How to foster an open source culture inside Government

19d03ecc1ff5da1a5e63a3ddaa2d84c2?s=47 Ben Balter
November 07, 2015

How to foster an open source culture inside Government

政府の中でオープンソースの文化を育てる方法

19d03ecc1ff5da1a5e63a3ddaa2d84c2?s=128

Ben Balter

November 07, 2015
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  1. ! How to foster an open source culture inside Government

    ඲଱΄ӾͽηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄෈۸ΨᙙͼΡොဩ @benbalter government@github.com government.github.com github.co.jp apac@github.com
  2. ! @BenBalter " Government Evangelist,
 GitHub GitHub඲଱ɾᛔလ֛εϝЀυδϷφϕ $ Attorney ୐捔ॊ

    % Open source developer ηЄϤЀϊЄφ樄咲ᘏ
  3. ! Open source isn’t the next big thing ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅ ๚๶΄κЄϼЄϖͽ΅΀͚

  4. ! Today, tech companies open source 
 everything but the

    secret sauce ෬΁ϓμϛϺυЄմ䮣΅πί;΀Ρದ悬 զक़ΨηЄϤЀϊЄφ۸ͭͼ͚Ρ
  5. Startups twitter.github.io yelp.github.io

  6. netflix.github.io adobe.github.io

  7. Tech Giantsɾय़ಋ sap.github.io ibm.github.io microsoft.github.io

  8. ! Open source is how the industry builds software today

    ෬΁ϓμϛϺυЄ䮣ኴ΄ϊϢϕγδί樄咲΅ ηЄϤЀϊЄφͽᤈΥ΢ͼ͚Ρ
  9. ! Open source is how government builds software today
 ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅̵඲଱̵͢Ք෭΄ϊϢϕγδίΨ䯤

    塈ͯΡොဩͽͯ
  10. ! 40,000 government users 40,000Ո΄඲଱ڥአᘏ 15,000 government projects 15,000΄ᤈ඲ϤϺυδμϕ 1,200

    government organizations 1,200΄඲଱奲婻 70 countries 70θࢵ Government using open source ඲଱΅෬΁ηЄϤЀϊЄφΨၚአͭͼ͚Ρ
  11. ! 1. What/֜ 2. Why/֜ඳ 3. How/Ϳ͜Κ͹ͼ 4. Lessons/ර懺 &

    Roadmap
  12. ! What is open source? ηЄϤЀϊЄφ;΅Ҙ

  13. ! Open source ≠ Published source ηЄϤЀϊЄφ;΅஠ͰͭΘ Ӟᛱل樄ͯΡ஠ᥝ΅΀͚

  14. ! Open Source (software)
 software that can be freely used,

    modified, and shared (in both modified and unmodified form) by anyone ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄ϊϢϕγδί;΅ 抑ͽΘᛔኧ΁ڥአ̵䄜ๅ̵ͳͭͼ抑;ͽΘوํҁز΄ᇫ䙪ͽΘ䄜ๅͭ͵Θ ΄ͽΘ҂ڊ๶ΡϊϢϕγδίͽ͘Ρ
  15. ! Open Source (philosophy)
 a philosophy of collaboration in which

    working materials are made available online for anyone to fork, modify, discuss, and contribute to. ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄߽਍;΅ ᔰ๭͢ηЀ϶αЀͽل樄ͫ΢ͼ͚΢Ά̵ 抑ͽΘᔰ๭ΨπϡЄ̵䄜ๅ̵πϬϲϘξЄτϴЀΨͭ΀͢Ο̵ 揙ሠڊ๶Ρوݶ֢䮣΄ᘍ͞ොͽ͘Ρ
  16. ! Three scopes of “open collaboration” Smaller ΞΠੜ͚ͫ Bigger ΞΠय़͚ͣ

    Within an agency 奲婻ٖ With the public لو Between agencies 奲婻樌 ̿ηЄϤЀπ϶ϩϹЄτϴЀ̀΄Ҍͺ΄φξЄϸ
  17. ! Why open source? ֜ඳηЄϤЀϊЄφҘ

  18. ! ' Efficiency 㵁ሲ۸

  19. ! All the easy problems have already been solved 抓氂΅

    ෬΁ᥴ䷥ͫ΢ͼ͚Δͯ
  20. ! ( Closed ) Open * Application * Application *

    Application * Application + Framework , Database - Server . Operating System * Application / Plugins + Framework , Database - Server 0 Packages . Operating System 1 Buy 2 Write 2 Write 3 Use
  21. ! Agency 1 Agency 2 Agency 1 Agency 2 100

    ¥ 100 ¥ 4 4 100 ¥ 100 ¥ 4 4 4 4 4 4 ( Closed ) Open
  22. ! Government 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

    Company 2 Company 1 Economic development
  23. ! 5 Transparency 
 (and accountability) ᭐ก௔

  24. ! How government uses open source ඲଱ɾᛔလ֛͢ηЄϤЀϊЄφΨၚአͭ ͼ͚Ρොဩ

  25. ! Three types of “open” * Developers 樄咲ᘏ $ Policy

    makers ඲ᒽᒈໜᘏ 6 Open Source ηЄϤЀϊЄφ 2 Open government 樄͡΢͵඲଱ 7 Open data ηЄϤЀϔЄό 3ͺ΄̿ηЄϤЀ̀΄圵气
  26. ! Open source (software) ηЄϤЀϊЄφ(ϊϢϕγδί)

  27. ! Open source is a force multiplier for the taxpayer's

    dollar ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅奁ᑗᘏ΄͠ᰂ΄㵁ຎΨ䃀ےͯΡ
  28. Open source - GeoQ

  29. ‣ Software for crowdsourcing geospatial information
 ࣈቘᑮ樌ఘ䁭΄μ϶γϖϊЄφአ΄ϊϢϕγδί ‣ Used for

    disaster response and recovery
 傑ਸ਼Ύ΄䌏䖕ɾ䕸岉΄͵Η΁ڥአ ‣ Developed by NGA (US GSI)
 ίϮϷθࢵਹࣈቖᑮ樌ఘ䁭ੴ͢樄咲 ‣ Contributed to by 18F (“startup” within US GSA)
 (昧ᮏ඲଱抠晄ੴٖ΄̿φόЄϕίϐϤ̀)͢揙ሠ ‣ Used by FEMA (federal) and Huntsville, AL (local)/FEMA
 (ίϮϷθݳ悡ࢵ昧ᮏ姴௒Ԫ䙪ᓕቘ䓆);ί϶ϝϫ૞ɾϜЀϑϠϸ૱͢ၚአ
  30. None
  31. ‣ Created by 18F ("startup" within US central government)
 18F(ᔂࢵӾ।඲଱ٖ΄̿φόЄϕίϐϤ̀)͢樄咲

    ‣ Uses data from Digital Analytics Program (government-wide shared analytics platform built on Google Analytics)
 ϔυόϸړຉϤϺν϶ϭ(Google AnalyticsӤ΁֢౮ͫ΢ͼ͚Ρ඲଱ق֛ͽوํͫ΢ͼ ͚ΡίϗϷϓΰμφϤ϶ϐϕϢζЄϭ)΄ϔЄόΨڥአ ‣ Shows real-time data of government website usage, bulk download available for developers
 ඲଱樛昧γδϣςαϕ΄ڥአᇫ丆ϔЄόΨϷίϸόαϭͽᤒᐏ̵樄咲ᘏݻͧ΁Ӟೡύ γЀϺЄϖΘ൉׀ ‣ Grounded IT investment discussions in data-driven decision-making
 ϔЄόΨز΁ͭ͵ITಭ揾΄఺௏䷥ਧΨݢᚆ΁ͭ͵ ‣ Used by the city of Philadelphia with minimal IT investment
 ๋ੜ΄ITಭ揾΄ΕͽϢΰ϶ϔϸϢΰί૱͢ڥአ
  32. None
  33. None
  34. ‣ Developed by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US funded

    research lab)
 ίϮϷθࢵᒈٚኞݢᚆεϚϸλЄᎸᑪಅ͢樄咲 ‣ Sits in front of new and legacy systems to provide API keys, caching, rate limiting, and analytics
 ෛ憒;ϹιτЄτφϓϭ΄οЄϕγδα;ͭͼ̵APIκЄ̵κϰϐτϲ̵ί μψφګக;ίϗϷϓΰμφ;൉׀ ‣ Provided as a free, shared service by api.data.gov
 api.data.gov΁Ξ͹ͼϢϷЄͽوํͫ΢͵ςЄϠφ;ͭͼ൉׀ͫ΢ͼ͚Ρ ‣ Allows agencies to more easily execute the encasement strategy
 ݱ䓆岍΁ΞΡencasement strategy΄䋚ᤈΨΞΠ㲖ჶ΁ᤈ͞ΡΞ͜΁ͭͼ͚Ρ
  35. None
  36. ! Open source allows government and taxpayers to work together

    ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅඲଱;奁ᑗᘏ͢͠԰͚ΨςϪЄϕͯΡ΄Ψ ݢᚆ΁ͯΡ
  37. Open source - data.gov

  38. ‣ Federal portal for publishing open data
 ηЄϤЀϔЄόل樄አ΄ίϮϷθݳ悡ࢵ඲଱΄ϪЄόϸ ‣ Developed

    entirely in the open
 樄咲΅قͼηЄϤЀͽᤈΥ΢͵ ‣ Users commented on mock ups and initial code
 ӞᛱϳЄσЄ΅ϯϐμίϐϤ;ز΄πЄϖ΁䌏ͭͼΘπϮЀϕͭ͵ ‣ Launched with 150+ open issues
 150զӤ΄๚ᥴ䷥΀ατϲЄ͘͢͹͵ᇫ䙪ͽ晁አ樄ত ‣ More development post-launch than pre-launch
 晁አ樄ত஍΄ො͢樄咲͢ᤈΥ΢ͼ͚Ρ
  39. None
  40. ‣ DC laws published on vendor's website with restrictive license


    ϼτЀϕЀDC΄ဩ஌΅ګᴴ͢ग़͚϶αψЀφΨֵ͹ͼϦЀύЄ΄γδϣςαϕͽل樄 ͫ΢ͼ͚͵ ‣ Civic hackers encouraged district government to release machine-readable version of the laws
 τϠϐμϜϐθЄ͢ϼτЀϕЀDC΄඲଱΁ဩ஌ΨπЀϡϲЄό͢㳌ቘڊ๶Ρ୵ୗͽل 樄ͯΡΞ͜΁㰕ͣͧ͡͵ ‣ Civic hackers created multiple open-source interfaces
 τϠϐμϜϐθЄ΅愢හ΄ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄αЀόЄϢδαφΨ樄咲ͭ͵ ‣ Code is now searchable, accessible, mobile-friendly, and linkable
 匍ࣁπЄϖ΅䭥ᔱ͢ͽ̵ͣಋ΄੺ͥ;ͩΣ΁͘Π̵ϯϝαϸ䌏䖕Θͭͼ͚ͼ̵ϷЀμΘ ͫ΢ͼ͚Ρ
  41. None
  42. None
  43. ! Open data ηЄϤЀϔЄό

  44. Open data - Philadelphia

  45. ‣ Philadelphia, PA sought to publish where to get influenza

    shots
 ϧЀτϸϝϘί૞Ϣΰ϶ϔϸϢΰί૱΅αЀϢϸεЀσ΄Ԩᴠള圵Ψݑͧ Ο΢Ρ䁰ಅΨل樄ͭ͵͡͹͵ ‣ Realized the problem was not specific to Pennsylvania
 ϧЀτϸϝϘίզक़ͽΘݶͮ抓氂͢ਂࣁͯΡͩ;΁䶲՞͚͵ ‣ Created an open standard to publish flu shot information
 αЀϢϸεЀσԨᴠള圵΄ఘ䁭ل樄΄͵Η΄ηЄϤЀφόЀύЄϖΨ樄咲 ‣ Chicago and San Francisco adopted the same standard
 τθρ૱;ςЀϢ϶Ѐτφπ૱͢ݶͮφόЀύЄϖΨ䟖አ ‣ Entrepreneurs can build against the standard, new cities can join
 ᩸䮣ਹ΅ͩ΄φόЀύЄϖΨڥአͽͣΡ̵ͭͿ΄᮷૱ͽΘ݇ے͢ڊ๶Ρ
  46. Open data - US GPO

  47. ‣ System by which all US publications are published (laws,

    reports, etc.)
 ဩ஌ΚϹϪЄϕΨތΖقͼ΄ίϮϷθ඲଱΄ڊᇇᇔ͢ڊᇇͫ΢Ρොဩ ‣ US GPO placed no code in the repository
 ݳ悡ࢵ඲଱ܦڬੴ΅ӞڔϊϢϕγδίπЄϖΨϹϪυϕϷͽᓕቘͭͼ͚΀̶͚ ‣ Publishing technical documentation where developers already are
 樄咲ᘏ͢෬΁ᵞΔ͹ͼ͚Ρ䁰ಅ΁ದ悬ጱ΀揾ාΨل樄ͭ͵̶ ‣ Forum for developers to provide feedback, discuss issues
 樄咲ᘏ͢ϢΰЄϖϝϐμΨ൉׀ͭ͵Π̵抓氂Ψ捍抷ͯΡ͵Η΄䁰ಅ ΁΀͹ͼ͚Ρ̶ ‣ Established a community around the website
 γδϣςαϕΨӾஞ΁πϬϲϘϓΰΨ戔ᒈͭ͵̶
  48. None
  49. ‣ Open building and construction permit data standard
 ηЄϤЀ΀ୌ塈战ݢ΄憒໒ ‣

    Created by ~15 private sector vendors for use by cities
 ᛔလ֛͢ڥአڊ๶ΡΞ͜΁ʙ15΄࿆樌ψμόЄ΄ϦЀύЄ֢͢౮ ‣ Implemented within the software cities use to manage permits — no change to civil servants workflow or tools
 ෬΁ᛔလ֛͢战ݢ戣ΨᓕቘͯΡ͵Η΄ϊϢϕγδί΁䌏䖕ͯΡΞ͜΁樄咲ͫ΢͵-ᛔလ֛΄实㹓 ΅ϼЄμϢϺЄΚϑЄϸΨ䄜ๅͯΡ஠ᥝ΅僻͡͹͵ ‣ Shared standard is seen as a feature that prevents vendor lock-in
 وํͫ΢͵憒໒΅ϦЀύЄ΁ΞΡϺϐμαЀΨᴥྊڊ๶Δͯ ‣ Civic entrepreneurs can more easily build apps to consume the data across multiple cities
 τϠϐμ᩸䮣ਹ΅愢හ΄ᛔလ֛ΨΔ͵͢ΡϔЄόΨၚአͯΡίϤϷΨΞΠ墋㶨΁樄咲ڊ๶Ρ
  50. None
  51. Chicago Food Inspection Models

  52. ‣ City of Chicago has 15,000 food establishments but only

    36 inspectors
 τθρ૱΅15,000զӤ΄汯ᷣମ͘͢Ρ̵͢䭥䪨ਥ΅36ՈͶͧ ‣ Created model using predictors of critical violations (crime, property value, etc.)
 ᯿य़΀晅ݍ΄Ԩ介ϯϔϸ(ᇨᗜ̵ࣈ㭅ᒵΨၚአͭͼ)Ψ֢౮ ‣ Made data available to the public, open source the model
 ϔЄόΨӞᛱل樄̵ϯϔϸΨηЄϤЀϊЄφ۸ ‣ ~15% increase in likelihood to find critical violations, found violations 1 week earlier on average
 ᯿य़΀晅ݍΨ咲憎ͯΡݢᚆ௔͢~15%ݻӤ̵ଘ࣐ͭͼՔΔͽΞΠ1昱樌෱ͥ晅ݍΨ咲憎 ‣ https://chicago.github.io/food-inspections-evaluation/
  53. ! Open government 樄͡΢͵඲଱

  54. None
  55. ‣ FITARA — Federal Information Acquisition Reform Act
 昧ᮏఘ䁭ϓμϛϺυЄ抠晄දᶐဩ ‣

    White House drafted guidance for agencies to implement the policy
 ϨϼαϕϜγφ΅ݱ䓆岍͢ϪϷτЄΨ䋚ෞͯΡ͵Η΄ιαϖ϶αЀ΄កໜ Ψ֢౮ ‣ Living, collaborative document; anyone in the world can contribute
 ӮኴӾ΄抑ͽΘ揙ሠ͢ڊ๶ΡϖκϲϮЀϕ ‣ US Congressman submitted pull request, White House accepted
 ίϮϷθ΄ӥᴺ捍㹓͢ϤϸϷμεφϕҁץྋ൉ໜ҂Ψ൉ໜ̵ϨϼαϕϜγ φ͢ݑͧف΢͵ ‣ Feedback was finalized and policy was signed into law
 ϢΰЄϖϝϐμ΅ݍฉͫ΢ͼ̵ͩ΄ϪϷτЄ΅ဩ஌۸ͫ΢͵
  56. Open policy - US FITARA

  57. None
  58. None
  59. None
  60. ! Three types of “open” * Developers 樄咲ᘏ $ Policy

    makers ඲ᒽᒈໜᘏ 6 Open Source ηЄϤЀϊЄφ 2 Open government 樄͡΢͵඲଱ 7 Open data ηЄϤЀϔЄό 3ͺ΄̿ηЄϤЀ̀΄圵气
  61. ! 5 best practices 5 ͺ΄ϦφϕϤ϶μϓΰφ

  62. ! Best Practice #1: Expand your definition of stakeholders φϓЄμϨϸύЄ΄ਧ嬝Ψ䝭य़

  63. ‣ Non-technical, non-user stakeholders ‣ Potential users ‣ Veteran (or

    curious) users ‣ Subject matter experts (accessibility, content, i18n) ‣ Technical users ‣ Active developers ‣ Potential developers ‣ Press, thought leaders, etc. Potential contributors
  64. ‣ Kick the tires, does it work? ‣ Answer the

    question: “what features would you love to see?” ‣ Flesh out documentation, note where documentation is lacking ‣ Community evangelism, speak, teach, and spread your love for the project ‣ Submit new questions to the project’s Q&A forums, or take a stab at an answer ‣ Host a genius bar at the next local meetup ‣ Translate the project into a different language ‣ Give feedback on proposed bug fixes and features, propose new ones ‣ Recruit new developers Opportunities to contribute
  65. ! Successful open source projects operate with rough consensus among

    (all) stakeholders
 ౮ۑͭͼ͚ΡηЄϤЀϊЄφϤϺυδμϕ ΅ҁقͼ΄҂φϓЄμϨϸύЄ΄֜;΀ͥ ΀ݳ఺΁Ξ͹ͼ晁አͫ΢ͼ͚Ρ
  66. ! Best Practice #2: Minimize information imbalance ఘ䁭΄ίЀϝ϶ЀφΨ๋ੜ۸

  67. ! Open source is about growing a community ηЄϤЀϊЄφ;΅πϬϲϘϓΰЄΨ ᙙͼΡͩ;

  68. ! Work outside the firewall ϢήαίЄγζЄϸ΄क़ͽ㰕ͩ͜

  69. ‣ Procedurally (ϤϺψφ)
 (One issue tracker, one way to provide

    feedback or discuss features; minimize and memorialize meatspace discussions)ҁατϲЄϕ϶ϐθЄΨӞ๜۸̵ϢΰЄϖϝϐμΚϢΰЄώϰЄ΄ϔΰ φθϐτϴЀͯΡොဩΨӞ๜۸̵ηϢ϶αЀ΄տ扖Ψ๋ੜ۸ͭͺͺ஠ͰϺνΨݐΡ҂ ‣ Day-to-day(෭̸)
 (The project’s status, how to submit an issue/feature request or contribute a fix/enhancement) (ϤϺ υδμϕ΄昲䞨ᇫ丆̵ατϲЄɾϢΰЄώϰЄϷμεφϕ΄൉ڊොဩ̵ද࠺ɾ䱛ᚆ䝭䔴Ψ൉׀ ͯΡොဩ) ‣ Long-term(槱๗ጱ΁)
 (Project mission statement, philosophy, and goal, features and requirements list, project roadmap)(ϤϺ υδμϕ΄ϬϐτϴЀɾφϓЄϕϮЀϕ̵ϢΰϺϊϢΰЄ̵ፓ䰤̵䱛ᚆϷφϕ̵ϤϺυδμϕ ΄懯ኮ)
  70. ! Best Practice #3: Optimize for developers 樄咲ᘏ΁๋晒۸

  71. ! You can have open source without executive oversight ϕϐϤ͡Ο΄哶憙͢僻ͥͼΘηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅ਂࣁڊ

    ๶Ρ
  72. ! You can have open source without policy guidance ඲ᒽιαύЀφ͢僻ͥͼΘηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅ਂ

    ࣁڊ๶Ρ
  73. ! You can’t have open source without developers 樄咲ᘏ͚͢΀ͧ΢ΆηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅ਂࣁ ͭ΀͚

  74. ! You can’t have open source without code πЄϖ͢僻΀ͧ΢ΆηЄϤЀϊЄφ ΅ਂࣁͭ΀͚

  75. ! Best Practice #4: Start small, go through the motions

    φϯЄϸφόЄϕͽԨᤈᄍ嬹
  76. ! You wouldn’t run a marathon without training ϕϹЄϘЀν僻ͭͽϫ϶ϊЀ΅ᩳΟ΀͚

  77. ! Organizations have muscle memory 奲婻΁Θᒶᙂ΄懿䛂͘͢Ρ

  78. ! Open source is scary (they will say “no” at

    first) ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΅ோ͚ (๋ڡ΁஠Ͱ̿NÒ;᥺͜)
  79. 1. Start by experimenting with “open source” in private 


    ΔͰ΅Ϥ϶αϦЄϕͽ̿ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄̀䋚浞ΨতΗΡ
 (Best lunch places near your office, the office’s favorite chocolate chip cookie recipe)
 (实䁰΄ᬪͥ΄Ӟኾᜉ͚ณͪ΅Ω̵实䁰ͽӞኾՈ䶲΄ᙂͮΙ͢΄Ϲτϡ) 2. Get everyone involved ጲ΁݇ےͭͼΘΟ͜
 (legal, procurement, ethics, etc.) ҁဩ㵗̵搳揮̵ᒵ҂ 3. Ship 0.1, not 1.0 1.0ͽ΅΀̵ͥΔͰ0.1Ψڊរ
 (and manage expectation)( ๗இ㮔Ψ͜ΔͥᓕቘͯΡ)
  80. ! Best Practice #5: Open source problems, not solutions ηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄ᥴ䷥ໜͽ΅΀ͥ㺔氂

  81. ! Developers want to contribute to a cause not provide

    free labor 樄咲ᘏ΅ 僻㱘ͽ㴼ێΨ൉׀ͭ͵͚΄ͽ΅΀ͥ
  82. ! “Yes we can”, not “yes we did”

  83. ! If you’re happy with your ship, you’ve shipped too

    late
  84. Secrets of successful open source projects 1. The technology is

    the easy part 2. Start small, go through the motions 3. Minimize information imbalance 4. Embrace the constraints of open source 5. Open source problems, not solutions 6. Expand your definition of stakeholders 7. Be the hub, encourage spokes 8. Minimize friction 9. Decentralize governance 10. Encourage contributors Internal collaboration External engagement
  85. ! How to foster an open source culture inside Government

    ඲଱΄ӾͽηЄϤЀϊЄφ΄෈۸ΨᙙͼΡොဩ @benbalter government@github.com government.github.com github.co.jp apac@github.com