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Construction and Operation of Observability Platform using Istio

00851927294532e0742c2c174730dff0?s=47 id
May 17, 2021

Construction and Operation of Observability Platform using Istio

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Movie (in Japanese)

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CloudNative Days Spring 2021 ONLINE

Observability is important to operate Cloud Native applications.

Currently, there are a variety of OSS and their operators to achieve observability. Integrating those OSS into Istio enables us to construct a platform to acquire metrics related to user experience, such as latency and error rate, without modifying the application.

However, there is not much information about the case studies of constructing and operating the platform. Each user is working on constructing the environment by trial and error.

In this session, we will introduce the knowledge we have gained while constructing an Observability platform integrating Istio and observability OSS (Prometheus, Loki, Jaeger, Grafana) and operating it using Operator.

00851927294532e0742c2c174730dff0?s=128

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May 17, 2021
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  1. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Construction and Operation

    of Observability Platform using Istio CloudNative Days Spring 2021 ONLINE 2021.03.11 Hitachi, Ltd. R&D Group Takaya Ide
  2. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Introduction ◇ How

    to determine SLI/SLO ◇ Manage alerts and incidents ◇ Improving operations based on monitoring results 1 This session shares the knowledge of an observability platform that uses Istio and OSS to transparently monitor service levels from apps ◇ What is observability? ◇ Istio’s observability features ◇ Tips to integrate Istio and monitoring OSS In Scope Out of scope
  3. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Contents 2 1.

    Background 2. Observability Features of Istio 3. How to Integrate Monitoring OSS and Istio 4. Tips through Construction and Operation 5. Conclusion
  4. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. 1. Background 3

  5. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. What is Observability

    ? 4 Testing Debugging Monitoring State Means Observability Tracing Logging Metrics Profiling Test Events Analyzing Chaos Eng. Simulating etc. Ref. John Porcaro, “Observability (re)defined”, https://www.humio.com/whats-new/blog/observability-redefined, 2019 ▪ How well can you answer questions about the system with the data you have? ▪ Monitoring, debugging, etc. are the means to realize observability The state understanding what is happening inside your system and why, from data
  6. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Why Observability ?

    To deal with unknown phenomena 5 ▪ We need to grow our system quickly and exploratively as our business demands ◇ Distributed architecture ◇ Frequent code updating ◇ Dynamic scaling → Complex, interdependent, and constantly changing distributed system🤢 ▪ Nothing can predict everything that will happen ▪ In order to make decisions in such situations, a mechanism is needed to notice and understand unknown phenomena → Observability
  7. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Service Level Monitoring

    ▪ Service level is a measurable value indicates the quality of service. E.g.) latency ▪ Service level monitoring can detect failures that can’t be detected by system monitoring ▪ However, Service level monitoring often requires help from the application ◇ Kubernetes also cannot monitor service level by itself 6 Operator User Too slow Kubernetes ・ No CPU saturation ・ No error log → Missing the issue App. Latency monitor System Monitoring Operator Notice the latency issue. !! Monitor Monitor ?? Access Service Level Mon. Run on a single thread
  8. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Service Level Monitoring

    ▪ Service level is a measurable value indicates the quality of service. E.g.) latency ▪ Service level monitoring can detect failures that can’t be detected by system monitoring ▪ However, Service level monitoring often requires help from the application ◇ Kubernetes also cannot monitor service level by itself 7 Operator User Too slow Kubernetes ・ No CPU saturation ・ No error log → Missing the issue App. Latency monitor System Monitoring Operator Notice the latency issue. !! Monitor Monitor Run on a single thread ?? Access Service Level Mon.
  9. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Service Level Monitoring

    ▪ Service level is a measurable value indicates the quality of service. E.g.) latency ▪ Service level monitoring can detect failures that can’t be detected by system monitoring ▪ However, Service level monitoring often requires help from the application ◇ Kubernetes also cannot monitor service level by itself 8 Operator User Too slow Kubernetes ・ No CPU saturation ・ No error log → Missing the issue App. Latency monitor System Monitoring Operator Notice the latency issue. !! Monitor Monitor Run on a single thread ?? Access Service Level Mon. Often, it is a big constraint ✓ Not all apps can monitor service level ✓ Each apps have each metrics spec ✓ Other companies' products cannot be modified What should we do? requires help from the application
  10. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. 9 I s

    t i o
  11. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Service Level Monitoring

    using Istio ▪ Istio is software that manages inter-app traffic by proxies in front of each apps ▪ Collecting service level metrics from relay traffic ▪ Apps using HTTP can be monitored for service level regardless of their specs. 10 ▪ Throughput ▪ Latency ▪ Error rate ▪ Access log ▪ Tracing ▪ etc. … Kubernetes App Monitoring tools (e.g., Prometheus) App Istio-proxy Istio-proxy Response Request (Res time) – (Req time) → Latency
  12. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Monitoring OSS bundle

    function was discontinued from v1.8 1 because the full functionality of each OSS cannot be provided ▪ This change gave us significantly improved flexibility ▪ But users is required to integrate these themselves → Need some practices Monitoring OSS Status of Istio’s Observability Feature 11 1 “Reworking our Addon Integrations” https://istio.io/latest/blog/2020/addon-rework/ Istio Istio Monitoring OSS Bundle Integrate as you like Before After
  13. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Implementation of Observability

    Platform using Istio ▪ Investigate know-how and notices about integration based on practice ▪ Collect data of the three pillars of Observability: metrics, tracing, and logging ▪ Utilize Operator to make monitoring OSS have operability and manageability that can be used in production env. 1 12 1. Data persistence and mTLS were omitted due to time constraints
  14. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. 2. Observability Features

    of Istio 13
  15. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Data Obtainable in

    Istio (partial) ▪ Create a map of data that Istio can retrieve based on the official docs ▪ HTTP has many important metrics, including service level values 14 1. It is called service-level in the official docs Metrics App level 1 Proxy level HTTP Tracing Logging TCP istio-proxy istiod Throughput Latency Request error rate Data size Connections Stats of each proxy(e.g., retries) Status of Istio’s control plane Tracing data Access log
  16. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Data collected by

    the Platform ▪ Get all data without “Stats of each proxy” ▪ Because it produces a huge amount of small grained data 15 1. It is called service-level in the official docs Metrics App level 1 Proxy level HTTP Tracing Logging TCP istio-proxy istiod Throughput Latency Request error rate Data size Connections Stats of each proxy(e.g., retries) Status of Istio’s control plane Tracing data Access log
  17. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Monitoring OSS that

    can be integrated with Istio ▪ Monitoring OSS that can be integrated with Istio, and their relationship ▪ Many software can be integrated with Grafana 16 has own dashboard Logging Metrics Tracing Dashboard Istio Logstash fluentbit Promtail Elastic search Grafana Loki Kibana Prome theus Jaeger Zipkin Open Sensus Kiali Istio-proxy Istiod Grafana Grafana Tempo Istio also supports DataDog, Lightstep, and StackDriver as tracing, but omitted because they are not OSS.
  18. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. OSS used in

    the Platform ▪ Use Grafana as the main dashboard ▪ Select OSS with strong integration with Grafana 17 Logstash fluentbit Promtail Elastic search Grafana Loki Kibana Prome theus Jaeger Zipkin Open Sensus Kiali Istio-proxy Istiod Grafana Grafana Tempo has own dashboard Logging Metrics Tracing Dashboard Istio Istio also supports DataDog, Lightstep, and StackDriver as tracing, but omitted because they are not OSS.
  19. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. K8s metrics Designing

    the Platform 18 Prometheus Operator Jaeger Operator Kiali Operator Application(Bookinfo) front app1 db app2 Istio-pxy Istio-pxy Istio-pxy Istio-pxy Access log Container log Traffic metrics Logs Metrics Logs istiod Traffic metrics Istio Operator Operator Lifecycle Manager Kubernetes Deploy manifests Ops Browse dashboards Monitoring OSS Istio Operator Flow of info Dashboard App Grafana Operator Trace Data Trace Data Trace Data Grafana Jaeger Kiali Prometheus Loki Promtail
  20. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. 3. How to

    Integrate Monitoring OSS and Istio 19
  21. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Map 20 K8s

    metrics Prometheus Operator Jaeger Operator Kiali Operator Grafana Jaeger Kiali Prometheus Sample App(Bookinfo) Loki front app1 db app2 Istio-pxy Istio-pxy Istio-pxy Istio-pxy Access log Container log Traffic metrics Logs Metrics Logs istiod Traffic metrics Istio Operator Operator Lifecycle Manager Kubernetes Grafana Operator Promtail Trace Data Trace Data Tracing Data Loki・ Promtail p.23 Grafana p.25 Jaeger p.24 Prometheus p.21 Omitted because it is under construction Browse dashboards Monitoring OSS Istio Operator Flow of info Dashboard App Deploy manifests Ops
  22. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Integrate with Prometheus

    1/2 ▪ Whether Prometheus should be composed as Shared or Hierarchical1 → Adopted a Shared composition, prioritizing the reduction of manage cost 21 Hierarchical composition Shared composition Istio Prometheus Production Prometheus Production Prometheus Gathering data Gathering data Pros ▪ Distributed loads ▪ Clear demarcation point ▪ Official recommended 2 ---- Cons ▪ Complex ▪ More manage cost ▪ More resource usage Pros ▪ Simple ▪ Less manage cost ▪ Less resource usage ---- Cons ▪ Load concentration to prod. Prometheus ▪ Ambiguous demarcation point 1. in-house jargon 2. Observability Best Practices https://istio.io/latest/docs/ops/best-practices/observability/#using-prometheus-for-production-scale-monitoring Aggre- gating Gathering data
  23. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Integrate with Prometheus

    2/2 ▪ Building Prometheus based on “kube-prometheus” ◇ Package of monitoring OSS provided by the Prometheus-Operator ◇ It can build pre-configured Prometheus, Grafana, and Alert Manager ▪ To get Istio’s metrics, the following settings are required for Prometheus Prometheus Operator is recommended to ease management ◇ istio-proxy : Scrape “/stats/prometheus” of each proxy by PodMonitor ◇ istiod:Scrape http-monitoring port in istiod Service by ServiceMonitor ◇ NOTE : “spec.namespaceSeletor.any = true” setting in Pod/ServiceMonitor didn’t work in my env. 22
  24. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Integrate with Loki

    and Promtail ▪ Deploy with Helm or Tanka (officially recommended) ◇ Loki and Promtail do not currently have an operator (2021.3) ◇ Helm works fine in my environment ▪ To output the access log, the setting must be made when deploying Istio ◇ Set spec.meshConfig.accessLogFile in IstioOperator ◇ The Istio of this platform performs the right settings 23 # Config of Istio in the platform apiVersion: install.istio.io/v1alpha1 kind: IstioOperator metadata: namespace: istio-system name: istio spec: profile: default meshConfig: accessLogFile: /dev/stdout enableTracing: true defaultConfig: tracing: sampling: 1 zipkin: address: <jeagerの宛先>:9411 For Jaeger For Loki
  25. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Integrate with Jaeger

    ▪ Jaeger can be easily deployed using the Jaeger Operator ▪ Each Istio-proxy generates trace span and sends data to Jaeger ◇ Specify the Jaeger endpoint in IstioOperator. See previous page ◇ IstioOperator also can set sampling rate1 (default 1%) ◇ NOTE: A restart of all istio-proxies is required to apply the trace settings. ▪ But Distributed tracing also requires “Trace-Context Propagation” on each APPLICATION 2 ◇ istio-proxy cannot determine the correspondence between RX and TX ◇ This is only point that needs to be handled by the application 24 1. It can also be specified in the proxy.istio.io/config annotation of the Pod, and different values can be set per Pod 2. https://istio.io/latest/docs/tasks/observability/distributed-tracing/overview/#trace-context-propagation
  26. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Integrate with Grafana

    ▪ Grafana Operator is recommended to manage dashboards ◇ It can also be deployed via kube-prometheus as mentioned above ◇ kube-prometheus has good dashboards. You can transplant them as needed ▪ Integration ◇ Import data source of Prometheus, Loki, Jaeger by GrafanaDataSource ◇ Import Istio official dashboards by GrafanaDashboard (5+1 type)1、2 ✓ GrafanaDashboard resource can assign data sources and retrieve plugins with declarative ◇ NOTE : Dashboard editing from GUI disappears by restarting the container 25 1 https://istio.io/latest/docs/ops/integrations/grafana/ … 5 dashboards listed on the official website 2 https://grafana.com/grafana/dashboards/13277 ... Dashboard for WASM in Grafana's Istio repository
  27. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Running the Observability

    Platform ▪ With the above configuration, the Observability platform run successfully ▪ Confirmed to be able to get service level metrics such as latency, error rate 26 Metrics Logging Tracing Throughput Error Rate Latency
  28. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. 4. Tips through

    Construction and Operation 27
  29. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Keep it Simple

    Small Start ▪ You only need metrics at first. After that, logging → tracing ▪ Tracing can be added as you feel the need to do so ▪ Compare the benefits and the operational cost Separation of Istio and Monitoring OSS ▪ To avoid complexity, monitoring OSS should be deployed outside the Istio mesh ▪ If monitoring OSS is involved in Istio failure, it is impossible to analyze the cause ▪ But be careful not to isolate monitoring OSS when mTLS is applied Centralized Dashboard ▪ Grafana is useful for viewing metrics, logging, and tracing in a single GUI 28
  30. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Configuration Management Configuration

    becomes more complex because it handles multiple OSS and Operators. Consistent management is needed Single Source of Truth ▪ Manage various configurations in Git with Kubernetes manifests ▪ Prometheus and Grafana's Operator work well with Git ▪ Changing the configuration via GUI or CLI will break the consistency of SSOT. Changes should be reflected in the manifest. Managing Deployment Methods ▪ Each OSS has a different deployment method: Helm, Operator, OLM, CLI, GUI ▪ Manage the manifest generation method 29
  31. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Using Istio or

    Not ▪ Istio is a huge layer. Cannot be easily added or removed ▪ Do the Pros exceed the Cons? Do you have a good use case? 1 30 ▪ Consistently enforce policies across the entire system without app modification ▪ Many features ◇ Observability ◇ Dynamic traffic control ◇ mTLS, AuthN/AuthZ ▪ Active communities, etc. ▪ System complexity due to additional Service Mesh layer ▪ Learning costs ▪ Management cost ▪ Increased resources usage ▪ 2-10ms latency per hop ▪ Kubernetes lock in ▪ Update every 3-6 months, etc. 1 Collection of Use Cases ▪ Megan O’Keefe, “Istio by Example!”, https://www.istiobyexample.dev/ , (Japanese version https://istiobyexample-ja.github.io/istiobyexample/ ) ▪ Istio official docs, https://istio.io/latest/docs/tasks/ Pros Cons
  32. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. 5. Conclusion 31

  33. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Conclusion Observability means

    "The state understanding what is happening inside the system and why, from data" ▪ To deal with unknown phenomena Combining Istio and monitoring OSS, we built a platform to transparently monitor service levels from applications ▪ Using Prometheus, Jaeger, Loki, and Grafana Knowledge gained from construction and operation ▪ Keep it simple and manage the configuration ▪ Decide whether to use Istio considering both its benefits and concerns 32
  34. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. In Future ▪

    Observability in Practice ◇ Improve stability and usability ◇ retrieve challenges through operation ◇ hopefully release to the public ▪ mTLS support ◇ Designing authorization to obtain monitoring data ▪ Data persistence ◇ Establish the PV applying method ◇ Verify the disk usage of monitoring data ▪ Control metrics acquisition methods ◇ Next page 33
  35. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Control the Metrics

    Acquisition Methods ▪ Metrics may have different name, function and collecting methods by environments ◇ E.g., CPU usage is normalized by cores or not ◇ E.g., Platform can collect the metrics or not ▪ Mapping individual metrics to improve portability to multiple environments 34 On Premise Cloud A App Monitoring service App Side Car function composition Cloud A $val*$cores - On Premise $val add $sidecar Deploy Convert $val * $cores $val DB Metrics map Metrics converter Operator CPU usage 800% 300% 50% CPU usage 300% CPU usage vCPUx16
  36. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. References ▪ John

    Porcaro, “Observability (re)defined”, https://www.humio.com/whats-new/blog/observability-redefined, 2019 ▪ Betsy Beyer, Chris Jones, Niall Richard Murphy, Jennifer Petoff, “Site Reliability Engineering”, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2017 ▪ Mike Julian, “Practical Monitoring”, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2017 ▪ Cindy Sridharan, “Distributed Systems Observability”, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2018 ▪ Charity Majors, Liz Fong-Jones, George Miranda, “Observability Engineering”, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2022(Early Release) ▪ Cindy Sridharan, “Monitoring in the time of Cloud Native”, https://copyconstruct.medium.com/monitoring-in-the-time-of- cloud-native-c87c7a5bfa3e, 2017 ▪ “Istio”, https://istio.io/latest/, Istio Authors, 2021 ▪ Megan O’Keefe, “Istio by Example!”, https://www.istiobyexample.dev/, 2021 ▪ “kube-prometheus”, https://github.com/prometheus-operator/kube-prometheus, prometheus-operator, 2021 ▪ “grafana-operator”, https://github.com/integr8ly/grafana-operator, integr8ly, 2021 ▪ “Tempo Documentation”, https://grafana.com/docs/tempo/latest/, Grafana Labs, 2021 ▪ “jaeger-operator”, https://github.com/jaegertracing/jaeger-operator, jaegertracing, 2021 ▪ “Installation Guide”, https://kiali.io/documentation/latest/installation-guide/, Kiali, 2021 ▪ “operator-lifecycle-manager”, https://github.com/operator-framework/operator-lifecycle-manager, operator-framework, 2021 ▪ Benjamin H. Sigelman, etc., “Dapper, a Large-Scale Distributed Systems Tracing Infrastructure”, Google Technical Report (2010) 35
  37. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Trademarks ▪ Istio

    is a registered trademark of Google LLC ▪ Envoy Proxy is a registered trademark of The Linux Foundation ▪ Kubernetes is a registered trademark of The Linux Foundation ▪ Prometheus is a registered trademark of The Linux Foundation ▪ Grafana is a registered trademark of Grafana Labs ▪ Grafana Loki is a registered trademark of Grafana Labs ▪ Jaeger is a registered trademark of The Linux Foundation ▪ Kiali is a registered trademark of Red Hat, Inc. ▪ Datadog is a registered trademark of Datadog, Inc. ▪ StackDriver is a registered trademark of Google LLC ▪ Dynatrace is a registered trademark of Dynatrace LLC ▪ OpenTracing is a registered trademark of The Linux Foundation ▪ All other company names, product names, service names, and other proper nouns mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies ▪ TM and 🄬 marks are not indicated in the text and figures in this presentation 36
  38. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Appendix

  39. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Observability from Different

    Perspectives 38 ▪ The goal of observability is “dealing with unknown phenomena” ▪ There are other perspectives besides collecting data to achieve the goal Gaining Insights from Data Data Mining、Profiling、 Dependency Analyzing Narrowing the possible range of unknown phenomena System Design、Testing Chaos Engineering Getting the data Monitoring、Tracing、Logging System Pheno mena Data Insight Deal with
  40. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Classifying Metrics Based

    on Request or Response ▪ Adding URL and HTTP Header attributes to the monitored data (Istio-1.8 ~) ▪ It is very powerful because it can increase the resolution of metrics from L4 to L7 ▪ E.g., Calculate the error rate per URL path, user, and browser type 39 Front Service 1. Deploy plugin Prometheus Request Response Original Info Metrics 2. Set classifying rule ユーザ 3. Classify metrics User Access Assign attributes to metrics based on rule 4. Store metrics
  41. © Hitachi, Ltd. 2021. All rights reserved. Google Trends in

    Tracing Standards 40 OpenTracing OpenCensus OpenTelemetry W3C Distributed Tracing WG Refine CNCF W3C Dapper Zipkin Jaeger A paper of distributed tracing system in Google Dynatrace 2010 Standardization of distributed tracing (except for data details) 2016 2019 Spec and libraries integrated OpenCensus and OpenTracing Various OSS/Products Stan- dardize Derive Integrate Integrate 2020 Standardization of tracing data structures Standardize Feedback A library of distributed tracing and monitoring
  42. None