David Freedberg and Robert D. McFadden Range: 500-‐1425 CE Byzan.ne Key Terms/Concepts: Icon, veneraDon, latria, proskynesis, acheiropoietai, palladium, Iconoclasm, Pantokrator, Acheiropoietos, Theotokos, Hodegetria, Orans, BlacherniDssa, Eleousa, Glykophilsousa, Festal, Iconoclast, Iconophile, Iconodule, Iconostasis. Key Monuments: Vladimir Virgin, ConstanDnople, late 11th –early 12th Century. Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George, St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai, late 6th— early 7th century. The AnnunciaDon, “Ohrid AnnunciaDon,” Macedonia, early 14th Century. Andrey Rublyov, The Old Testament Trinity (Three Angels VisiDng Abraham), 1410.
Roman Empire into Eastern and Western regions. *Theodosius I asserted ChrisDanity as the oﬃcial religion of the Roman Empire in 380 and ordered the dismantlement of all pagan temples and monuments in 391. Theodosius I (379-‐395)
Roman Empire into Eastern and Western regions. *The successors of Theodosius I conDnued to strengthen ChrisDanity as a powerful force in both the East and the West. Honorius I (395-‐423) ByzanDne Empire
representaDons Speciﬁc: Pictures of holy persons, events, venerated by the Eastern church. Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George, St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai, late 6th—early 7th century.
date BapDsm of Jesus by John the Forerunner (January 6) The PresentaDon of Jesus in the Temple (February 2) The AnnunciaDon (March 25) The Raising of Lazarus (Saturday before Palm Sunday) Entry into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday) The Cruciﬁxion (Good Friday) The ResurrecDon (Easter or Holy Pascha) The Ascension (40 days a`er Easter) Meso-‐Pentecost (Jesus, 12 years old, lectures the Jewish Priests in the Temple) The Descent of the Holy Spirit (Pentecost, 50 days a`er Easter) The TransﬁguraDon (August 6) The DormiDon of the Holy Virgin * (August 15) The NaDvity of the Virgin Mary (September 8) The ExaltaDon of the Cross (by Arch. Zinon, Courtesy Orthodox World) * The PresentaDon of the Virgin in the Temple (November 21) The NaDvity of our Lord Jesus Christ (December 25) The AnnunciaDon, “Ohrid AnnunciaDon,” Macedonia, early 14th Century.
the “graven images” menDoned in the second commandment: “4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:5 thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them.” (Exodus 20: 4-‐5) 2) Icons are man made, as opposed to relic, and do not deserve to be venerated: “The divine nature is completely uncircumscribable and cannot be depicted or represented by ar&sts in any medium whatsoever.” (Iconoclas&c Council, 754)
tools: “An image is, aKer all, a reminder; it is to the illiterate what a book is to the literate, and what the word is to hearing, the image is to sight.” (John of Damascus) 2) Icons are a valuable proxy by which the faithful could demonstrate their love and honor for the divine: “God created man to his own image” (Genesis 1:27) 3) Icons are a valid way to communicate Christ’s humanity and suﬀering: “How, indeed, can the Son of God be acknowledged to have been a man like us —he who was deigned to be called our brother—if he cannot be depicted?”