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DataTalk #41 Deep Learning on 3D Data - Nicola Luminari

DataTalk #41 Deep Learning on 3D Data - Nicola Luminari


Speaker: Nicola Luminari, Computer Vision Engineeer chez Delair

Les cameras et la data basées sur l'image ont forcés le développement de réseaux de neurones conventionnels pour résoudre des tâches de vision par ordinateur (détection d'objet etc..).
Cependant, aujourd’hui diverses applications comme le mapping par drone et la conduite automatique, utilisent des capteurs différents (comme le LIDAR) qui permettent de produire une représentation 3D de la scène autour du capteur (maillages et/ou nuages de points).

Cette nouvelle typologie de données 3D ne peut pas être traité naïvement avec des réseaux CNN “modernes” à cause de problématique diverses et variés.
De ce fait, de nouvelles CNN spécialisées pour la 3D viennent d'être proposées en littérature.

Durant ce talk nous allons voir pourquoi l'opérateur de convolution classique ne peut pas être utilisé directement sur des nuages de points.
Puis, nous allons faire le tour des solutions proposées par la communauté deep learning sur ce sujet.

Toulouse Data Science

December 10, 2019

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  1. Table of contents 1. Intro to 3D data and sensors

    2. Point cloud data features 3. Vision tasks and datasets 4. “Classical” ML models 5. “Modern” DL models 6. Conclusions 5
  2. 7 What is 3D data ? WIKIPEDIA: “3D data acquisition

    and reconstruction is the generation of three-dimensional models from sensor data”
  3. 8 Use cases + Autonomous driving + Drones measure +

    Navigation (SLAM) + Games + Any case where the depth perception and estimation is needed
  4. 9 Sensors Sensors: + CAMERA (Photogrammetry) + LIDAR Photogrammétrie +

    Use multiple images of the same object from multiple position to reconstruct the depth (aerotriangulation) + 3D point cloud and mesh is available, with colours ! LIDAR + time of flight sensors use an emitter receiver principle to measure the depth + can pass through vegetation + can work at night
  5. 11 Data associated problems + Density can be non uniform

    + de-densification needed !? + Occlusion + depending on the applications large zones of objects can just not be present + Size + tiles + Connectivity + unknown interaction between points + points are sparse and unordered + Software ecosystem + not so many softwares to read/write/manipulate files + Python is almost unsupported + .las file specification is complex to extend
  6. 12 Size The overall scenes is about 8km^2 with 90M

    points ~3Gb Each tile is about 300m^2 with 0.5M ~20Mb If you tile only in X-Y plane you can get spurious small tiles
  7. 13 File format/library hell + Formats + .las is the

    most common one in remote sensing + .ply is probably the most spread one and easy to use in the ML context but does not have GIS capabilities + Libraries + pdal project goes to a good direction but python and GIS integration should be improved + pylas (and not laspy) works well in python but you should know .las spec very well to use it
  8. 15 Vision Tasks + Classification + Semantic segmentation (Object and

    Scene) + Object detection + Super-resolution (on voxel grids) + Image to 3D reconstruction (mesh or pcl) + Generative models Paris Lille Model40 KITTI
  9. 16 Datasets + https://modelnet.cs.princeton.edu/ [Classification 93.6% accuracy] + http://www.cvlibs.net/datasets/kitti/ [3D

    Object detection 77.2% mAP] + http://www.semantic3d.net/ [Semantic segmentation 76.5% averageIOU] + http://kaldir.vc.in.tum.de/scannet_benchmark/ [Semantic segmentation 73.6% averageIOU] + http://npm3d.fr/paris-lille-3d [Semantic segmentation 82% averageIOU] ScanNet KITTI
  10. 18 Convolutions generalities + Convolution is a mathematical operation on

    two functions (f and g) that produces a third function expressing how the shape of one is modified by the other. + It is used to compute how the input signal f “react” to the filter g + Usually the domain of integration (here -inf / + inf) is called kernel Note: Note that f(tao -t) and not f(t- tao) this means that the function f has been reversed. It is the same to reverse the input function or the filter but it should be done. (It has strong implication in Fourier analysis and symmetry of the convolution operation).
  11. 19 Convolution on images On 2D signals (a.k.a. images) we

    proceed as the 1D example. Here we switch in discrete coordinates and define a convolution operation on a kernel that has shape 3x3x3 because the input tensor has 3 channels, the first 2 shapes are arbitrary. For each filter we multiply the corresponding channel, sum all the responses and then sum everything. Very good resource with python codes History and biblio Channels (eg. RGB)
  12. 20 3D Convolutions You can also add a dimension in

    the kernel to perform convolutions in 3D. In the example on the left the kernel have size [3x3x3] and of course will have also the f_in and f_out “dimensions”. # parameters fully convolution = k*k*f_in*f_out = = 3*3*3*16 = 432 # parameters 3D convolution = k*k*k*f_in*f_out = = 3*3*3*3*16 = 1296 BUT in a point cloud you do not have data arranged in a well behaved fashion like 3D pixels. Distance between points is not constant so how can you decide the “stride” of your kernel ? Even if you voxelize you still have potential problems in large areas in which you have to “pad”. 3D Convolutions are also very memory expensive. Voxelization + 3D convolution + Fancy stuff = VoxelNet Real Voxel large “padding”
  13. 21 Convolutions applicability + you cannot apply “standard” convolutions +

    3D convolutions exist for regular data but point clouds are almost always irregular + in a certain region of space the number of points will be different, ence, the support of the convolutional kernel should change each time -> not easily definable + So how can you learn to classify each point in scene? 1) “Table” approach: treat each point as a single instance in a table and built a model (decision trees) with his features 2) Set approach: try to enforce the model to learn an order invariance 3) Built the relations between points: convolutions on graph are very well defined and studied, and graph NN also 4) Generalize 3D convolution: extend the 3D convolution operator to work with “not standard” supports id X Y Z R G B ... 1 2 3 4 id X Y Z R G B ... 3 4 1 2 N F F N
  14. 24 Tabular data + Tabular data is probably the most

    common data structure “in the wild” + Many tree based approaches works very well (XGBoost, LigthGBM, Random Forest… you name it) + However the basic feature space in a point cloud is limited (XYZ, RGB sometimes) + XYZ coordinates also is not a good representative feature (2 points can be completely far apart and have the same label) id X Y Z R G B ... 1 2 3 4
  15. 25 Feature engineering in point cloud + The problem with

    a tabular vision of point clouds is that the 3D coordinates does not represent a good way of define spatial relations + We need a way to aggregate information of the neighbourhood of a point + Define a set of spatial scales (eg. 0.25m, 0.5m, 1m, 2m) + for each scale: + for each point: + select the neighbor points group [knn vs ball query] + compute covariance matrix using XYZ coordinates of the points in the neighborhood + compute eigenvalues + compute features (eigen*, colour, purely geometric) + add these features to the one already present to the point
  16. 28 Problems + Pipeline of feature engineering can be long

    + Tree based models are not well adapted to ingest billions of points and still train + Using neighbours is an hack (a clever one) to bypass the spatial coherence problem + How to choose the value and number of scales ? + How to choose the query mode (KNN or ball query ?) + How to choose the features ? + How about non uniform density features ?
  17. 31 Point clouds as a set + Consider the point

    cloud as a whole (mathematically is a set). A collection of points + NN on sets has already been studied for problems like set anomaly detection and image labelling. + Which properties should the network have to translate to point cloud? + permutation invariance + translation invariance + take into account local context (in euclidean and feature space)
  18. 32 DeepSets is a neural network is a neural network

    latent space sum // element-wise max set representation as a whole
  19. 35 Problems + how to batch ? In this case

    a “batch” cannot be a group of points because the set is unordered. So the “atomic” data of a pcl is a tile. It means that the input tensor has size: [B, N, F] + But from tile to tile N can change !!!!!!! + Random (or intelligent sampling) is needed to keep N constant -> destroying part of the local neighbours informations. [PointNet fix tile size as 1x1m and 4096 random points per tile ] Batch [B, N, F] = [4, ?, 6] Input tensor
  20. 37 Graphs + Graph representation of a pcl have the

    potential to solve some problems: + once the graph is built we know exactly the local neighbours for each point + convolutions are well defined on graph -> we can mimic classic CNN architecture to solve the same problem + permutation / translation invariance in no long a problem because of the connections that are now defined + But how to build the graph ? + k nearest neighbour k=2 k=5
  21. 38 Edge convolution + m is the number of convolutional

    filters used + at each layer the KNN graph is built in the feature space at run time so it is dynamic, it changes as the training procedure continue to converge
  22. 42 Kernel Point Convolutions + is the set of points

    contained in a sphere + k is the number of convolutional filters in the layer + are called kernel points and they fix the spatial position of the weights in this type of convolution + The size of select the size of the receptive field + You do not need to perform any pre-processing of the input data + Topology of the kernel points is differentiable so it can be learned + SOTA (state of the art) in most of 3D vision datasets + It came from french research
  23. 47 What to remember + Only 2 “framework” available: +

    https://github.com/NVIDIAGameWorks/kaolin/ [released 3 weeks ago...] + https://pytorch-geometric.readthedocs.io/en/latest/index.html + Implementing models is not trivial (lots of C++/CUDA specific models) + Performances of models is around 60% of meanIOU + Computational performances are not as optimized as for 2D convolutions + Most of the time you have to build some kind of index (KDTree or else) to select points -> it adds computing time and code complexity + Dataset management is even a bigger part because you can have easily Terabytes of data + Bibliography is still in early stages and the community is smaller than the vision counterpart + There is some evidence that when depth is involved “classical” convolutions do not perform well [https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.07179.pdf]
  24. 48 Honorable mentions of network architectures + Superpoint Graph (another

    french research ): it introduce an unsupervised graph segmentation and a RNN like layer + SnapNet (another french research ): uses artificial camera locations to project the 3D point cloud to 2D images and perform the segmentation in 2D and then it reproject the label back to the 3D. + PointNet++: expand the pointNet architecture to a multiple scale analysis to mimic what convolutions do in CNN
  25. 49 Bibliography Machine Learning + https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.00495 + https://ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/baug/igp/photogrammetry-remote- sensing-dam/documents/pdf/timo-jan-isprs2016.pdf +

    https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01497548/document Deep Learning + https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08854.pdf + https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.06114 + https://arxiv.org/abs/1901.09006 + https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.00593 + https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.02413 + https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.06396 + https://blesaux.github.io/files/2017-11-10-aboulch-snapnet-CAG17.pdf + http://openaccess.thecvf.com/content_cvpr_2018/papers/Landrieu_Large-Scale_Point_ Cloud_CVPR_2018_paper.pdf + https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.08889
  26. 50 Interesting links + https://github.com/Yochengliu/awesome-point-cloud-analysis + https://www.inference.vc/deepsets-modeling-permutation-invariance/ + https://pdal.io/ +

    https://pylas.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ + https://www.cgal.org/ + https://github.com/NVIDIAGameWorks/kaolin + https://pytorch-geometric.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ + http://geometricdeeplearning.com/ + https://networkx.github.io/ + https://www.cse.wustl.edu/~muhan/papers/AAAI_2018_DGCNN.pdf + https://github.com/muhanzhang/pytorch_DGCNN