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Knowledge Makes Change - Supporting Bilingual Families

Knowledge Makes Change - Supporting Bilingual Families

The Knowledge Makes Change seminar series aims to inspire and be informative on ‘what works’ for young children and their families to ensure the best possible outcomes. It forms part of NCB’s work in Jersey and is delivered in partnership with the Jersey Child Care Trust.

On 12 October 2017, Nabial Sohail gave an exciting and interactive session on Support Bilingual Families as part of our Jersey programme.

Nabiah Sohail is a Clinical Lead Speech and Language Therapist who has a love for multiculturalism and promoting multilingualism. She believes that everyone should have access to high quality services regardless of their cultural and linguistic background. Nabiah is multilingual being able to speak, read and write Urdu and has spoken language skills in Hindi and Punjabi.
Nabiah has worked across a range of clinical areas throughout inner London, been a Teaching Fellow at University College London and is Chair of the London Bilingualism Clinical Excellence Network. Nabiah is passionate about proving that Speech and Language Therapy works and that services can and must show that they are effective and worthwhile. In 2012 Nabiah received The Sternberg Award for Clinical Innovation for her work in Outcome Measures which Nabiah has presented across the country.

NCB Early Years

October 12, 2017
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  1. Knowledge Makes Change seminar 4
    Supporting Bilingual Families
    12 October 2017
    Welcome

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  2. Agenda
    Welcome and Introductions
    Dr Cathy Hamer, Chair of Early Years and Childhood Partnership
    & Seán O’Regan, States of Jersey – Education Department
    Year 2 and moving forward with the ECDP
    Annamarie Hassall – Director of Practice and Programmes, NCB
    Supporting Bilingual Families
    Nabiah Sohail – Clinical Lead Speech and Language Therapist
    Homerton University Hospital Foundation Trust
    Discussion & Final words
    Fiona Vacher – Executive Director, Jersey Child Care Trust

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  3. Welcome and introductions
    Dr Cathy Hamer
    Chair of Early Years and Childhood Partnership
    and Associate, National Children’s Bureau

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  4. Seán O’Regan
    Deputy Chief Education Officer
    Education Department

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  5. Jersey: our bilingual Island

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  6. Jersey: our multilingual Island
    Our bilingual/multilingual children and families
    • 22% of pupils have English as an Additional Language
    • up from 18.6% in 2014
    • Primary schools: 24.9% of children
    • Secondary schools: 17.8%
    • One of our schools: 67%
    • ….and 86% in EYFS

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  7. Jersey: our multilingual Island
    Our challenges

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  8. Annamarie Hassall
    Director of Practice and Programmes,
    National Children’s Bureau
    Year 2 and moving forward with the ECDP

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  9. Thank you!
    Year 1 success
    Making it REAL – 34
    settings conducted 139
    home visits and 96
    literacy events
    Making it REAL -
    735 children and 611
    parents have taken part in
    the programme overall.
    113 participants of
    Outcomes Based
    Accountability training
    and workshops
    Knowledge Makes Change
    - 232 seminar attendees
    (not including you
    tonight!)

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  10. Continuing Outcomes
    Extending Making it REAL
    • Year 2 projects, including Maths
    • Training and support for Home Visits and
    settings who couldn’t join in Year 1
    • Working with second year childcare
    students from Highlands College – a first
    for Making it REAL anywhere
    • Training parent volunteers directly in REAL

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  11. Continuing Outcomes
    Championing OBA
    • Taking OBA to the next level with early
    years OBA champions leading the way
    Extending Knowledge Makes Change
    • At least 3 more expert seminars
    between now and March 2019
    • Continuation of the KMC Bulletin for
    another year

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  12. Programme Evaluation
    The Centre for Research in Early Childhood
    Development (CREC) has been commissioned to
    evaluate our work so far:
    • Making it REAL
    • Knowledge Makes Change
    • Outcomes Based Accountability
    How you can get involved:
    • Practitioner focus group(s)
    • Parent focus group(s)
    • Stakeholder interviews

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  13. Knowledge Makes Change seminar 4
    Nabiah Sohail
    Clinical Lead Speech and Language Therapist
    Homerton University Hospital Foundation Trust
    Supporting Bilingual Families

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  14. Say Yes to Bilingualism
    Nabiah Sohail
    Speech and Language Lab Ltd
    www.speechandlanguagelab.com

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  15. SLLAB
    Assessment, Therapy &
    Intervention
    Campaigns:
    Say YES to Bilingualism
    Training & Consultation
    0-25 years of SLCN
    Home, EY settings,
    Schools, Academies &
    Colleges
    Settings, Schools, SLT
    Teams, Health & Edn
    services
    SLCN
    Bilingualism
    Outcome Measures
    Leaflets, Stalls, Drop
    in’s, Workshops, Fun
    Days
    Aim to promote
    Bilingualism &
    Multiculturalism

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  16. AIMS
    1. Knowing the key difference between EAL & SLCN
    2. To understand the different types of bilingual children
    3. To summarise the essential theory
    4. To share some practical top tips
    5. To ask you: How culturally competent is your service?
    6. To give you some ideas and inspiration

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  17. Knowing the key difference
    Between EAL & SLCN
    AIM 1

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  18. Bilingual Child
    Assessment
    L1 Skills good
    L1 Skills poor L1 Skills poor
    English Skills
    poor
    English skills
    poor
    NURSERY/SCHOOL SPEECH & LANGUAGE THERAPIST
    Additional Language
    Teachers need to
    support this EAL child.
    SLT’s need to support
    these children develop
    language &
    communication skills

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  19. Q Is Bilingualism a problem?
    Bilingualism is not a problem BUT bilingual children
    CAN have speech, language and communication
    needs.

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  20. What language should parents
    speak with their children?
    The home language.
    Not speaking the home language will disrupt cultural
    learning & emergent identities.
    Q

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  21. Is code-switching ok?
    Yes, code-switching is a normal process used by
    bilingual children and adults.
    Q

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  22. Should parents stick to using one
    language?
    NO, Research shows that suppressing one language in
    bilingual children is more effortful in terms of an inhibiting
    process, than alternating between languages (Hernandez &
    Kohnert, 1999).
    Q

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  23. Does learning through both languages
    confuse bilingual children who have
    language difficulties?
    Research says ‘NO’. Offering more ways of accessing
    meaningful communication encourages language learning.
    Q

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  24. Understand the types of bilingual
    children
    AIM 2

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  25. Individuals or groups of people
    who acquire communicative skills
    in more than one language.
    They acquire these skills with
    varying degrees of proficiency in
    oral and written forms in order to
    interact with speakers of one or
    more languages at home and in
    society.
    Who is a bilingual child?
    A child should be regarded as bilingual regardless of his/her
    relative proficiency of the languages used or understood.
    RCSLT, CQ3 (pg:268)

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  26. Groups
    Professional
    Bilinguals
    Bilingual
    Families
    Linguistic
    Minorities
    Children of
    diplomats
    and
    business
    people
    Reference:
    Raval 2001
    Myers-Scotton, 2006:46
    Mother
    speaks
    X and
    father
    speaks
    Y
    The largest
    group in the
    UK
    Children become bilingual for different reasons and in different social contexts. In
    the UK it is possible to identify three major groups:

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  27. Typologies
    1 Simultaneous (Baker, 2006)
    2 Sequential (Baker, 2006)
    3 Passive Bilingualism (Miller, 1994)
    4 Additive Bilingualism (Lambert, 1974)
    5 Subtractive Bilingualism (Lambert, 1974)

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  28. Simultaneous
    S Acquisition of two or
    more languages before
    the age of 3

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  29. Sequential
    • Acquisition of a second
    language after the age of 3.
    • Involves a different learning
    process.
    • Children will use their
    knowledge of communication
    and their first language to
    work out the new language.
    • This will take many years.
    S

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  30. Passive
    P • E.g. Some monolingual pre-
    school children have direct
    exposure to mother tongue but
    passive exposure to English
    from siblings, TV etc.
    • As English is not directly
    spoken to them they receive
    passive exposure.

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  31. Additive
    A The positive effects on L1
    of learning L2, e.g. children
    of diplomats.

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  32. Subtractive
    S • Immigrant child is forced to give up
    L1 but L2 not yet fully mastered.
    • Refers to negative effects on L1 of
    learning L2. Can result in negative
    consequences for cognition and
    language.
    • Child experiences language loss in
    first language, because of not
    receiving continued support when
    they began to learn English =
    language profiles similar to bilingual
    children with language disorders.

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  33. Think about children you work with.
    What kind of bilingual are they?
    34
    Over to you
    2
    03

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  34. Summarise the essential theory
    AIM 3

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  35. What’s your experience of learning a second language?
    How did you learn it?
    Who else was involved?
    Was it enjoyable?
    Can you still speak that language?
    36
    Over to you
    01
    02
    03
    04
    05

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  36. Language Acquisition
    (Volterra & Taeschner, 1978)
    A child has one vocabulary system
    composed of words from both of
    the languages.
    The child distributes words in two
    separate vocabulary systems but
    only has one grammar system
    Grammar systems separate (3 – 3:6yrs)

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  37. Exposure & Input
    Amount & type of exposure
    3
    4
    2
    6
    5
    1
    Type of input
    Form of language
    Context for learning L2
    Timing of exposure
    Language status
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFlxDuNC6OU

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  38. CALP
    Basic Interpersonal
    Communicative Skills
    Everyday
    Communication
    Cognitive Academic
    Language Proficiency
    Competent
    Communication
    BICS
    Jim Cummins (Canada) Interdependence Approach, (1984b)
    01
    01

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  39. Competent
    Communication
    • Achieve a good level of
    fluency by two years.
    • The language
    necessary for day to day
    living, including
    conversations with
    friends, informal
    interactions.
    • May take up to 5-7
    years to be in line
    with their
    monolingual peers
    • The language
    necessary to
    understand and
    discuss content in
    the classroom.
    Everyday
    Communication
    Jim Cummins (Canada) Interdependence Approach, (1984b)
    N.B. The sequential nature of Everyday Communication first and then
    Competent Communication is a typical route for immigrant children
    learning a second language (Baker, 2006)

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  40. Competent
    Communication
    Everyday
    Communication
    Context Embedded
    A B
    The conversation is often
    face-to-face, offers many
    cues to the listener such
    as facial expressions,
    gestures, concrete
    objects of reference.
    Language of the
    classroom in which there
    are fewer non-verbal
    cues and the language is
    more abstract.
    Context Reduced

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  41. Cognitively
    Undemanding
    A B
    Cognitively undemanding
    language is easy to
    understand, deals with
    everyday language and
    occurrences and uses
    simple language
    structure.
    Cognitively demanding
    language relates to
    abstract concepts, has
    specialized vocabulary
    and uses more complex
    language structure.
    Cognitively
    Demanding
    Competent
    Communication
    Everyday
    Communication

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  42. Cummins Quadrants
    Talking with
    friends
    Buying lunch
    Art, Music
    class
    Telephone
    conversation
    Note from
    friend
    Written
    instructions
    Demonstrations
    Audio visual
    lessons
    Science
    experiments
    Basic maths
    Standardized
    tests
    Reading/writing
    Math concepts
    Most content
    classes!
    Cognitively
    Undemanding
    Context
    Reduced
    Cognitively Demanding
    Context
    Embedded

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  43. One Language Model
    • Used to assess students who are
    learning English as a second
    language.
    • Everyday Communication develops
    in 2 years, but it takes 5 -7 years
    for a child to work on the same
    level as native speakers in
    Competent Communication.
    Everyday
    Communication
    Competent
    Communication

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  44. Dual Iceberg Model
    L1 L2
    CUP
    Common Underlying Proficiency
    The second language
    grows from the foundation
    of the first language.
    There is a common area of
    language proficiency which
    provides the foundation for
    use of both languages.
    The stronger the first
    language, especially
    Competent
    Communication, the
    stronger the second
    language can be.

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  45. So what does this mean?
    ? We can sometimes over-estimate a child’s
    abilities by looking at their Everyday
    Communication and not realizing the
    complexity and difficulty they have in acquiring
    Competent Communication.
    Think about a child with whom you work. Can
    you see a big difference in their Basic
    Communication vs. their Competent
    Communication abilities?
    Think about yourself in Sign Language. How’s
    your Basic Communication vs. your Competent
    Communication?

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  46. Simultaneous Bilingual Children
    Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
    Child
    mixes
    language
    Child
    separates
    language
    Child
    uses
    mainly
    one
    language
    Both languages develop similarly
    Yr 1: Vocalisations, babble, first words
    Yr 2: 2 word combinations, mixing languages
    Yr 3: Increasingly complex and longer sentences etc

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  47. Sequential Bilingual Children
    • She has already worked out the basic rules of her first language
    and therefore has a head start when it comes to learning a
    second language
    • She knows how to have conversations and is cognitively more
    mature than the infant learning two languages simultaneously
    However:
    The process of adding a second language can take years:
    • approximately 3 months to begin to understand the second
    language;
    • about 2 years to be able to carry on a conversation;
    • and 5-7 years to be able to think in the second language.

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  48. These stages are not discrete - a child may add skills from
    the next level but still maintain those from the previous
    stage.
    5 stages
    1 2 4
    Home Lang
    Use
    Non-verbal
    period
    Telegraphic
    Speech
    Productive
    Lang Use
    5
    Competent
    Lang Use
    3
    > > > >

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  49. Silent Period
    Children learning a second language after the first has been established can go through
    a silent period.
    Enables the bilingual child to absorb basic patterns of sound and meaning in the new
    language.
    During the silent period children focus on listening and comprehension.
    Children usually present as very quiet, speaking little as they focus on understanding the
    new language.
    The younger the child, the longer the silent period tends to last.
    Older children may remain in the silent period for a few weeks or a few months, whereas
    pre-schoolers may be relatively silent for a year or more. (6 months?)
    Be careful of: selective mutism!

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  50. Q We tell parents to use their L1 because..
    Parents will give good language models in their L1 and
    will be more able to use language in creative ways.
    If children develop a good foundation in their L1 they
    are more likely to be able to learn English as an
    additional language more easily later.
    There is no evidence that acquisition of a minority
    language slows down acquisition of the majority
    language.
    Mother tongue skills are necessary for a sense of
    identity and community.
    A

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  51. 52
    Over to you
    What type of bilingual child?
    Would you be concerned or not?
    What would you do next?
    1 Ahmed aged 2 years has just arrived in the country and has started
    nursery. He is only using a few words in Arabic and spends a lot of
    time watching other children.
    Kristen has been at nursery for two terms and is not saying much
    apart from ‘hello’ and ‘bye’. He seems to point or reach to things he
    wants.
    Mia speaks Cantonese and English. In nursery she mainly uses
    English but will sometimes use Cantonese words. She makes a lot
    of grammatical errors in English e.g. Saying ‘I’, ‘drink I want’
    Shiri’s home language is Twi and French. Mum says she speaks
    well in Twi at home. She has been in nursery for 1 term and is not
    talking. She is developing well in all other areas e.g. Play.
    Adrian is from a Spanish speaking family but is mainly using pointing
    and gesture to communicate. Mum continues to use English (which
    is very poor) despite nursery staff telling her to use her home
    language.
    2
    3
    4
    5

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  52. To give you some practical
    top tips
    AIM 4

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  53. 54
    Think about a time you went abroad and could not
    speak the language?
    How did you communicate?
    What helped you?
    What didn’t?
    Over to you

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  54. Interact in a way that promotes language learning
    How can we help
    bilingual children?
    Provide opportunities for language learning
    Optimise and adapt the environment for positive
    language learning

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  55. How do support children’s communication?
    In groups, discuss different strategies you have used, or have seen used in a setting, to
    support children’s language development.
    Write each strategy on a post-it note.
    Stick the post-it note on the chart, according to whether you think it supports children by:
    The way you interact with children
    Providing opportunities for children to learn language
    Adapting the physical environment
    56
    Over to you

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  56. Get their attention first
    57
    The way we interact
    Supporting receptive
    language
    Supporting expressive
    language
    Use simple language
    Use gestures
    Copy their words
    Expand on what they say
    Use specific praise

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  57. Situation Child says You say
    Child playing with car “Car”
    You’ve just swung the
    child round.
    “Again”
    Child hands nursery
    worker doll & dress.
    “Uh”
    Child is just about to
    blow some bubbles.
    “Bubbles”
    Child is feeding teddy. “Din din”
    Child finishes eating
    chicken.
    “Chicken”
    Adding Words

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  58. Simplifying Language
    Think about sentence length – chunk information
    Give instructions in the order you want them done
    Avoid tricky vocabulary
    Avoid idioms - use literal language
    Slow down your pace- use repetition

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  59. “Before you line up for lunch and
    get your coat, make sure your
    chair is pushed in, the pencils
    are in the pots, and the books
    are put away on the shelf”.
    Over to you

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  60. Simple Questions

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  61. Complex Questions

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  62. 63
    Providing Opportunities
    Get involved in the child’s play – model new ways of playing
    Comment on what the child is doing
    Talk about what you see
    Don’t pre-empt what the child wants – wait for them to ask/show you
    Offer choices
    Don’t have all toys out at once, children need to ask for what they want
    Create opportunities for children to take turns

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  63. Pictures
    Photos
    Symbols
    Objects
    Pointing
    Gesture/miming
    Mind maps
    Colour coding
    (Arthur-Kelly, Sigafoos, Green, Mathisen, & Arthur-Kelly, 2009; Cohen & Sloan, 2007)
    Adapting the environment

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  64. Easier to remember
    Easier to make sense of than a string of joined up
    sounds
    It shows the child what to focus on
    They are concrete and permanent
    Children are less reliant on visual cues
    Why use visuals?

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  65.  Children to remember words
     Independence
     Understanding of rules
     Attention & listening
     Understanding instructions
     Processing abstract information
     Understanding emotions
     Preparing for change
     Understanding routines
    (Hodgdon, 1995; Ganz, 2007)
    Visuals support…

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  66. How culturally competent is your
    service?
    AIM 5

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  67. Cultural Competence
    Cultural
    knowledge
    Cultural
    Awareness Cultural
    Sensitivity
    Cultural
    Competence

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  68. Is your service accessible and appropriate to your children and families?
    How do you expand your cultural knowledge and resources by adapting
    your service model and methods to accommodate needs?
    How do you value and promote cultural differences in the service you
    provide?
    Do you continue to access training and support?
    Ask yourself?

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  69. To give you some ideas and
    inspiration
    AIM 6

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  70. Have you tried?
    Language Groups in
    minority languages
    Language Talent Days
    Sharing home videos Culture of the term
    Bilingual Parent Show
    & Tell
    Service Review
    Running joint
    Community Events Making a Policy
    Parent Drop in’s

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  71. 72
    Language of the Month

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  72. Multicultural Lunch

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  73. Multicultural Day

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  74. Interactive Bilingual Storytelling

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  75. • http://www.londonsigbilingualism.co.uk/
    • http://www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmonth/index.html
    • http://www.morlandprimary.com/language-of-the-month-eal/
    • http://www.multilingualfamily.org.uk/
    • https://www.ted.com/talks/suzanne_talhouk_don_t_kill_your_language?language=en
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFlxDuNC6OU
    76
    Some useful links!

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  76. Key Messages
    1. Work out is it EAL or SLCN?
    2. Be sure to know what type of bilingual child you are dealing with
    3. Be clear you know about expected language profile & language acquisition
    4. Interact in a way that promotes language learning. Provide opportunities for
    language learning. Adapt the environment to support language learning.
    5. Demonstrate cultural competence
    6. Do something that inspires others to Say YES to Bilingualism
    Your Target
    Our Help
    Child’s Win

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  77. Thank You!
    [email protected]
    @SLLAB_UK
    www.speechandlanguagelab.com

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  78. Discussion on your table
    What is the most important thing you have learned
    today?
    What key messages will you share directly with
    parents?
    What messages will you take back to share with
    colleagues?

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  79. Fiona Vacher
    Executive Director
    Jersey Child Care Trust
    Final Words

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  80. Forthcoming opportunities
    • Making it REAL maths one-day training
    Friday 10th November
    • Highlands College supporting student projects
    • News about future Knowledge Makes Change seminars
    Knowledge Makes Change newsletters
    Contact Kate Elston on [email protected] for further details on
    workshops/ training and to join the newsletter.
    Please fill in your evaluation form for this evening – we really want to
    hear your feedback to inform the seminar series.

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