Water % Fermentables 42.1 Vienna or Mild Ale Malt 27.7 TF, Crisp, or Simpsons Oat Malt 14.0 White Cane Sugar 10.0 Simpsons Pale Crystal 104 EBC 6.2 Bairds Black Patent 1180 EBC 0.4 g/L Parisian Essence Caramel Mash 69°C 90 mins. OG 1.061 FG 1.020 EBC 81 IBU 56 ABV 5.4% Boil 70 mins. 29 g Cluster 7.0α at boil 25.9 IBU Tinseth 58 g EKG 4.0α at boil 29.6 IBU Tinseth Add sugar and caramel at 15 mins. Yeast WLP002 English Ale Pitch at 17°C let rise to 21°C Dry hop 2.77 g/L Cluster on Day 4 Carbonate ~ 2.4 vol.
  30. BJCP Guidelines 2021 Version – 16B Flavour: Similar to the

    aroma, with a mild roasted coffee, milk chocolate, or coffee-and-cream flavor, and low to moderately-high fruitiness. Oats can add a toasty-nutty, grainy, or earthy flavor. Medium bitterness. Medium-sweet to medium-dry finish, which affects the perception of balance. Malty, roasty, nutty aftertaste. Medium-low earthy or floral hop flavor optional. Medium-low diacetyl optional but typically absent. Mouthfeel: Medium-full to full body, with a smooth, silky, velvety, sometimes an almost oily slickness from the oatmeal. Creamy. Medium to medium- high carbonation. Stronger versions may be lightly warming. Overall Impression: A dark, roasty, full-bodied stout with enough sweetness to support the oat backbone. The sweetness, balance, and oatmeal impression can vary considerably. Aroma: Mild grainy, roasty, coffee-like character with a light malty sweetness that can give a coffee- and-cream impression. Low to medium-high fruitiness. Medium-low earthy or floral hop aroma optional. A light grainy-nutty oatmeal aroma is optional. Medium-low diacetyl optional but typically absent. Appearance: Brown to black in color. Thick, creamy, persistent tan- to brown-colored head. Clear, if not opaque.
  31. Commercial Examples Landlord on cask SL in bottle SA in

    bottle Photo Credits: P Symons
  32. Young’s of Wandsworth Croydon Times - Saturday 21 March 1906,

    p6 CERTIFICATE from JOHN HERON, Esq., F.I.C., F.C.S., Analytical and Chemist, 110 Fenchurch Street, E.C. Analysis shows this sample of Oatmeal Stout to be sound, wholesome, and well- brewed. It is exceedingly pleasing to the palate, is perfectly free from all deleterious substances, and as it is brewed from best materials only, I consider it a very nutritious and invigorating beverage. (Signed) JOHN HERON. 25th August, 1905.
  33. Young’s Oatmeal Stout - defunct

  34. https://www.youngsbeers.co.uk/beers/london-stout/

  35. 16 B Sam Smith’s Oatmeal Stout https://www.samuelsmithsbrewery.co.uk/shop/bottles/stout-bottles/oatmeal-stout/ Ingredients malted barley

    cane sugar roasted malt oatmeal Brew Classic European Beers at Home Wheeler & Protz 1995 p114 Oats 6% of grist
  36. Anderson Valley Brewing Company

  37. Barney Flats Oatmeal Stout

  38. 2015 Barney Flats Oatmeal Stout (US) Batch 24 L 75%

    mash efficiency Water – Black Balanced – Bru’n Water % Fermentables 59.2 2-row malt 9.6 Rolled Oats 8.8 Dark Chocolate 7.2 Munich Malt 20L 7.2 Caramel malt 40L 7.2 Caramel malt 80L 0.8 Bairds Roasted Barley Mash 154°F [68°C] 60 mins. OG 1.060 FG 1.016 SRM 42 IBU 14 ABV 5.8% Boil 70 mins. 9.2 IBU Columbus 13.1α at boil 4.3 IBU Northern Brewer 6.2α at 30 mins 0.095 oz/gal [0.7 g/L] Cascade at 0 minutes Yeast WLP002 English Ale Pitch at 17—19°C let rise to 23°C Carbonate ~ 2.4 vol.
  39. 2015 Barney Flats Oatmeal Stout (ANZ/UK) Batch 24 L 75%

    mash efficiency Water – Black Balanced – Bru’n Water % Fermentables 59.2 TF Golden Promise 9.6 Voyager/TF Malted Oats 8.8 Simpsons Chocolate 900 EBC 7.2 Voyager Munich Malt 17 EBC 7.2 Simpsons Crystal Light 104 EBC 7.2 Crisp Crystal Medium 176 EBC 0.8 Joe White Roasted Barley Mash 68°C 60 mins. OG 1.060 FG 1.016 EBC 84 IBU 14 ABV 5.8% Boil 70 mins. 9.2 IBU Columbus 13.1α at boil 4.3 IBU Northern Brewer 6.2α at 30 mins 0.7 g/L Cascade at 0 minutes Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Pitch at 17—19°C let rise to 23°C Carbonate ~ 2.4 vol.
  40. Styles Change over time • MJ stated OMS vanished in

    the late 1950s only to be reinvented by Sam Smiths in the 1980s • Well contrary to popular belief OMS did not disappear • Maclay kept going until their demise in 1999 • Youngs of Wandsworth brewed Bottled OMS from at least 1905 to 2006 • Tooheys of Sydney introduced OMS in 1933 and it was part of the product range until the mid-1970s when, co-incidentally, Tooheys started brewing Guinness’s Extra Stout. • So there was no real OMS gap
  41. Conclusions • Oatmeal/Oatmalt Stout been going strong for 125 years

    • Most often described as Silky and Creamy • Not to be confused with a Sweet/Milk/Cream Stout using lactose • Or drier Irish Stouts or more bitter American Stouts • Historic versions used ~ 25% Oats • Select your oats carefully • Tooheys OMS was very true to the 1909 Maclay OMS • The 1930s English versions tended to pay only lip service to Oat content – marketing! • The Anderson Valley version has a noticeably lower bitterness
  42. More information on Historic Beers My Books Print on demand

    https://www.lulu.com/ YouTube Channel - Tritun Books https://tinyurl.com/yjauw6pf email me tritun.books@gmail.com Facebook @bronzedbrews Website https://prstemp.wixsite.com/tritun-books
  43. Resources • Maclay’s Patent ‘Improvements in or relating to the

    Manufacture of Stout or Porter.’ https://worldwide.espacenet.com/patent/search?q=pn%3DGB189504627A • Shut Up about Barclay Perkins, Ron Pattinson,1909 Maclay’s Oat Malt Stout http://barclayperkins.blogspot.com/2012/06/lets-brew-wednesday-1909-maclays.html • Bronzed Brews, 6 o’clock Brews, Guile Brews, Print on Demand https://www.lulu.com/spotlight/prsymons • 2021 BJCP Beer Style Guidelines, BJCP https://www.bjcp.org/bjcp-style-guidelines/ • Homebrew Classics Stout & Porter La Pensée & Protz , CAMRA 2003, p128—129 (although I do not agree with their interpretation of the records) • Tooheys Auburn Archive • Brew Classic European Beers at Home, Wheeler & Protz 1995, p114 • Anderson Valley, thanks to Fal Allen, Barney Flats Oatmeal Stout • BYO Style Profile, Oatmeal Stout, Gordon Strong, December 2018, p 26 – 28 • Mean Brews https://youtu.be/65nwtF7t_wM • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maclaysalloa2003.jpg closed 2001 photo 2003 • https://scottishbrewingheritage.org/buildings.php?p=206
  44. Questions