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AWS Primer and Quickstart

Manish Pandit
February 01, 2017

AWS Primer and Quickstart

Slides from my introductory talk on AWS.

Manish Pandit

February 01, 2017

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  1. SETTING THE STAGE The purpose of this talk is to

    introduce the most popular, relevant AWS offerings Each one of these slides can be an hour long talk on their own. Some of the topics can be forward referencing, but it all comes together at the end. Best way to learn is to do – sign up for the free tier.
  2. SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE ­ Abbreviated as SaaS ­ Provides

    a “Service” or “Services” to customers in a multi-tenant manner ­ Namely for HRMS ­ Salesforce for CRM ­ Pingdom to monitor site availability and performance ­ Twillio to manage SMS ­ Almost always exposes APIs for custom integration
  3. PLATFORM AS A SERVICE ­ Abbreviated as PaaS ­ A

    Virtualized Environment for clients to run their applications without having to worry about the underlying details – Operating System, Application Servers, Hardware, Networking ­ Heroku for Rails Applications ­ Google App Engine for Python, Java, PHP and Go
  4. INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE ­ Abbreviated as IaaS ­ A

    Virtualized Environment for clients to have “almost” full control of the underlying hardware, operating system, networking without having to worry about building these components from scratch. ­ Think of IaaS as lego blocks which you can assemble based on what you need, and how many you need. These blocks can be CPU, Memory, Storage, Network IO, Operating Systems, Application Servers…. ­ IaaS provides the building blocks for PaaS and SaaS ­ AWS ­ Microsoft Azure ­ Google Cloud Platform
  5. FAULT TOLERANCE Zero Service Disruption Usually achieved via Redundancy Costs

    more, due to redundancy (Very) Hard to achieve (Think of the database J)
  6. SCALABILITY ­ Vertical ­ Add more CPU/Memory/Storage ­ Always limited

    by the max capacity ­ Horizontal ­ Adding more components and connecting them to perform as a single unit ­ Usually referred to as clustering ­ Can be done on-demand (Elastic!)
  7. BRIEF HISTORY Evolved out of Amazon’s own infrastructure – rent

    out server capacity Officially launched in August 2006 with EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) Textbook example of Innovation – Small teams, Focused, Independent
  8. WAYS TO ACCESS AWS AWS Console – Simplest, web-based tool

    AWS CLI (and brand new, AWS shell), python based AWS REST APIs AWS SDKs for Java, C++, Python, Ruby, PHP, Go, Node, iOS, JS, Android…. Tip: Use Eclipse, it has a well supported AWS Plugin
  9. AWS – HIGH AVAILABILITY & FAULT TOLERANCE Regions ­ Geographically

    isolated, independent hosting centers. ­ Offered to provide fault tolerance ­ 14 plus govcloud Availability Zones ­ Within a region, they provide low-latency links between each other, but are isolated ­ Can be anywhere from 3-5 depending on the region
  10. CALLING AWS SERVICES Every user can get an access key

    and a secret There can be at-most 2 key-secret pairs associated with a user (why?) Do not confuse this with the AWS instance’s keypair These credentials are used in AWS SDK, AWS REST APIs, and AWS CLI to consume services via code or scripts. (Does this mean if your application needs to talk to S3, you will add these keys in application config and launch an instance, assuming the user has S3 access policy tied to him?)
  11. AWS RESOURCES AWS resources are uniquely identified via an ARN

    (Amazon Resource Name) ­ arn:aws:iam::141849685257:user/mpandit ­ arn:aws:iam::141849685257:group/admins ­ arn:aws:sqs:us-east-1:141849685257:mpandit_test_queue ­ arn:aws:s3:::api-docs ­ arn:aws:dynamodb:us-east-1:141849685257:table/mpandit_test ­ arn:aws:ec2:us-east-1::image/ami-1a2b3c4d AWS resources can be at global level, account level, or region level Some services support IAM resource level permissions
  12. COMPUTE Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web

    service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale cloud computing easier for developers.
  13. EC2 Allows you to launch instances The instances are created

    from AMIs The AMIs can be created from Instances AMIs are specific to a region – you can however copy them to another region The instances can have local storage, or EBS-backed storage (Root device types) Are accessed via keypairs, which are generated when the instance is launched. The keypairs can be re-used.
  14. EC2 VIRTUALIZATION AWS supports two types of virtualization ­ HVM

    (relies on the host machine’s hardware optimized for virtualization) ­ Para-virtual (relies on the host machine with no special virtualization extensions) The AMI will tell you the virtualization type ­ HVM is usually preferred for GPU and enhanced networking type applications The virtualization software used by AWS is a super customized version of Xen Hypervisor
  15. AMI AMIs are Templates defining the Operating System, Storage Type,

    Application Servers and components, Virtualization Type, Root Device Type They’re always tied to a region in which they’re created They can be shared publically, or within accounts, or kept private Supported Operating Systems are RHEL, Ubuntu, Microsoft Windows Server, Amazon Linux, Centos, Debian, SUSE, etc.
  16. EC2 INSTANCE FAMILIES Instance Families define the performance and/or capacity

    of the instance General Purpose – t2, m4, m3 Compute Optimized – c4, c3 Memory Optimized – r3, r4, x1 Storage Optimized – i2, d2 Accelerated/GPU Computing – p2, g2 Each instance family has sizes, specified as nano, micro, small, medium, large, xlarge, 2xlarge, 4xlarge, 8xlarge, 10xlarge, 16xlarge, 32xlarge (based on the family).
  17. EC2 INSTANCE PROVISIONING On-Demand ­ What we usually do, create

    an instance on the fly Reserved ­ We reserve the capacity and can (and usually do) pay upfront to save costs ­ They’re tied to a specific AZ, but you can reserve them across AZs ­ Reservation terms are 1-3 years Spot ­ You bid, but AWS will terminate your instance if the bid price goes up Scheduled ­ Same as reserved, except are provisioned on a recurring basis
  18. STORAGE AWS S3, Simple Storage Service is an object storage

    You cannot run a database off of S3 (since it operates on objects, not files) Objects are stored in S3 buckets Standard S3 provides 11 9s of durability and 4 9s of availability over a given year S3 has multiple storage classes to fit the use case (and budget) Any S3 bucket can be made public and turned into a website S3 objects can be encrypted via the AES-256 encryption (SSE-S3), or via KMS managed keys (SSE-KMS), or via customer provided keys (SSE-C).
  19. STORAGE EBS (Elastic Block Storage) is a block level storage

    provided by AWS EBS Volumes are virtual disks to store files, and are fixed in size (when they’re created) and are tied to an AZ Can be provisioned as HDD (cheapest), or SSD General Purpose or SSD PIOPS Can be attached to an instance, and can be unmounted Can be “snapshotted”. These snapshots are stored in S3. The snapshots can be converted to volumes. (why?) The snapshots are also used to resize the volume (why?) EBS volumes can be encrypted with 256-AES and CMK (Customer Master Keys which are managed with KMS, transparently to us).
  20. DATABASES AWS supports Relational Database Service (RDS) for MySQL, Postgres,

    Oracle, MS- SQL, MariaDB, and Aurora Amazon Aurora is an optimized, MySQL syntax compatible database AWS supports NoSQL Database via DynamoDB (both a Document and key-value based store). RDS does automatic backups, has a defined maintenance window for patches etc. (How is access to RDS controlled?)
  21. MESSAGING AWS supports both push and pull models for messaging.

    SQS, Simple Queue Service, is one of the oldest AWS offering Standard SQS allows creating Queues with guaranteed “at least once” delivery. However, given the high availability architecture, the order of the messages is not guaranteed FIFO SQS is new, and allows for ordered messages but has a limit of 300 TPS SNS, Simple Notification Service is a push messaging service that is used to send SMS notifications, HTTP notifications, lamba triggering, or emails. SNS can also post messages to SQS, used for Fan-out messaging SES, Simple Email Service is used for email messages like campaigns, etc.
  22. LAMBDA Code as a Service I believe this is the

    next wave of cloud computing – so get on board! Is a piece of code that can be run when trigged Can be triggered via many AWS events (API call, S3, DynamoDB, Cron, Cloudwatch…) Pricing is calculated based on memory*compute time
  23. SECURITY, IDENTITY & COMPLIANCE IAM (Identity and Access Management) is

    the foundation of all AWS account security. IAM allows users to be created within an AWS account These users can be added to groups (no nesting) The permissions are managed as policies, and a user/group can be tied to permissions. Examples can be a policy to allow read access to a particular S3 bucket, or a policy to allow all S3 operations. AWS recommends restrictive permissions, in that permissions have to be explicitly attached to a user. IAM Roles are attached to an instance to allow that instance to use AWS services specified by the permissions in that role without the application having to use any credentials. There is no such thing as a user-role.
  24. REDSHIFT Redshift is a petabyte scale, fully managed, data warehouse.

    Supports standard SQL (Postgres) query model Has custom JDBC drivers that can be downloaded for use
  25. ANALYTICS EMR – Elastic Map Reduce, a hosted Hadoop cluster

    Kinesis – Used for processing and analyzing streaming data ML – Amazon’s Machine Learning Data Pipeline – Used for ETL type operations, where we can define data-driven workflows and transformations
  26. CLOUDWATCH Used to monitor AWS resources All AWS services support

    CloudWatch, which is a collection of metrics The metrics depend on the AWS resource being monitored – every resource comes with a predefined set of them. The metrics can be used to create alarms, which can send emails, send SNS messages, invoke Lambda functions, or trigger autoscaling actions. Each CloudWatch alarm can have one of 3 states – INSUFFICIENT_DATA, OK, ALARM
  27. ROUTE 53 Route 53 is Amazon’s Highly Available DNS service.

    (Why is it called Route 53?) Can be used to host domains, create and manage (many types of) DNS records. Supports 5 routing policies applicable to highly available, fault tolerant systems ­ Simple ­ Weighted ­ Latency ­ Failover (used for DR) ­ Geolocation
  28. CLOUDFORMATION AWS CloudFormation provides JSON Documents which describe a “stack”,

    or a collection of related AWS resources. Often referred to as IaC (Infrastructure as Code) A stack can be deleted, updated, or created Plenty of open source CFTs for generic deployments Terraform makes it quite a bit easier to deal with CFTs
  29. ELB - ELASTIC LOAD BALANCERS Software load balancers, to provide

    Fault Tolerance Highly Available, Elastic Enabler for Auto-Scaling Support cross-zone load balancing for HTTP, HTTPS, TCP and SSL traffic Supports SSL Termination Rely on a healthcheck (TCP or HTTP) check to determine backend state ­ TCP:22 ­ HTTP:80/index.html A failed healthcheck marks the instance as “Out of Service”
  30. AUTO SCALING GROUPS An autoscaling group (ASG) is a collection

    of similar EC2 Instances (AMIs, type, Subnets, Security Groups…) An ASG has an initial size or desired capacity (number of EC2 instances in it) An ASG can be associated with an ELB (almost always!)
  31. AUTOSCALING POLICIES Use CloudWatch Alarms, or SQS to trigger capacity

    changes Example can be, if Average CPU utilization is > 80%, launch 2 new instances Can be dynamic, manual (update desired capacity of ASG), or scheduled The ASG will always have the number of instances specified in the group configuration (desired capacity) Cool Down policies govern the scale-down of the ASG
  32. AWS NETWORKING Instances are launched within a VPC, Virtual Private

    Cloud A VPC is a logically isolated network within an AWS Region VPC has a CIDR range (/16 for default) Every subnet has a Route Table associated with it You can create subnets within a VPC (/20 for default) Subnets are tied to an AZ, cannot span across AZs (Why?) Subnets can be private, or public
  33. AWS NETWORKING Private subnets have no connectivity to the internet

    Public subnets have a route to the internet via an Internet Gateway (provided by AWS) Private subnets may need outbound connections to the internet (why?), which is achieved via a NAT instance, or a NAT gateway There can only be 1 Internet Gateway, and 1 NAT gateway in a VPC
  34. AWS NETWORKING - SECURITY Every VPC has a default NACL

    (Network Access Control List) that controls all inbound and outbound traffic A subnet is tied to one and only one NACL, but 1 NACL can be shared across subnets NACLs are stateless, in that you do not have to specify the rules to allow for the response traffic. For example, you can create rules to allow in/out SSH traffic on port 22 on a given source (could be the internet, or a specific IP, or a specific CIDR block). With these rules, and all other traffic set to DENY, any instance launched in a subnet tied to this NACL will allow SSH from the given source (not so fast, we got security groups!)
  35. AWS NETWORKING - SECURITY Every instance can be associated with

    multiple security groups. A security group is like an instance level firewall. Security groups are stateful, in that response traffic is automatically allowed when a request is made out from the instance Security groups can be shared across instances within the VPC Tip : We use the security groups to create a bastion host in a private subnet, and all instances in that subnet can allow SSH only from this host.
  36. AWS NETWORKING VPCs can be connected via VPC peering Data

    centers can be connected to VPCs via VPN Gateways VPN Gateways carry traffic over the internet. For dedicated, highly available, high speed connections, it is recommended to use AWS DirectConnect. Think of it as a private, direct connection between the data center and AWS.
  37. TOO MUCH? Your AWS account comes with a default VPC

    with a public subnet in it. ­ /16 CIDR ­ Comes with a default subnet in each AZ (/20) ­ Attached an Internet Gateway to the VPC ­ Adds a route to the Internet Gateway in the VPC’s route table ­ Has a default security group (allow all traffic on all ports) ­ Has a default NACL (Allows all traffic inbound and outbound) You an launch an instance from the get-go and everything will work as expected of a public instance. DO NOT DELETE YOUR DEFAULT VPC!
  38. BILLING Resources are billed even when not used It is

    very tempting to leave instances running, or leave ELBs with no back end servers to send traffic to – but it all adds up You pay for every bit that moves on the network, every bit that sits on storage Consolidated billing helps with aggregating multiple accounts (Prod, QA, Dev) to take advantage of tiered pricing of many services Can set up billing alerts
  39. THINGS I DID NOT COVER EFS Batch WAF ElasticSearch Beanstalk

    KMS CodeDeploy Glacier CodeCommit CodePipeline Storage Gateways SWF CloudTrail ElasticCache IoT Trusted Advisor OpsWorks Certificate Management CloudHSM CloudFront API Gateway ….many, many more!
  40. LAB Using the default VPC, build a simple Hello World

    website using any server you want Create a Security Group to allow inbound 80 from Create an ASG from the instance with desired capacity as 3. Create an ELB and attach it to the ASG Watch AutoScaing happen as new instance(s) spin up to match the desired capacity Delete the ASG Delete the ELB