realizing research objectives. A research design is shaped by a researcher’s epistemic approach/assumptions and establishes the type of – as well as the methods used to collect and make sense of – study data/evidence.
Comparison/control group Yes Yes Maybe Random assignment Yes No No *Treatment = Phenomenon of interest (primary IV) such as an event, policy, intervention, etc. Experimental vs. Quasi- vs. Non-Experimental Designs
types? Quant or qual? Examples: Large-n (>100) descriptive or associational studies Empiricism/Positivism Usually single Quant Large-n surveys, administrative/secondary data Medium-n (30-100) descriptive or associational studies Empiricism/Positivism Interpretivism Usually single Quant or Qual Surveys, interviews, administrative/secondary data Small-n (<30) descriptive or explanatory studies Empiricism/Positivism Interpretivism Critical Single or multiple Quant or Qual Surveys, interviews, focus groups, observation, documents Mixed-methods descriptive or explanatory studies Empiricism/Positivism Interpretivism Critical Multiple Quant and qual Surveys, interviews, focus groups, observation, documents Case studies Empiricism/Positivism Interpretivism Critical Multiple Quant and/or qual Surveys, interviews, focus groups, observation, documents
intensive study of a single case where the purpose of that study is – at least in part – to shed light on a larger class of cases (a population). Case study research may incorporate several cases, that is, multiple case studies. ”
few situations (cases) Typically involve multiple types of data, data collection methods, and methods of analysis Are often descriptive, but can develop or test theory Require purposive case selection Case Studies Within-Case: analysis of a single case Process Trace: analysis of how phenomena/events interact and unfold over time Cross-Case: Comparative analysis of multiple cases Characteristics Types
of individual case study findings in a systematic manner Analysis of secondary data (rather than simply aggregation of findings) Literature Review Case Study Meta-Analysis Systematic Review Synthetic Studies Historical or contemporary analysis of discriminatory policies and/or ideas, and their impacts Critical Review/Analysis