Internet: A Series of Tubes

Internet: A Series of Tubes

Presented at WaffleJS meetup in San Francisco, May 4 2016.

From the perspective of photons that transport the information, whether it is a tweet, a picture, or a chat message, our Internet is mostly just a series of tubes.

0284b8950e0f4a57bcc092d4dbb98d97?s=128

Ariya Hidayat

May 04, 2016
Tweet

Transcript

  1. Internet: A Series of Tubes https://unsplash.com/photos/ahi73ZN5P0Y

  2. None
  3. TELL ME … DO YOU EVEN?

  4. None
  5. RFC 1149: A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams

    on Avian Carriers
  6. Semaphore Fire beacons Smoke signals

  7. Heliograph Receiver Transmitter

  8. Photophone

  9. Lossy medium Only straight line

  10. LASER = Amazing

  11. Monochromatic Coherent

  12. Fiber Optic

  13. Jacket: 400 µm Buffer: 250 µm Cladding: 125 µm Core:

    8 µm
  14. Total Internal Reflection Cladding n = 1.44681 Core n =

    1.45205 Attenuation (at 1550 nm) ~ 0.2 dB/km 1% remaining power after 62 miles
  15. None
  16. None
  17. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_TAT-14.png by Alexrk2 CC-BY-SA-3.0 3.2 Tb/s 2 routes (north, south)

    4 fiber pairs 40 channels of 10 Gb/s each
  18. 3.2 Tb/s In One Second 8 Blueray discs

  19. Modulations Frequency-shift Keying (FSK) Amplitude-shift Keying (ASK) Phase-shift Keying (PSK)

  20. Wavelength-division Multiplexing MUX Single fiber DEMUX 100 GHz chanel spacing

    ~ 1550 nm 40 channels
  21. Optical Impairments Chromatic Dispersion Polarization Mode Dispersion Cross Phase Modulation

    Four-Wave Mixing Polarization Dependent Loss
  22. Even Higher Bitrate 10 Gb/s 100 Gb/s 200 Gb/s 31

    Tb/s over 7,200 km 155 channels × 200 Gb/s TAT-14: 0.4 Tb/s over 9,600 km 40 channels × 10 Gb/s 7.2 Tb/s over 6,500 km 80 channels × 100 Gb/s New fiber type 255 Tb/s over 1 km 50 channels × 5.1 Tb/s
  23. “If I have seen further it is by standing on

    the shoulders of giants.” Isaac Newton