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Lecture 7 | Icons and Iconoclasm

October 25, 2013

Lecture 7 | Icons and Iconoclasm


October 25, 2013

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  1. Icons  and  Iconoclasm   Readings:     Selected  excerpts  from

     David   Freedberg  and  Robert  D.  McFadden     Range:   500-­‐1425  CE   Byzan.ne     Key  Terms/Concepts:   Icon,  veneraDon,  latria,  proskynesis,   acheiropoietai,  palladium,  Iconoclasm,   Pantokrator,  Acheiropoietos,   Theotokos,  Hodegetria,  Orans,   BlacherniDssa,  Eleousa,   Glykophilsousa,  Festal,  Iconoclast,   Iconophile,  Iconodule,  Iconostasis.     Key  Monuments:     Vladimir  Virgin,  ConstanDnople,   late  11th  –early  12th  Century.     Virgin  and  Child  between  Saints   Theodore  and  George,  St.   Catherine  at  Mt.  Sinai,  late  6th— early  7th  century.     The  AnnunciaDon,  “Ohrid   AnnunciaDon,”  Macedonia,   early  14th  Century.     Andrey  Rublyov,  The  Old   Testament  Trinity  (Three  Angels   VisiDng  Abraham),  1410.  
  2. ChrisDanity  under  Theodosius   395  CE   Theodosius  divides  the

     Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *Theodosius  I  asserted  ChrisDanity  as  the  official  religion  of   the  Roman  Empire  in  380  and  ordered  the  dismantlement   of  all  pagan  temples  and  monuments  in  391.     Theodosius  I  (379-­‐395)  
  3. ChrisDanity  a`er  Theodosius   395  CE   Theodosius  divides  the

     Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *The  successors  of  Theodosius  I    conDnued  to   strengthen  ChrisDanity  as  a  powerful  force  in   both  the  East  and  the  West.   Honorius  I  (395-­‐423)   ByzanDne  Empire  
  4. The  Fall  of  the  Western  Empire   395  CE  

    Theodosius  divides  the  Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *By  476,  all  of  Italy  was  under  the  control  of  the  Ostrogoths.   ByzanDne  Empire   410   418   402   476  
  5. The  Conquest  of  the  West   ByzanDne  Empire   “An

     able  Goth  wants  to  be  like  a  Roman;  only  a   poor  Roman  would  want  to  be  like  a  Goth.”    –Theodoric,  King  of  the  Visigoths  
  6. The  Birth  of  ByzanDum   395  CE   Theodosius  divides

     the  Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *By  476,  all  of  Italy  was  under  the  control  of  the  Ostrogoths.   ByzanDne  Empire  
  7. What  is  an  Icon?     General:  Two-­‐ dimensional  

    representaDons     Specific:  Pictures  of   holy  persons,  events,   venerated  by  the   Eastern  church.   Virgin  and  Child  between  Saints  Theodore  and  George,  St.   Catherine  at  Mt.  Sinai,  late  6th—early  7th  century.  
  8. Christ   Christ  Pantocrator,   St.  Catherine’s   Monastery,  Mt.

     Sinai,   6th  Century  CE   Christ  as  Man  of  Sorrows,   Greece,  12th  Century   Acheiropoietos,  Russian,  12th   Century  
  9. Pantokrator   Christ  Pantokrator,  St.   Catherine’s  Monastery,  Mt.  

    Sinai,  6th  Century  CE   “The  All   Powerful”  
  10. Theotokos  =  The  Bearer  of  God   Moscow,  15th  Century

      ConstanDnople,  14th   Century     Orans   Eleousa   KyrioDssa   Hodegetria   Vladimir  Virgin,   ConstanDnople,  late   11th  –early  12th   Century.   The  Virgin  of  the   IncarnaDon,  Rome,   11th  Century  
  11. Orans   The  Virgin  of  the   IncarnaDon,  Rome,  11th

      Century   “Virgin  of  the   sign.”   “Praying  Virgin”   Or   BlacherniDssa  
  12. Eleousa   Vladimir  Virgin,   ConstanDnople,  late  11th   –early

     12th  Century.   “Virgin  of   tenderness.”   Or   Glykophilsousa   “Virgin  of  Sweet   Kisses”  
  13. Angels   Portraits   Miracles   Archangel   Gabriel,  Moscow,

      1387-­‐1395   Archangel   Michael,  Greece,   14th  Century     Miracle  at  Chonae,   St.  Catherine’s   Monastery  at  Mt.   Sinai,  12th  Century.  
  14. Festal   The  AnnunciaDon,  “Ohrid   AnnunciaDon,”  Macedonia,  early  

    14th  Century.   The  NaDvity,  St.  Catherine’s  Mt.   Sinai,  7th  Century  
  15. Orthodox  Festal  Days     Feast  days  ordered  by  calendar

     date     BapDsm  of  Jesus  by  John  the  Forerunner  (January  6)     The  PresentaDon  of  Jesus  in  the  Temple  (February  2)     The  AnnunciaDon  (March  25)     The  Raising  of  Lazarus  (Saturday  before  Palm  Sunday)     Entry  into  Jerusalem  (Palm  Sunday)     The  Crucifixion  (Good  Friday)     The  ResurrecDon  (Easter  or  Holy  Pascha)     The  Ascension  (40  days  a`er  Easter)     Meso-­‐Pentecost  (Jesus,  12  years  old,  lectures  the  Jewish   Priests  in  the  Temple)     The  Descent  of  the  Holy  Spirit  (Pentecost,  50  days  a`er   Easter)     The  TransfiguraDon  (August  6)     The  DormiDon  of  the  Holy  Virgin  *  (August  15)     The  NaDvity  of  the  Virgin  Mary  (September  8)     The  ExaltaDon  of  the  Cross  (by  Arch.  Zinon,  Courtesy   Orthodox  World)  *     The  PresentaDon  of  the  Virgin  in  the  Temple  (November   21)     The  NaDvity  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  (December  25)     The  AnnunciaDon,  “Ohrid   AnnunciaDon,”  Macedonia,  early   14th  Century.  
  16. NarraDves   The  Ladder  of  Divine  Ascent,   from  St.

     Catherine’s  at  Mount   Sinai,  7th  Century.   Andrey  Rublyov,  The  Old   Testament  Trinity  (Three  Angels   VisiDng  Abraham),  1410-­‐1425.  
  17. Types  of  Icons   Christ   Virgin  and  Child  

    Angels   Saints   NarraDve   Festal  
  18. c D00D0DDN000000cD c B lo2 t X B 2 A

    8 6 5 4 7 9 A 3E S3 Worship  Row   Deesis  Row   Festal  Row   Prophets  Row   Row  of  Patriarchs   Typical  Iconostasis.  
  19. *Venera&on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Processions  
  20. *Venera&on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Kissing  
  21. *Venera&on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Proskynesis  
  22. Iconoclasts  (Breakers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  akin  to

     the  “graven  images”  menDoned   in  the  second  commandment:  “4  Thou  shalt  not   make  unto  thee  any  graven  image,  or  any  likeness   of  any  thing  that  is  in  heaven  above,  or  that  is  in   the  earth  beneath,  or  that  is  in  the  water  under   the  earth:5    thou  shalt  not  bow  down  thyself  to   them,  nor  serve  them.”  (Exodus  20:  4-­‐5)   2)  Icons  are  man  made,  as  opposed  to  relic,  and  do   not  deserve  to  be  venerated:  “The  divine  nature  is   completely  uncircumscribable  and  cannot  be   depicted  or  represented  by  ar&sts  in  any  medium   whatsoever.”  (Iconoclas&c  Council,  754)  
  23. Iconodules  (Lovers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  powerful  didacDc

     tools:  “An  image  is,  aKer   all,  a  reminder;  it  is  to  the  illiterate  what  a  book  is   to  the  literate,  and  what  the  word  is  to  hearing,  the   image  is  to  sight.”  (John  of  Damascus)   2)  Icons  are  a  valuable  proxy  by  which  the  faithful  could   demonstrate  their  love  and  honor  for  the  divine:   “God  created  man  to  his  own  image”  (Genesis  1:27)   3)  Icons  are  a  valid  way  to  communicate  Christ’s   humanity  and  suffering:  “How,  indeed,  can  the  Son   of  God  be  acknowledged  to  have  been  a  man  like  us —he  who  was  deigned  to  be  called  our  brother—if   he  cannot  be  depicted?”  
  24. The  Crucifixion  and   Iconoclasts  whitewashing   an  icon  of

     Christ,  Khludov   Psalter,  850-­‐75.