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Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power

In the middle of the Fukushima disaster, I thought it was important to educate a bit fellow students about the ins and outs of nuclear power, to oppose the mainstream media alternating terror and ridiculous assertions.

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Matti Schneider

April 01, 2011
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Transcript

  1. Nuclear power Fabien Brossier Matti Schneider

  2. Nuclear Power I. Technology II. Opportunities III. Risks

  3. I. Nuclear technology

  4. History: research

  5. History: research • 1896: Becquerel discovers radioactivity

  6. History: research • 1896: Becquerel discovers radioactivity • 1903: Pierre

    & Marie Curie get a Nobel prize
  7. History: research • 1896: Becquerel discovers radioactivity • 1903: Pierre

    & Marie Curie get a Nobel prize • 1942: Manhattan project
  8. U235 Fission reaction

  9. U235 n Fission reaction

  10. 2 to 3 neutrons fission product fission product Fission reaction

  11. 2 to 3 neutrons fission product fission product E =

    mc2 Fission reaction
  12. 2 to 3 neutrons fission product fission product energy E

    = mc2 Fission reaction
  13. History: usage

  14. History: usage • 1945: Little Boy & Fat Man

  15. History: usage • 1945: Little Boy & Fat Man •

    1951: EBR-1 produces 100 kW
  16. History: usage • 1945: Little Boy & Fat Man •

    1951: EBR-1 produces 100 kW • 1954: Obninsk produces 5 MW
  17. U235 Chain reaction

  18. Chain reaction

  19. Chain reaction

  20. Chain reaction

  21. Usage of the reaction

  22. Usage of the reaction •Military

  23. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction

  24. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction •as much energy

    as possible on the shortest time
  25. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction •as much energy

    as possible on the shortest time •boom.
  26. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction •as much energy

    as possible on the shortest time •boom. •Civilian
  27. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction •as much energy

    as possible on the shortest time •boom. •Civilian •controlled reaction
  28. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction •as much energy

    as possible on the shortest time •boom. •Civilian •controlled reaction •generate electricity
  29. Usage of the reaction •Military •chain reaction •as much energy

    as possible on the shortest time •boom. •Civilian •controlled reaction •generate electricity •…boil water
  30. Nuclear reactor

  31. Nuclear reactor

  32. II. Opportunities

  33. Fuel

  34. Fuel Uraninite, or “Pitchblende”

  35. Fuel “Yellowcake” Uranium dioxyde Uraninite, or “Pitchblende”

  36. Fuel “Yellowcake” Uranium dioxyde Uraninite, or “Pitchblende” Fuel pellets

  37. Fuel “Yellowcake” Uranium dioxyde Uraninite, or “Pitchblende” Fuel pellets Fuel

    rods
  38. Fuel “Yellowcake” Uranium dioxyde Uraninite, or “Pitchblende” Fuel pellets Fuel

    rods Assembly
  39. Fuel

  40. Fuel

  41. Fuel comparison

  42. Fuel comparison 1 kg uranium

  43. Fuel comparison 10 T oil 1 kg uranium

  44. Fuel comparison 10 T oil 14 T coal 1 kg

    uranium
  45. Renewables

  46. Renewables • 1 GW: one standard nuclear reactor

  47. Renewables • 1 GW: one standard nuclear reactor • several

    reactors in a plant
  48. Renewables • 1 GW: one standard nuclear reactor • several

    reactors in a plant • ~ 6000 wind turbines
  49. Renewables • 1 GW: one standard nuclear reactor • several

    reactors in a plant • ~ 6000 wind turbines • ~ 10 km2 of solar panels
  50. Renewables • 1 GW: one standard nuclear reactor • several

    reactors in a plant • ~ 6000 wind turbines • ~ 10 km2 of solar panels • lots of research in renewables
  51. Production 2007 worldwide production (~214 plants) Thermal Hydraulic Renewables Nuclear

  52. Production 2007 worldwide production (~214 plants) 67!% Thermal Hydraulic Renewables

    Nuclear
  53. Production 2007 worldwide production (~214 plants) 16!% 67!% Thermal Hydraulic

    Renewables Nuclear
  54. Production 2007 worldwide production (~214 plants) 3!% 16!% 67!% Thermal

    Hydraulic Renewables Nuclear
  55. Production 2007 worldwide production (~214 plants) 14!% 3!% 16!% 67!%

    Thermal Hydraulic Renewables Nuclear
  56. Greenhouse effect

  57. Greenhouse effect

  58. Greenhouse effect • “smoke” from reactors: steam (water)

  59. Greenhouse effect • “smoke” from reactors: steam (water) • valuable

    solution against climate change
  60. III. Risks

  61. A long-term problem…

  62. A long-term problem… • “Short life” waste needs a few

    years to deteriorate
  63. A long-term problem… • “Short life” waste needs a few

    years to deteriorate • tools, scrap, rubbles…
  64. A long-term problem… • “Short life” waste needs a few

    years to deteriorate • tools, scrap, rubbles… • “Long life” waste needs several million years!
  65. A long-term problem… • “Short life” waste needs a few

    years to deteriorate • tools, scrap, rubbles… • “Long life” waste needs several million years! • reactor's core elements
  66. A long-term problem… • “Short life” waste needs a few

    years to deteriorate • tools, scrap, rubbles… • “Long life” waste needs several million years! • reactor's core elements • most dangerous: used fuel
  67. A long-term problem… • “Short life” waste needs a few

    years to deteriorate • tools, scrap, rubbles… • “Long life” waste needs several million years! • reactor's core elements • most dangerous: used fuel • 250 000 tons in 2008
  68. …with temporary solutions

  69. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

  70. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

  71. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

  72. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982
  73. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years
  74. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years
  75. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years
  76. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years
  77. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years • Now: Deep earth burial (300~500 m)
  78. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years • Now: Deep earth burial (300~500 m) • large stable, dense, and tight area
  79. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years • Now: Deep earth burial (300~500 m) • large stable, dense, and tight area • 150 000 ! / T
  80. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years • Now: Deep earth burial (300~500 m) • large stable, dense, and tight area • 150 000 ! / T
  81. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years • Now: Deep earth burial (300~500 m) • large stable, dense, and tight area • 150 000 ! / T
  82. …with temporary solutions • 1950: Sea storage in concrete containers

    • more than 100 000 tons until 1982 • cracks after 30 years • Now: Deep earth burial (300~500 m) • large stable, dense, and tight area • 150 000 ! / T
  83. …and future “solutions”?

  84. …and future “solutions”? • Tomorrow": Spatial evacuation"?

  85. …and future “solutions”? • Tomorrow": Spatial evacuation"? • more than

    5 billion ! / year for France alone
  86. …and future “solutions”? • Tomorrow": Spatial evacuation"? • more than

    5 billion ! / year for France alone • risk of explosion in the atmosphere
  87. …d’oh!

  88. Worst accidents International Nuclear Events Scale

  89. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) International

    Nuclear Events Scale
  90. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) •

    1957: Kychtym, USSR (lvl 6) International Nuclear Events Scale
  91. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) •

    1957: Kychtym, USSR (lvl 6) • Storage area explosion – Accident kept under secret International Nuclear Events Scale
  92. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) •

    1957: Kychtym, USSR (lvl 6) • Storage area explosion – Accident kept under secret • 1979: Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania (lvl 5) International Nuclear Events Scale
  93. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) •

    1957: Kychtym, USSR (lvl 6) • Storage area explosion – Accident kept under secret • 1979: Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania (lvl 5) • Core fusion – containment structure intact International Nuclear Events Scale
  94. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) •

    1957: Kychtym, USSR (lvl 6) • Storage area explosion – Accident kept under secret • 1979: Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania (lvl 5) • Core fusion – containment structure intact • 1986: Tchernobyl, Ukrainia (lvl 7) International Nuclear Events Scale
  95. Worst accidents • ranked on the INES (7 grades) •

    1957: Kychtym, USSR (lvl 6) • Storage area explosion – Accident kept under secret • 1979: Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania (lvl 5) • Core fusion – containment structure intact • 1986: Tchernobyl, Ukrainia (lvl 7) • Core explosion – 600 000 workers to “clean” the area International Nuclear Events Scale
  96. Fukushima

  97. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences)

  98. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami
  99. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami • three reactor cores currently in fusion
  100. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami • three reactor cores currently in fusion • controlled (more or less) with water hoses
  101. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami • three reactor cores currently in fusion • controlled (more or less) with water hoses • several injured workers
  102. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami • three reactor cores currently in fusion • controlled (more or less) with water hoses • several injured workers • environmental contamination
  103. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami • three reactor cores currently in fusion • controlled (more or less) with water hoses • several injured workers • environmental contamination • food, ocean, soil…
  104. Fukushima • level 6 (accident with large consequences) • cooling

    system failure after tsunami • three reactor cores currently in fusion • controlled (more or less) with water hoses • several injured workers • environmental contamination • food, ocean, soil… • …for now :-/
  105. Conclusion: nuclear power

  106. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production

  107. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production • very efficient

  108. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production • very efficient •

    a solution against climate change
  109. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production • very efficient •

    a solution against climate change • new long-term, large-sized pollution risks
  110. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production • very efficient •

    a solution against climate change • new long-term, large-sized pollution risks • changed humankind vision
  111. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production • very efficient •

    a solution against climate change • new long-term, large-sized pollution risks • changed humankind vision • we are able to destroy the whole world • several times
  112. Conclusion: nuclear power • electricity production • very efficient •

    a solution against climate change • new long-term, large-sized pollution risks • changed humankind vision • we are able to destroy the whole world • several times • whole countries can be made unlivable for longer than our lives
  113. Thanks for your attention! Any questions? • Sources • Wikipédia

    • previous knowledge