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How to scale if nothing is for free

How to scale if nothing is for free


André Neubauer

April 19, 2016


  1. H O W T O S C A L E

    I F N O T H I N G I S F O R F R E E J A X , 2 0 1 6 , M A I N Z
  2. Source: http://www.happening.co.ke/1006175095.html

  3. T H I S I S N O T “

    S Q U A R I N G T H E C I R C L E ” F O R S C A L I N G Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Squaring_the_circle.svg
  4. J U S T S O M E L E

    A R N I N G S & B E S T P R A C T I C E S W H E N I T C O M E S T O S C A L I N G Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/y_i/2330044065/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  5. @ d e v p g Software engineering enthusiast, org

    development fanatic and strong advocate on modern leadership. Motivated by 'Y'! Currently CTO at @Misterspex
  6. S O M E S T R U C T

    U R E A LWAY S H E L P S • Define “scaling” :-? • Scaling and why it’s hard :-/ • How to scale anyway :-)
  7. D E F I N I T I O N

    O F S C A L I N G S C A L A B I L I T Y • Scalability is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth. • A system whose performance improves after adding hardware, proportionally to the capacity added, is said to be a scalable system. • The base concept is consistent – the ability for a business or technology to accept increased volume without impacting the contribution margin (= revenue − variable costs). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalability
  8. E C O N O M I E S O

    F S C A L E
  9. A S S E M B LY L I N

    E W O R K Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Airacobra_P39_Assembly_LOC_02902u.jpg
  10. A S S E M B LY L I N

    E W O R K • Repetitive work • Separation of thought from action • Standardisation of tasks • Scaling by repeating without thinking Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Airacobra_P39_Assembly_LOC_02902u.jpg
  11. S T E A M E N G I N

    E Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Paxman-Lentz_single-cylinder_engine_(Rankin_Kennedy,_Modern_Engines,_Vol_IV).jpg
  12. S T E A M E N G I N

    E • One of the most important technologies of the Industrial Revolution • Enabled faster production • Replaced staff from heavy physical work Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Paxman-Lentz_single- cylinder_engine_(Rankin_Kennedy,_Modern_Engines,_Vol_IV).jpg
  13. E C O N O M I E S O

    F S C A L E
  14. L E A R N I N G S •

    Scalability (with constant/ positive effects) is an exception • Most systems don’t scale (in a meaningful degree) • Optimize (till you drop) to scale constant • Change the way of doing things on a different level to achieve disproportionately effects
  15. W E L C O M E T O T

    H E “ I N F O R M AT I O N A G E ” Source: http://static1.businessinsider.com/image/514205d4eab8ea8b38000000-4346-3260/vatican-papal-conclave-2013.jpg
  16. I N F O R M AT I O N

    A G E • Discontinuous change • Short product life cycles • Continuous price declines • Little customer loyalty • Based on knowledge work Source: http://static1.businessinsider.com/image/514205d4eab8ea8b38000000-4346-3260/ vatican-papal-conclave-2013.jpg
  17. K N O W L E D G E W

    O R K I S D I F F E R E N T A N D D O E S N ’ T S C A L E C O N S TA N T • Requires creativity • Relies heavily on collaboration between individuals • Doesn’t repeat itself • Is unpredictable but emerges over time
  18. H O W T O S C A L E

    A N Y WAY ? Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/4854792124/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  19. B A S E C O N C E P

    T Do not ask how much resources you need to make X, but what you can achieve with existing resources. Scaling does not necessarily mean adding more resources. You can also just use the existing resources more efficiently.
  20. S C A L A B I L I T

    Y I S D R I V E N B Y E F F I C I E N C Y
  21. D O N O T A S K H O

    W M U C H R E S O U R C E S Y O U N E E D T O M A K E X , B U T W H AT Y O U C A N A C H I E V E W I T H E X I S T I N G R E S O U R C E S . Economic principle • Min: fixed output, variable input • Max: variable output, fixed output
  22. # 1 : D O N O T W O

    R RY Y O U R S E L F A B O U T T H I N G S T H AT D O N O T B E L O N G T O Y O U R VA L U E P R O P O S I T I O N Source: http://beatzmaking.com/2016/01/14/audio-zewone-fuck-off/
  23. # 1 : D O N O T W O

    R RY Y O U R S E L F A B O U T T H I N G S T H AT D O N O T B E L O N G T O Y O U R VA L U E P R O P O S I T I O N • Use external services/ support/… • Decide for (de-facto) standards • Focus on business Source: http://beatzmaking.com/2016/01/14/audio-zewone-fuck-off/
  24. # 2 : C U T P R O J

    E C T S Source: http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/cygx1_ill.jpg
  25. # 2 : C U T P R O J

    E C T S • Most projects are “black hole projects” • Overloaded with features • Consider maintenance! Source: http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/cygx1_ill.jpg
  26. # 3 : E S TA B L I S

    H B U S I N E S S R E V I E W S Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/68751915@N05/6355261479/sizes/o/
  27. # 3 : E S TA B L I S

    H B U S I N E S S R E V I E W S • Compare expectations with actual impact • Understand deeply what drives success an what causes costs • Derive lessons learned and apply them to the next projects Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/68751915@N05/6355261479/sizes/o/
  28. # 4 : ( N ) O N E P

    R O C E S S T O R U L E T H E M A L L Source: http://geekandpoke.typepad.com/geekandpoke/2012/01/simply-explained-dp.html
  29. # 4 : ( N ) O N E P

    R O C E S S T O R U L E T H E M A L L • Conway’s law for processes —> You will run projects that match the process but not not necessarily your needs. • Don’t underestimate costs of process! • Different processes for different project • Focus on impact and utilisation Source: http://geekandpoke.typepad.com/geekandpoke/2012/01/simply-explained-dp.html
  30. # 5 : D O N ’ T M I

    X U P I N N O VAT I O N W I T H D A I LY W O R K Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/vickisnature/2108280435/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  31. # 5 : D O N ’ T M I

    X U P I N N O VAT I O N W I T H D A I LY W O R K • Distingush between cash cow and the rising star of tomorrow • Have separate standards (regarding sustainability, etc.) Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/vickisnature/2108280435/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  32. # 6 : R E T H I N K

    “ T H E R I G H T T O O L ” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/11746801@N04/7069259807/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  33. # 6 : R E T H I N K

    “ T H E R I G H T T O O L ” • Strive for small technology stack • Stay with what you can do - “Schuster bleibt bei deinen Leisten” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/11746801@N04/7069259807/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  34. # 7 : K E E P I T S

    T U P I D S I M P L E “ C O M P L E X I T Y I S Y O U R E N E M Y. A N Y F O O L C A N M A K E S O M E T H I N G C O M P L I C A T E D . I T I S H A R D T O K E E P T H I N G S S I M P L E . ” S I R R I C H A R D B R A N S O N Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/infomatique/21243301314/sizes/l
  35. # 7 : K E E P I T S

    T U P I D S I M P L E • … Not only on software level but solution level • Business is complex enough • “Indeed, the ratio of time spent reading versus writing is well over 10 to 1. We are constantly reading old code as part of the effort to write new code. ... [Therefore,] making it easy to read makes it easier to write.” Robert C. Martin Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/infomatique/21243301314/sizes/l
  36. # 7 : K N O W Y O U

    R C O S T D R I V E R Source: http://www.companybug.com/fixed-variable-costs-business/
  37. # 7 : K N O W Y O U

    R C O S T D R I V E R • Important for capacity planning • Distingush between fixed, variable and stepped-fixed costs • Stepped-fixed: Fixed over a certain range; at particular point, step increase in fixed cost Source: http://kfknowledgebank.kaplan.co.uk/KFKB/Wiki%20Pages/Cost%20behaviours.aspx
  38. # 8 : C O N S I D E

    R M A I N T E N A N C E Source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/236189469_fig1_Development-of-Software-maintenance-costs-as-percentage-of-total-cost-Floris-and-Harald
  39. # 8 . 1 : Q U A L I

    T Y A N D A U T O M AT I O N ( I N C O R E B U S I N E S S ) A R E N O T N E G O T I A B L E Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gastev/2174505811/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  40. # 8 . 2 : L I V E T

    H E L I F E C Y C L E Source: http://image.nerdtshirtsuk.com/cache/data/rip-floppy-disk/rip-floppy- disk-1200x1200.png
  41. # 8 . 2 : L I V E T

    H E L I F E C Y C L E • Effort for maintenance will eat up capacity • Maintenance shouldn’t be the reason for scaling • Plan removal of features like new projects Source: http://image.nerdtshirtsuk.com/cache/data/rip-floppy-disk/rip-floppy- disk-1200x1200.png
  42. FAT- F R E E E V E RY T

    H I N G ! Source: https://imgflip.com/memegenerator/X-All-The-Y
  43. S U S P I C I O U S

    ? Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/f26/5042198485/sizes/l
  44. S U S P I C I O U S

    ? 3 7 S I G N A L S ! • Company behind basecamp, campfire, highrise • Refocussed on basecamp only (also changed company name) • ~45 employees, 15M customers! Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/f26/5042198485/sizes/l
  45. T H A N K S ! Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjlambert/97671748/sizes/o/in/p