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Art of the Ancient Near East: Protoliterate Sumerian to Neo-Babylonian

January 24, 2013

Art of the Ancient Near East: Protoliterate Sumerian to Neo-Babylonian


January 24, 2013

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  1. Art  of  the  Ancient  Near  East   Reading:    

    Stokstad,  pp.  26-­‐47     Range:   5500-­‐1500  BCE   Sumerian,  Akkadian,  Old   Babylonian     Terms/Concepts:   Mesopotamia,  Cuneiform,   Cylinder  Seals,  Register,  Bas   Relief,  HieraGc  Scale,  VoGve,     Axial,  Bent  Axis,  Ziggurat,  Axis   Mundi,  Stele,  Lapis  Lazuli,     Monument  List     2-­‐2,  Anu  Ziggurat,   Protoliterate  Sumerian,   3400-­‐3200  BCE     2-­‐4,  Warka  Vase,  Protoliterate   Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000  BCE     2-­‐7,  The  Great  Lyre,  Early   DynasGc  Sumerian,  2600-­‐2500   BCE.     2-­‐1,  Stele  of  Naram-­‐Sin,   Akkadian,  2254-­‐2218  BCE     2-­‐15,  Stele  of  Hammurabi,  Old   Babylonian,  1792-­‐1750  BCE  
  2. Major  Powers  in  the  Near  East    Protoliterate  Mesopotamia:  5500-­‐3000

     BCE    Early  DynasGc  Sumerian:  3000-­‐2340  BCE    Akkadian:  2340-­‐2180  BCE    Old  Babylonian:  2025-­‐1594  BCE    Assyrian:  1350-­‐612  BCE    Neo-­‐Babylonian:  612-­‐539  BCE    Achaemenid  Persian:  539-­‐331  BCE  
  3. Plan of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple. Uruk, Iraq.

    c.3300-3000 BCE Bent-­‐Axis  
  4. Gilgamesh:  the  king  who  was  2/3  god   “Gilgamesh”  (Assyrian

     Hero)   The  Epic  of  Gilgamesh  in  Akkadian  
  5. The Great Lyre with Bull`s Head, from Tomb 789. Royal

    Cemetery, Ur, Early Dynastic Sumerian, c.2600-2500 BCE (See B on pg. 35).
  6. “When  Shamash  with  radiant  face   had  joyfully  looked  upon

     me  –  me  his   favorite  shepherd,  Hammurabi…to   cause  jusGce  to  prevail  in  the  land,  to   destroy  the  wicked  and  evil  that  the   strong  might  not  oppress  the  weak.”    
  7. •  “If  a  man  puts  out  the  eye  of  another

     man,   his  eye  shall  be  put  out.”   •  “If  he  kills  a  man’s  slave,  he  shall  pay  one-­‐ third  of  a  mina.”   •  “If  someone  steals  property  from  a   temple,  he  will  be  put  to  death  as  will  the   person  who  receives  the  stolen  goods.”   •  “If  a  married  woman  dies  before  bearing   any  sons,  her  dowry  shall  be  repaid  to  her   father,  but  if  she  gave  birth  to  sons,  the   dowry  belongs  to  them.”   •  If  a  man  strikes  a  freeborn  woman  so  that   she  loses  her  unborn  child,  he  shall  bay   ten  shekels  for  her  loss.    If  the  woman  dies   his  daughter  shall  be  put  to  death.”   •  “If  a  man  is  guilty  of  incest  with  his   daughter,  he  shall  be  exiled.”  
  8. CriGcal  Thinking  QuesGons   1.  How  is  religious  and  poliGcal

     power  connected  in  the   cultures  of  the  ancient  Near  East?    How  do  these   connecGons  manifest  in  their  art?   2.  What  is  hieraGc  scale?    How  is  it  used  in  ancient  Near   Eastern  art?   3.  How  is  the  bent  axis  used  in  Near  Eastern   architecture?    What  is  its  significance?   4.  What  is  the  importance  of  materials  like  lapis  lazuli   and  gold?    What  social  insGtuGons  and  acGviGes  do   they  indicate?   5.  What  are  cylinder  seals?  What  funcGon  do  they   serve?  What  cultural  insGtuGons  do  they  indicate?