building, or using miniature body-borne computational and sensory devices. Wearable computers may be worn under, over, or in clothing, or may also be themselves clothes (i.e. "Smart Clothing" (Mann, 1996a)). WearComps vs portables Wearable computing’s goal is to position or contextualize the computer in such a way that the human and computer are inextricably intertwined, so as to achieve Humanistic Intelligence – i.e. intelligence that arises by having the human being in the feedback loop of the computational process, e.g. Mann 1998. In this sense, wearable computing can be defined as an embodiment of, or an attempt to embody, Humanistic Intelligence. Humanistic Intelligence implies… • constancy of interaction, that the human and computer are inextricably intertwined. • multi-tasking, always running in the background, so as to augment or mediate the human's interactions WHAT IS WEARABLE COMPUTING?
ring… 1961 - Thorp and Shannon (the Eudeamons) built a shoe-based timing device to cheat at roulette. 1968 - Sutherland creates his Head-Mounted 3D display 1991 - Weiser proposes the idea of Ubiquitous Computing 1992 - Caudell and Mizell coin the term `Augmented Reality’ - IBM and Bellshouth introduce the 1st smartphone (IBM Simon Personal Communicator) 1993 - Loomis et al. use dGPS to create an outdoor navigation system for visually impaired. 1993 - Thad Starner starts wearing constantly his wearable (`Tin Lizzy’) 1993 - Feiner, MacIntyre and Seligman develop the KARMA AR system (leading to the Touring Machine, (‘97)) 1994 - Steve Mann starts wearing a webcam for almost 2 years - Milgram and Kishino write their seminal paper "Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays" in which they define the Reality-Virtuality Continuum. 1996 - J.Rekimoto presents 2D matrix markers 1997 - R. Azuma presents the first survey on Augmented Reality - Starner et al. explore mobile AR using wearables 1998 - Thomas et al. present Map-in-the-hart, a back-pack based wearable that evolved to Tinmith 1999 - Kato and Billinghurst present ARToolkit BRIEF HISTORY
is to augment reality, a Diminishing Reality system accomplishes the opposite: • remove or diminish clutter • replace unwanted content such as advertising with meaningful Can be helpful for people with some visual impairments. Mediated reality • Visual filter & Superset of augmented reality • …”artificial modification of human perception by way of devices for augmenting, deliberately diminishing, and more generally, for otherwise altering sensory input.|” Jan Herling and Wolfgang Broll, Ilmenau University of Technology, Department of Virtual Worlds / Digital Games, 2010. S. Mann, R. Lo, J. Huang, V. Rampersad, R. Janzen, T. Ai (2012), "HDRchitecture: Real-Time 3D HDR Imaging for Extreme Dynamic Range", Proc. SIGGRAPH 2012
the IBM Wearable Computer, was derived from a ThinkPad 560X. • 233Mhz Intel CPU, 64M of RAM, 340MB IBM MicroDrive. • Windows™ 98 & IBM ViaVoice™ 1998 speech software. • Lithium-ion battery lasted about 1.5-2 hours. • USB, IrDA, and CF type II interfaces. • Weight 299g. • HMD resolution of 320x240 pixels with 256 gray levels. • The device was controlled a TrackPoint™ and a microphone. …to Google Glasses …which are not AR… …but a context-aware HMD that could be used in AR.
Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at http://www.interaction- design.org/encyclopedia/wearable_computing.html Thank you!