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Internet: A Series of Tubes

Internet: A Series of Tubes

Presented at WaffleJS meetup in San Francisco, May 4 2016.

From the perspective of photons that transport the information, whether it is a tweet, a picture, or a chat message, our Internet is mostly just a series of tubes.

Ariya Hidayat

May 04, 2016
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  1. Internet: A Series of Tubes
    https://unsplash.com/photos/ahi73ZN5P0Y

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  2. TELL ME … DO YOU EVEN?

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  3. RFC 1149: A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers

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  4. Semaphore Fire beacons Smoke signals

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  5. Heliograph
    Receiver
    Transmitter

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  6. Lossy medium
    Only straight line

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  7. LASER = Amazing

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  8. Monochromatic Coherent

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  9. Jacket: 400 µm
    Buffer: 250 µm
    Cladding: 125 µm
    Core: 8 µm

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  10. Total Internal Reflection
    Cladding n = 1.44681
    Core n = 1.45205
    Attenuation (at 1550 nm) ~ 0.2 dB/km
    1% remaining power after 62 miles

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  11. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_TAT-14.png by Alexrk2 CC-BY-SA-3.0
    3.2 Tb/s
    2 routes (north, south)
    4 fiber pairs
    40 channels of 10 Gb/s each

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  12. 3.2 Tb/s
    In One Second
    8 Blueray discs

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  13. Modulations
    Frequency-shift Keying (FSK)
    Amplitude-shift Keying (ASK)
    Phase-shift Keying (PSK)

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  14. Wavelength-division Multiplexing
    MUX
    Single fiber
    DEMUX
    100 GHz chanel spacing ~ 1550 nm
    40 channels

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  15. Optical Impairments
    Chromatic Dispersion
    Polarization Mode Dispersion
    Cross Phase Modulation
    Four-Wave Mixing
    Polarization Dependent Loss

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  16. Even Higher Bitrate
    10 Gb/s
    100 Gb/s
    200 Gb/s
    31 Tb/s over 7,200 km
    155 channels × 200 Gb/s
    TAT-14: 0.4 Tb/s over 9,600 km
    40 channels × 10 Gb/s
    7.2 Tb/s over 6,500 km
    80 channels × 100 Gb/s
    New fiber type
    255 Tb/s over 1 km
    50 channels × 5.1 Tb/s

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  17. “If I have seen further
    it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”
    Isaac Newton

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