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Goddard ChipSat Talk

Goddard ChipSat Talk

These are the slides from a talk I gave at an engineering colloquium at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center

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Zac Manchester

December 12, 2011
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Transcript

  1. Progress and Prospects MILLIMETER-SCALE SPACECRAFT Zachary Manchester Space Systems Design

    Studio Cornell University
  2. WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT? 2

  3. •  Where we’ve been •  What we’re working on now

    •  Where we’re heading CHIPSAT HARDWARE 3
  4. WHERE WE’VE BEEN Solar Cells Microcontroller Radio Chip Antenna 3.8

    cm Energy Storage Capacitor DC-DC Power Converter 4
  5. 5 Sprite  Spacecraft-­‐on-­‐a-­‐Chip   Imagine   integrating   all  

    of   the   subsystems   of   a   traditional   spacecraft  onto  a  single  chip  a  few  centimeters  across!     Current  prototypes  include  solar  cells,  energy  storage  capacitors,   microcontrollers,   and   radios   capable   of   communicating   with   ground   stations  from  low-­‐Earth  orbit.  
  6. 6

  7. 7

  8. 8

  9. WHAT WE’RE WORKING ON NOW… 9

  10. WHAT WE’RE WORKING ON NOW… 10

  11. THE FUTURE… Solar Cells Radio Passive Components Microcontroller GPS Receiver

    Battery Dipole Antenna 11
  12. •  Spacecraft scaling and dynamics •  Strength in numbers • 

    Mission concepts WHAT CAN WE DO WITH CHIPSATS? 12
  13. SPACECRAFT SCALING 13 Symbol Meaning AD Aerodynamic Drag EC Eddy

    Current Drag GG Gravity Gradient GR General Relativity LZ Lorentz Force M Magnetism MT Magnetism - Torquer MR Magnetism – Residual Field Moon Lunar Gravity OB Earth Oblateness PA Planetary Albedo PC Particle Collisions PL Solar System Planetary Gravity PR Poynting-Robertson Drag SP Solar Pressure SR Special Relativity SW Solar Wind Sun Solar Gravity g Characteristic Length
  14. CHIPSAT DYNAMICS 14

  15. SOLAR SAILING 15

  16. LORENTZ AUGMENTED ORBITS 16

  17. PLASMA CHARGING EFFECTS 17 -100 V ~ 0V I+ e-

  18. 18

  19. ATMOSPHERIC DRAG 19 8 cm! Aluminized CP-1! UHF center-fed dipole!

    1 x 1 x 0.01 cm satellite-on-chip! ~ adrag = A m 1 2 Cd⇢v2ˆ v
  20. ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY 20

  21. STRENGTH IN NUMBERS 21

  22. PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS Series Components Probability of Success 22

  23. A NEW PARADIGM Probability of Success Number of ChipSats 23

  24. •  Don’t think about individual ChipSats •  Manage the statistics

    of the cloud •  Use little or no closed-loop control •  Take advantage of environmental effects HOW DO WE PLAN MISSIONS? f(qi, ˙ qi, t) @f @t + @f @qi ˙ qi + @f @ ˙ qi ¨ qi = 0 @f @t µ r2 @f @ ˙ r + ˙ r @f @r + ˙ ✓ @f @✓ + ˙ @f @ = 0 24
  25. •  2011 MD •  Near Earth Object (NEO) •  Passed

    within 12,000 km of Earth •  Diameter 10-50 meters •  Impact Mission •  Deploy ChipSats from a carrier spacecraft •  Maximize number that impact •  Survivors transmit sensor data to carrier ASTEROID IMPACT MISSION 25
  26. ASTEROID POSITION KNOWLEDGE Range (km) Range Error (km) Angular Error

    (km) 26
  27. CHIPSAT CLOUD DISTRIBUTION 27 Level Surface at Timpact : Level

    Surface at Deployment:
  28. •  Calculate impact probabilities by integrating probability flux through asteroid

    surface •  Calculate confidence bounds by repeating for different trajectories and asteroid sizes •  Pimpact = 1.4% •  90% Confidence Interval 0.16% - 2.4% •  Impact Survival ASTEROID IMPACT 28
  29. QUESTIONS? 29

  30. Progress and Prospects MILLIMETER-SCALE SPACECRAFT Zachary Manchester Space Systems Design

    Studio Cornell University