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How to Make a Sandwich

How to Make a Sandwich

...Techniques for Effective Feedback

Feedback is one of the most important skills when collaborating with others. Giving and receiving feedback with honesty, integrity and empathy is hard. Doing so consistently takes practise and requires learning and practising feedback and listening techniques.

In this session, Dan discusses a number of feedback models and techniques and shows you where and how you can apply them. He explains the infamous and much-misunderstood “sandwich model” of feedback, how it works and why it usually doesn’t, and looks at some of the failure modes of feedback. Are you using feedback to help your colleagues and yourself to grow, or are you using it to coerce and control them? How do you know? And what does any of this have to do with Systems Theory?

After this session you will be better equipped to offer feedback, more resilient when receiving feedback, and maybe more aware of your own motivations for doing so.

Daniel Terhorst-North

March 08, 2016
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Transcript

  1. How to Make a Sandwich
    Dan North
    @tastapod

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  2. Part 1: What is feedback?

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  3. @tastapod
    Formalised in Systems Theory
    output
    Simple system
    input

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  4. @tastapod
    Formalised in Systems Theory
    input output
    Dynamic system
    feedback

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  5. @tastapod
    Formalised in Systems Theory
    input output
    Dynamic system
    Delay
    feedback

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  6. @tastapod
    Formalised in Systems Theory
    input output
    Dynamic system
    Delay
    feedback

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  7. Adaptive systems rely on
    feedback

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  8. @tastapod
    Reinforcing feedback
    Accelerating loop
    - feedback amplifies behaviour
    - e.g. financial aid, addiction


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  9. @tastapod
    Reinforcing feedback
    Accelerating loop
    - feedback amplifies behaviour
    - e.g. financial aid, addiction

    “Shifting the Burden”

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  10. @tastapod
    Reinforcing feedback
    Diminishing loop
    - feedback suppresses behaviour
    - e.g. deterrent, resource starvation


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  11. @tastapod
    Reinforcing feedback
    Diminishing loop
    - feedback suppresses behaviour
    - e.g. deterrent, resource starvation

    “Tragedy of the Commons”

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  12. @tastapod
    Stabilising feedback
    Balancing loop
    - feedback tends towards stable goal
    - e.g. cooperation, upstream inlet


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  13. @tastapod
    Stabilising feedback
    Balancing loop
    - feedback tends towards stable goal
    - e.g. cooperation, upstream inlet

    “Limits to Growth”

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  14. @tastapod
    Oscillating feedback
    Thrashing “loop”
    - feedback flips between states
    - e.g. shower control, The Beer Game*

    * wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_distribution_game

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  15. @tastapod
    Oscillating feedback
    Thrashing “loop”
    - feedback flips between states
    - e.g. shower control, The Beer Game*

    “Boom and Bust”
    * wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_distribution_game

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  16. @tastapod
    Timing is everything

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  17. @tastapod
    Timing is everything
    Small and frequent is better than large and infrequent

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  18. @tastapod
    Timing is everything
    Small and frequent is better than large and infrequent

    Delay in feedback increases “drift”

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  19. @tastapod
    Timing is everything
    Small and frequent is better than large and infrequent

    Delay in feedback increases “drift”
    - reduces system’s responsiveness

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  20. @tastapod
    Timing is everything
    Small and frequent is better than large and infrequent

    Delay in feedback increases “drift”
    - reduces system’s responsiveness
    - limits options

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  21. @tastapod
    Timing is everything
    Small and frequent is better than large and infrequent

    Delay in feedback increases “drift”
    - reduces system’s responsiveness
    - limits options
    - increases processing effort


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  22. @tastapod
    Timing is everything
    Small and frequent is better than large and infrequent

    Delay in feedback increases “drift”
    - reduces system’s responsiveness
    - limits options
    - increases processing effort

    This is why Lean Operations prefers small batch size

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  23. @tastapod
    Why do we ask for feedback?

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  24. @tastapod
    Why do we ask for feedback?
    - to improve or modify our behaviour


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  25. @tastapod
    Why do we ask for feedback?
    - to improve or modify our behaviour

    - for help when we are stuck


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  26. @tastapod
    Why do we ask for feedback?
    - to improve or modify our behaviour

    - for help when we are stuck

    - for recognition when we think we are doing well

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  27. @tastapod
    Why do we offer feedback?

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  28. @tastapod
    Why do we offer feedback?
    - to improve the system of work

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  29. @tastapod
    Why do we offer feedback?
    - to improve the system of work
    - to model a culture of encouraging feedback

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  30. @tastapod
    Why do we offer feedback?
    - to improve the system of work
    - to model a culture of encouraging feedback
    - to control others

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  31. @tastapod
    Why do we offer feedback?
    - to improve the system of work
    - to model a culture of encouraging feedback
    - to control others
    - to demonstrate our superior knowledge

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  32. @tastapod
    Feedback is a System

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  33. @tastapod
    Feedback is a System
    Offered or
    Sought

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  34. @tastapod
    Feedback is a System
    Offered or
    Sought
    Heard

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  35. @tastapod
    Feedback is a System
    Offered or
    Sought
    Heard
    Actioned

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  36. @tastapod
    Feedback is a System
    Offered or
    Sought
    Heard
    Actioned

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  37. Part 2: Delivering feedback

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  38. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour

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  39. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level

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  40. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level
    - “Your work is sloppy” heard as “You are a sloppy worker”

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  41. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level
    - “Your work is sloppy” heard as “You are a sloppy worker”

    How about:

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  42. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level
    - “Your work is sloppy” heard as “You are a sloppy worker”

    How about:
    - Your work has been sloppy recently

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  43. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level
    - “Your work is sloppy” heard as “You are a sloppy worker”

    How about:
    - Your work has been sloppy recently
    - On this specific occasion your work was substandard

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  44. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level
    - “Your work is sloppy” heard as “You are a sloppy worker”

    How about:
    - Your work has been sloppy recently
    - On this specific occasion your work was substandard
    - If you did these things your work quality would improve

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  45. @tastapod
    Feedback should be about behaviour
    Feedback is usually heard at a personal level
    - “Your work is sloppy” heard as “You are a sloppy worker”

    How about:
    - Your work has been sloppy recently
    - On this specific occasion your work was substandard
    - If you did these things your work quality would improve
    - If you did these things it would make me happier

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  46. @tastapod
    SBI: a model

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  47. @tastapod
    SBI: a model
    Situation

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  48. @tastapod
    SBI: a model
    Situation
    Behaviour

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  49. @tastapod
    SBI: a model
    Situation
    Behaviour
    Impact

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  50. @tastapod
    In the team meeting on Friday
    SBI: a model
    Behaviour
    Impact

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  51. @tastapod
    you spoke across me several times
    In the team meeting on Friday
    SBI: a model
    Impact

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  52. @tastapod
    so I felt like I wasn’t being allowed
    to share my opinion with the team
    you spoke across me several times
    In the team meeting on Friday
    SBI: a model

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  53. @tastapod
    Sidebar: the Ladder of Inference

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  54. Part 3: Structuring feedback

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  55. @tastapod
    Porpoise feedback

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  56. @tastapod
    Porpoise feedback
    Offer specific positive regard

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  57. @tastapod
    Porpoise feedback
    Offer specific positive regard
    Assume everything else will self-
    correct

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  58. @tastapod
    Porpoise feedback
    Offer specific positive regard
    Assume everything else will self-
    correct
    Everything else will self-correct

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  59. @tastapod
    Sandwich feedback

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  60. @tastapod
    Sandwich feedback
    Offer specific positive regard

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  61. @tastapod
    Sandwich feedback
    Offer specific positive regard
    Offer a growing edge

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  62. @tastapod
    Sandwich feedback
    Offer specific positive regard
    End with general positive regard
    Offer a growing edge

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  63. @tastapod

    Atkins” feedback
    Offer specific positive regard
    End with general positive regard
    Offer a growing edge

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  64. @tastapod

    Atkins” feedback
    Offer a growing edge

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  65. Part 5: Receiving feedback

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  66. @tastapod
    Say “Thank you”

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  67. @tastapod
    There is no step 2
    Say “Thank you”

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  68. Concluding thoughts

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  69. @tastapod
    Feedback affects the system

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  70. @tastapod
    Feedback affects the system

    Be honest about your own motives

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  71. @tastapod
    Feedback affects the system

    Be honest about your own motives

    Practise giving and receiving feedback

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  72. @tastapod
    Feedback affects the system

    Be honest about your own motives

    Practise giving and receiving feedback

    Always say “Thank you”

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  73. @tastapod
    Thank you

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