Project 1 Slideshare 4: Style vs. Grammar

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January 07, 2019

Project 1 Slideshare 4: Style vs. Grammar

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TechProf

January 07, 2019
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  1. 1 vs. GRAMMAR

  2. 2 Table of Contents Introduction ........................................................................................................................3 Real Rules ............................................................................................................................4 Social

    Rules .........................................................................................................................5 Invented Rules ...................................................................................................................6-11 Invented Rules Competent Writers Ignore .......................................................12-13 Rules that Matter: Errors Workplace Readers Notice..............................................14-15 Run-On Sentence: What it is and how to fix it. ................................................16 Comma Splice: What it is and how to fix it .......................................................17 Missing Comma for Intro Element: What it is and how to fix it ....................18 Faulty Parallel Structure: What it is and how to fix it.......................................29 Incorrect Usage and Typos: how to fix ..............................................................20 Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................21
  3. Prose style is about the words you choose and how

    you arrange these words. Grammar is about language rules. And there are three kinds: real rules, social rules, and invented rules. 3 INTRODUCTION What follows is adapted from Style by Joseph Williams. I highly recommend it.
  4. These are rules that define English as English. Speakers born

    into English do not think them much and violate them only when they are not paying attention. Example of real rules: – Mary and John sat by the lake. Not – in the lake or on the lake. – She enjoyed the book. Not: She enjoyed book the. 4 REAL RULES
  5. These are rules that distinguish standard (written) from non-standard English

    (spoken). No one speaks standard English. Not even English teachers J). Educated people, however, write standard English. The differences between written and spoken English may be considered errors, but in most instances, the differences are a matter of dialect, so they are not errors, because speakers of the dialect uses other rules consistently. • Standard Written English: "I don't own a car." (standard English) • Non-standard English: "I don't have car, no." (Cajun dialect, non-standard English) 5 SOCIAL RULES
  6. These are rules we are taught in school. They date

    from the last half of the 18th century and were developed to standardize written English. For example, Robert Lowth (1710 – 787) wrote one of the most influential books of English grammar. He and others helped standardize spelling, punctuation, etc. And that's a good thing. Language, however, is dynamic and to view rules as static is a problem, something Lowth did not understand, but don’t be too hard on him. He meant well. 6 Yes, and I worked very hard!!! Robert Lowth INVENTED RULES
  7. Example of an Invented Rule Never split an infinitive is

    an example of an invented rule. An infinitive is the "to form" of a verb such as "to run," "to play," etc. The writers of the television and film series Star Trek, however, purposefully broke this rule. 7
  8. 8 To boldly go where no man has gone before!

    Wrong! The correct wording is “to go boldly” sonny.
  9. 9 Honestly, grammar lady who on earth would prefer that

    syntax? And, hey isn’t that Karen’s 8th grade English teacher? Star Trek’s writers broke this rule because it just sounded better. Let’s vaporize grammar lady. She’s not being logical, but we can spare her for now.
  10. 10 As Williams observes in the book Style: If writers

    we judge to be competent regularly violate some alleged rule, then the rule has no force. In those cases, it is not writers who should change their usage, but grammarians who should change the rules.
  11. Also, invented rules can and do change. In the 20th

    century, the official gate keepers of English those who produce the Oxford English dictionary, and who should never be sneered at, made it official that splitting infinitives was okay. 11
  12. Invented Rules competent writers ignore because these are really style

    choices. Never – Start a sentence with and or but – Start a sentence with because – Start a sentence with a preposition – Use a contraction It's a perfectly fine choice to start a sentence with and, but, or because and to use a contraction. But, if you start most of your sentences this way, your writing will lack variation. 12
  13. More Invented Rules competent writers ignore. Never use the word

    I in an academic paper or report. Never use like for as or as if. Never use irregardless for regardless. Don’t use hopefully to mean I hope. Don’t use finalize to mean finish or complete. Don’t use impact as a verb. Don’t modify absolute words such as perfect, unique, or complete with very, more, quite, etc. Use fewer with nouns you count, less with nouns you cannot. Use since and while to refer only to time, not to mean because or to mean although. 13
  14. Rules that you should follow are ones that matter because

    not following them will make your writing unclear and/or cause confusion. If you make errors that workplace readers are likely to notice, your writing will also imply you are careless. Errors Workplace Readers Notice • Run-On sentences, • Comma splices • Missing comma for an introductory element • Faulty parallel structure • Incorrect use of its/it’s and there/they’re/their • Typos 14 RULES that MATTER
  15. Run-On Sentence: what it is and how to fix it.

    When you connect two complete sentences (a.k.a. independent clauses) with a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, yet, or so) without using a comma before the conjunction, it’s a run-on sentence. • We ran the tests but the findings were inconclusive. • We ran the tests, but the findings were inconclusive. To remember this, memorize the acronym: fanboys, and when you write a fanboy word, check if you need the comma. –For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So 15 These are ALL the coordinating conjunctions in English.
  16. Comma Splice: what it is and how to fix it.

    When you connect two complete sentences with a comma, the error is called a comma splice. To fix, separate into two sentences. • The inspection revealed significant damage to the roadway, we will need to contact the transportation department to report it. • The inspection revealed significant damage to the roadway. We will need to contact the transportation department to report it. 16
  17. Introductory Element: what it is and how to fix it.

    Introductory elements consist of phrases and words that appear before the main part of a sentence. Essentially, they prepare your readers for what the sentence is really about by setting the conditions related to comparison/contrast, time, etc. Use a comma after an introductory element. Common introductory phrases are: Although - Although initial tests failed, we were able to . . . If /then - If we don’t submit the proposal by deadline, it won’t . . . Prepositional phrases - In the first phase, we will . . . Time phrases - When we set up the equipment again, let’s use . . . 17
  18. Faulty Parallel Structure: what it is and how to fix

    it. Faulty parallel structure simply means a writer is not using the same grammatical form of words in a pair of or series that are related. • The career center will give you more information about careers in programming, engineering, and biochemist. • The career center will give you more information about careers in programming, engineering, and biochemistry. 18
  19. Incorrect Usage of Contractions and Typos Use spell-check but also

    read your writing aloud because spell- check won’t catch a problem where you use the incorrect form of a contraction or synonym (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning). It’s, (it is – It's raining outside.) Its, (possessive of pronoun it– The jury has made its decision.) There (adverb – We went there after work.) They’re (they are – They're leaving tomorrow.) Their, (possessive of pronoun they - Their project is on hold.) 19
  20. But there’s this: the Grammar Police Some die-hard members of

    the grammar police still hold onto rules that are really style choices and insist, instead, that the style choice is an error. When you meet one of these people, and they have power over you, make a decision about whether you will fight grammatical injustice or cave to power J). 20 Definition of Grammar Police: people who impose their views about the invented rules in English on others, rules that are really style choices. CONCLUSION