called Fungus. • All fungi are placed in separate kingdom and named as Kingdom Fungi. • The discipline of biology which is devoted to the study of fungi is known as Mycology. • Fungus has the ability to digest its food externally and absorbs nutrients directly from its cell wall.
(yeast) as well as multicellular (mold). Yeast is a type of fungi that lack hyphae whereas mold is a type of fungi that have hyphae. ➢ Fungus that exists in both forms, either occur as yeast or mold, depending on environmental conditions is called dimorphic fungi. Microscopic fungi - yeast and mold. Macroscopic fungi- mushrooms.
to humans in both beneficial as well as detrimental ways. ❖ Fungi are involved in a wide range of activities such as: some fungi are decomposers, parasites or pathogens of other organisms while some fungi are beneficial partners in symbiosis with animals, plants or algae.
conducted by American society for Microbiology: • 89% of laboratories performing morphology based mycological examination • 16% use serological test • Fewer than 5% use molecular test • 3% use home brew molecular test
conidiophore •Conidiophore- specialized hyphae that produce conidia •Phialides- flask-shaped projection arises from the vesicle •Vesicle- swollen end cells that stores the food •Columella- dome shaped structure found at the tip of sporangiophore •Sporangium- cell containing spores •Sporangiospores- spores that produced in the sporangium •Sporangiophora- specialized hyphae that bear sporangia •Hyphae- long filament, thread like tubular structures •Septate hyphae- cross wall divide the hyphae into uninucleate unit •Non-septate hyphae- no cross wall •Mycelium- mass of hyphae that can be seen macroscopically •Metula- branches arises from conidiophore
Microscopic images of molds Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium) are the part of my research which was carried out at Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) under the supervision of Dr. Muhammad Naseem Khan (PCSIR) and Dr. Saifullah (University of Karachi).