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Day1-1440-One road goes a long way: measuring the impact of maps on fighting FGM in Tanzania

sotm2017
September 01, 2017

Day1-1440-One road goes a long way: measuring the impact of maps on fighting FGM in Tanzania

sotm2017

September 01, 2017
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  1. One road goes a long way:
    the impact of maps in rural Tanzania
    Egle Marija Ramanauskaite
    CO-FOUNDER & RESEARCHER

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  2. Crowd2Map: we didn't mean to map.. :)
    LOCAL CITIZEN
    SCIENCE IDEAS
    FOR EDUCATION
    MOBILE DATA
    COLLECTION AS ONE
    OF THE OPTIONS
    WHOA! We can add
    those to the map
    IMMEDIATE
    INTEREST: LOCATION
    OF WATER POINTS

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  3. Problems to solve... FGM & rural development
    Mugumu Safe House -
    established in 2014,
    operating in the Mara region
    of Tanzania
    Saving girls from practice of
    FGM, but region largely blank
    on OSM/Google - not clear
    where any villages are
    ++ Overall development in rural Tanzania.
    Fuzzy realization that maps could help!

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  4. Since 2015, we have done...
    ... so what?

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  5. Impact of maps is... obvious?
    No "obvious" things to a researcher :)
    Need to measure it!
    Quantitative data? Patchy at
    best. Measure something that is
    barely recorded..? Impact of
    maps that have just been
    created..?
    Qualitative data? Talking to
    people - much more interesting!
    But not all that easy...:)
    April 2016

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  6. Interviews & (for lack of better option)
    online survey
    Community
    members
    (5)
    Community
    leaders
    C2M local
    volunteers
    (4)
    (4)
    Group interview
    (village community)
    (1)

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  7. Community members...
    Type 1: "Never seen" a map! Even if
    linked to mapping programme. Not
    aware of maps until it's pointed out
    Type 2: Don't have access to a map,
    but have seen one (in village office,
    e.g.). Modest awareness why maps
    could be useful (mostly navigation)
    Type 3: Have used maps before but
    don't have access now. Modest
    awareness why maps could be useful
    Type 4: Have used maps before,
    continue to use them & can list many
    reasons why maps are useful
    (development, humanitarian purposes)
    LINKED TO
    OUR MAPPING
    PROGRAMME
    HAVE ACCESS TO
    MAPS,
    PAPER/PHONE
    DON'T HAVE
    ACCESS TO
    MAPS
    "NEVER SEEN"
    A MAP
    HAVE GOOD
    KNOWLEDGE
    ABOUT MAP USES
    KNOW MAPS
    COULD BE
    USEFUL !

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  8. Some interesting points...
    Unaware they've seen a map until you point out an atlas or
    a map in village office
    Even driver in the Safe House where we're mapping, "has not
    seen a map". How is this information shared then..?
    Even those who "have not seen a map" know it's basic uses,
    such as navigation, and would like to use maps
    Everyone very enthusiastic about the ability to learn to
    map their area & use the map
    In general, the majority of the community does not use maps

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  9. Locals use "maps"... but it's not what we think
    One interviewee said she used maps in her home town. But ...
    [translated] "They didn't have a paper map, it's so only that she grew up in
    that place, so she knew... she knew the shortcuts. But they didn't have maps.
    So she was using her knowledge, having stayed there since she was born &
    knowing where to go, which way to use. That was what helped her, but not maps."
    And...
    "There was this community member, 55 years old... He drew us a drainage map
    using his head. He had a piece of paper, then he had to [draw] everything. And
    when we went to the site, it was actually the same thing. So I was very amazed
    by that guy.”

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  10. But what if you're out of your home town?
    Some of the most usual ways of navigating includes...
    "You find the people who know the way, we may follow a volunteer, volunteer
    like... Joana. We may call her 'come, we want to go to some area - which way
    you can pass?'. Joana directs you... 'you're supposed to pass this way, or that
    way'."
    REACHING THE SAFE HOUSE:
    "There's not been any cases when girls used a map. Because they just ask in the
    villages where is the Safe House, and the activists direct them. 'To reach the
    Safe House, you need to go to road that leads to the hospital, and then turn
    right, and then reach the Giraffe hotel...'"

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  11. Everyone excited about paper maps!
    Specific cases too, such as GIRLS REACHING THE SAFE HOUSE:
    "If they had paper maps it would be much easier for them; because when they
    have map they would be sure if they’ll reach the place; because sometimes they
    might meet someone who is still keeping traditional practices and they will try
    to cheat them, say 'better go back, I don’t know where the Safe House is'"
    Paper maps might be optimal in rural settings:
    “Using the paper maps will be great for rural areas. Right now they don’t have
    access to smartphones, and if they do, they have internet issues. So if they
    have offline maps, such as paper maps, I think that would be great."

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  12. In the Safe House maps are more than basic
    navigation...
    Know where activist houses are in each village
    Select, change & quickly coordinate "safe
    places" - girls "assembly points", in case
    parents find any
    Pick optimal routes & plan fuel costs (limited
    resources)
    Pick the best roads, so they can get to the
    girls faster

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  13. Rhobi, director of the Mugumu Safe House:
    "In the beginning it was very difficult to
    save girls. Because we didn’t have maps to
    use, and it was very difficult. We didn't
    know where are the villages, what roads we
    can use, where are the safe roads; we were
    all new to the area, we would be late
    sometimes, would go through bad roads, and be
    late, and even some girls would be cut,
    because they were reached by parents. In the
    last year it’s been improved."

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  14. For now virtually impossible to quantitatively
    assess impact of maps on reducing FGM, but...
    We're using GIS to
    identify FGM
    clusters, unmapped
    regions (priority)
    Last year building
    density helped
    identify villages
    where girls were
    waiting for help
    http://www.fragosus.pe.hu/Janet2/dashboard.htm

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  15. But data is so patchy, deeper analysis is
    not yet possible
    Crowdsourced FGM data at the Safe House not
    representative of the region
    DHS data self-reported, non-representative,
    different years, before mapping...
    So many factors could be involved in such a
    complex issue as preventing FGM!
    More systematic data collection & assessing
    change might be possible in the future

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  16. Not just FGM - locals recognize benefits
    for rural development
    Defining ward boundaries, resolving disputes
    Dividing wards (happens)
    Identifying resources, e.g. land use
    Knowing where essential services are & better
    planning, e.g. education & health facilities
    General empowerment of communities to tackle
    own problems
    "[Identifying] which are the challenges in each village,
    and each community can plan best."

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  17. But better maps... is just the beginning
    Currently maps are incomplete - only remote
    mapping & Maps.me points - not fully usable
    People in rural areas don't have access to
    phones
    Printed maps are not distributed, unless it's
    ward offices - should be all kinds of public
    facilities at least
    COMMUNITIES NEED TO BE EDUCATED & MADE AWARE OF
    THE USE OF MAPS !!

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  18. "What would be the next big improvement in the
    map for *you*?"
    "...increase the number of people, teach them how to use our maps, bring them
    the hard copy, teach them to use phones. Now its’ just girls and volunteers..."
    Community members agree: what matters most is...
    "Continue to do mapping, but also involving different people in the community:
    government leaders, village leaders, the community in general. Continuing
    education of village communities about the importance of mapping..."

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  19. But progress is being made!
    Girls who graduate Safe House
    are trained to map!!
    Enthusiastic to continue &
    teach their communities (but
    phones - limitation)
    Community mappers map & teach
    communities enabled by HOT
    microgrant
    WE'RE ON THE RIGHT TRACK... BUT IT'S NOT
    JUST ABOUT THE MAP!

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  20. Lastly... why impact of maps is not an easy
    question to try to answer! Long list...
    Researcher not in Tanzania! :) Interviews collected by colleague -
    Janet
    But - inconsistent due to circumstances, non-exhaustive
    Translator often needed. Which is fine, but translator -->
    interviewee --> translator --> audio transcript ... losing bits of
    info!
    Surveys useless! Need to take your time & dive into conversation,
    often narratives to find out what's real
    But what *is* real? Some, especially officials, tell you what you
    want to hear...
    They don't want to admit nobody uses maps! But some do - and
    propose solutions!

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  21. It takes a village...
    2000 Crowd2Map volunteers &
    community leaders!!!
    crowd2map.org
    seplute
    [email protected]

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