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"dreadful but amazing microorganism"


Maleeha Fatima

May 04, 2020


  1. None
  2. 1. What is fungus? 2. How old is fungus? 3.

    Fungal form 4. Fungi - Is beneficial or detrimental? 5. Identification of molds 6. Terminologies 7. Microscopic structures of molds
  3. WHAT IS FUNGUS ? • Non-photosynthetic, heterotrophic, eukaryotic organism is

    called Fungus. • All fungi are placed in separate kingdom and named as Kingdom Fungi. • The discipline of biology which is devoted to the study of fungi is known as Mycology. • Fungus has the ability to digest its food externally and absorbs nutrients directly from its cell wall.
  4. None
  5. ➢ There are two forms in which fungus exists: unicellular

    (yeast) as well as multicellular (mold). Yeast is a type of fungi that lack hyphae whereas mold is a type of fungi that have hyphae. ➢ Fungus that exists in both forms, either occur as yeast or mold, depending on environmental conditions is called dimorphic fungi. Microscopic fungi - yeast and mold. Macroscopic fungi- mushrooms.
  6. ❖ Fungi are fascinating but they are also critically important

    to humans in both beneficial as well as detrimental ways. ❖ Fungi are involved in a wide range of activities such as: some fungi are decomposers, parasites or pathogens of other organisms while some fungi are beneficial partners in symbiosis with animals, plants or algae.
  7. BENEFITS: Fungi are used in many industrial processes such as

    the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, polyhydric alcohols, pigments, lipids and glycolipids. DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS: Black mold- Aspergillus & Blue mold- Penicillium on bread respectively

  9. Mucormycosis

  10. Penicilliosis

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF MOLDS ❖ According to the survey, which was

    conducted by American society for Microbiology: • 89% of laboratories performing morphology based mycological examination • 16% use serological test • Fewer than 5% use molecular test • 3% use home brew molecular test
  12. ❖ Fungi have been identified usually on the basis of

    their morphological characteristics by comparison with those of the known species observed by microscope. ❖ Molds are studied macroscopically as well as microscopically.
  13. ✓ Macroscopic examination of molds includes: • Texture • Colour

    of the culture plate
  14. ✓ Microscopic examination of molds is done by any one

    of these methods: • Lacto phenol cotton blue teased mount
  15. • Double sided sticky scotch tape

  16. • Slide culture technique

  17. TERMINOLOGIES •Conidia- spores that produced asexually at the tip of

    conidiophore •Conidiophore- specialized hyphae that produce conidia •Phialides- flask-shaped projection arises from the vesicle •Vesicle- swollen end cells that stores the food •Columella- dome shaped structure found at the tip of sporangiophore •Sporangium- cell containing spores •Sporangiospores- spores that produced in the sporangium •Sporangiophora- specialized hyphae that bear sporangia •Hyphae- long filament, thread like tubular structures •Septate hyphae- cross wall divide the hyphae into uninucleate unit •Non-septate hyphae- no cross wall •Mycelium- mass of hyphae that can be seen macroscopically •Metula- branches arises from conidiophore
  18. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF MOLDS Conidia Phialides Vesicle Conidiophore Aspergillus

  19. Mucor Non-septate mycelium Sporangiophora Sporangiospores Sporangium

  20. Conidia Phialides Metula Conidiophore Penicillium

  21. The pictures used in this presentation (culture plate of mold,

    Microscopic images of molds Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium) are the part of my research which was carried out at Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) under the supervision of Dr. Muhammad Naseem Khan (PCSIR) and Dr. Saifullah (University of Karachi).