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If Paintings Were Plants: Measuring Genre Diversity in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Painting and Printmaking

If Paintings Were Plants: Measuring Genre Diversity in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Painting and Printmaking

Presented at DH2016 in Kraków on July 13, 2016

Matthew Lincoln

July 13, 2016
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  1. If Paintings were Plants
    Matthew Lincoln, PhD
    University of Maryland
    Getty Research Institute
    @matthewdlincoln
    July 13, 2016
    DH2016 - Kraków
    Measuring Genre Diversity in
    Seventeenth-Century Dutch
    Painting and Printmaking

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  2. Frans Francken II, “Kunstkammer”,
    c. 1620-1625. Oil on panel.
    Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien.

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  3. Frans Francken II, “Kunstkammer”,
    c. 1620-1625. Oil on panel.
    Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien.

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  4. @matthewdlincoln
    “Sculptura in Æs”, from Jan van der Straet’s
    Nova Reperta. Published by Philips Galle, c.
    1588-1605. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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  5. !!
    = −∑
    !!
    !
    ln
    !!
    !
    Diversity index: 1.10 Diversity index: 0.56
    @matthewdlincoln
    Shannon’s diversity index

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  6. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorisches
    Documentatie
    The Montias Database of 17th Century
    Dutch Art Inventories (@ Frick Collection)
    Print collections in the Rijksmuseum
    @matthewdlincoln

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  7. @matthewdlincoln
    •  Information from 1,280 Amsterdam
    household inventories between 1597-1681
    •  Around 4,300 described and attributed
    paintings
    •  One subject keyword per entry (assigned by
    Montias)
    The Montias Database of 17th Century
    Dutch Art Inventories (@ Frick Collection)

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  8. @matthewdlincoln
    •  Modern database known Dutch and Flemish
    paintings held in both public and private
    collections
    •  Around 47,000 attributed paintings made
    between 1500-1700
    •  5-12 Keyword tags per object (e.g. “vrou”,
    “zittend”, “meid”)
    •  Used k-means clustering to sort objects into
    single categories based on keyword tags
    Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorisches
    Documentatie

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  9. Print collections in the Rijksmuseum
    @matthewdlincoln
    •  Rich collection of around 35,000 Dutch and Flemish prints, 1500-1700
    •  Tagged with 1-5 hierarchical ICONCLASS codes
    •  e.g. 71C:
    •  7 (Bible)
    •  71 (Old Testament)
    •  71C (Story of Isaac) …
    •  Used k-means clustering to sort objects in to single subject categories
    based on shared 2nd-level ICONCLASS topics

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  10. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorisches
    Documentatie
    The Montias Database of 17th Century
    Dutch Art Inventories (@ Frick Collection)
    Print collections in the Rijksmuseum
    @matthewdlincoln

    View Slide

  11. 0
    100
    200
    300
    400
    1500 1550 1600 1650 1700
    Artist birth year
    dataset MDI RKD RKM
    Artists in each dataset, by birth year
    @matthewdlincoln

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  12. •  Calculate oeuvre diversity metrics for every artist
    •  Using a moving window, calculate the mean
    diversity value for artists born within that window
    •  Bootstrap random samples to derive confidence
    intervals
    @matthewdlincoln

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  13. MDI RKD RKM
    0.0
    0.5
    1.0
    1550 1600 1650 1550 1600 1650 1550 1600 1650
    Artist birth date
    dataset MDI RKD RKM
    Mean career diversity (with bootstrapped 95% CI)
    @matthewdlincoln

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  14. Adriaen van Ostade Cornelis Pietersz Bega Cornelis Dusart
    Renier Nooms Allaert van Everdingen
    @matthewdlincoln

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  15. after Adriaen van Ostade
    after Nicolaes Berchem after Peter Paul Rubens
    after Gerard ter Borch after Frans Hals
    “Jonas Suyderhoef sculpsit”

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  16. Specialization in Haarlem
    tabletop still lifes
    with Quint Gregory
    IN PROGRESS

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  17. Henry Duval Gregory, “Tabletop Still Lifes in Haarlem, c.
    1610-1660: A Study of the Relationships between Form and
    Meaning” (Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland, 2003).
    @matthewdlincoln

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  18. Compositional
    •  Orientation (por./land.)
    •  Disposition (wedge? pyramid?)
    •  Viewpoint (high/low)
    •  Cropping (tight/expansive)
    •  Height
    •  Width
    Symbolic
    •  Significant Motifs
    •  Illusionistic Signature?
    @matthewdlincoln

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  19. 1.  Lemon (peeled)
    2.  Candle (extinguished)
    3.  Oyster
    4.  Beer
    5.  Tazza (overturned)
    6.  …
    Willem Claes Heda, Banquet Piece
    with Mince Pie, 1638. National
    Gallery of Art, Washington

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  20. 1.  Meat pie (Turkey)
    2.  Mince Pie
    3.  Oyster
    4.  Wine (white)
    Pieter Claesz, Still life with Turkey Pie,
    1627. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

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  21. Low viewpoint

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  22. High viewpoint

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  23. Unpredictable Composition
    Unpredictable Motif
    Predictable Composition
    Unpredictable Motif
    Predictable Composition
    Predictable Motif
    Unpredictable Composition
    Predictable Motif



    ● ●



    Cornelis Mahu
    Floris van Dijck
    Floris van Schooten
    Gerrit Heda
    Nicolaes Gillis
    Pieter Claesz
    Roelof Koets
    Willem Claesz Heda
    0.00
    0.25
    0.50
    0.75
    1.00
    0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
    Composition−based error
    Motif−based error
    artist_relationship ● Definite

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  24. Matthew Lincoln
    matthewlincoln.net
    @matthewdlincoln

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