2018 GitHub Education Classroom Report

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August 14, 2018

2018 GitHub Education Classroom Report

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@mozzadrella

August 14, 2018
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  1. 2018 Classroom Report Courtney Hsing and Vanessa Gennarelli GitHub Education

    education.github.com
  2. Summary 1. Using GitHub (versus not using GitHub) in programming

    classes predicted greater positive learning outcomes. • Students felt more prepared for being a part of the developer community and creating a portfolio of their work. • Students felt more prepared for future internships and career, and learned more about collaboration, popular industry tools, and project management. 2. Using GitHub (versus not using GitHub) in programming classes predicted a greater sense of belonging, a variable important to academic success. • Students felt a greater sense of belonging both in the classroom and in the field.
  3. Summary (continued) 2. Students who received (versus did not receive)

    feedback via GitHub benefited more from teacher feedback. • Students felt they used their teachers’ feedback more effectively and found their teachers’ feedback more helpful. • Students felt their teachers were more aware of their needs as a student. • Students felt they used their peers’ feedback more effectively and found their peers’ feedback more helpful. 3. Students needed more support from teachers and peers when learning to use GitHub. • About a quarter of students felt they received less support than they needed from teachers, and about a third of students felt they received less support than they needed from peers.
  4. Method

  5. Survey design overview Participants • Both users and non-users of

    GitHub participated • We emailed students with currently active student coupons • We emailed teachers who applied for the teacher discount either for personal repositories or for free organization Survey eligibility • Must have taken or taught a class with a programming component this past semester Two versions of the survey • Student version • Teacher version
  6. Respondents overview Student Survey Teacher Survey Number of respondents 7530

    (37.2% used GitHub in classroom) 300 (67.0% used GitHub in classroom) Response rate 1.6% 1.7% Completion rate 82.1% 85.0% Excluding respondents who quit before naming a course to think about for the survey
  7. Respondent characteristics: Year in school Student Survey Teacher Survey 7.8%

    12.5% 15.4% 33.7% 1.2% 1.3% 2.3% 5.1% 3.3% 17.4% College Freshman College Sophomore College Junior College Senior HS Freshman HS Sophomore HS Junior HS Senior Non-traditional student Other Year in school What year in school was the average student in your course? 8.2% 20.4% 17.0% 17.0% 2.0% 1.4% 6.1% 5.8% 2.0% 20.1%
  8. Respondent characteristics: Gender 8.5% 90.0% 1.0% 0.5% Female Male Non-binary

    Prefer to self describe 6.9% 91.5% 0.8% 0.8% Student Survey Teacher Survey
  9. Respondent characteristics: Race and ethnicity Select all that apply 1.2%

    5.7% 7.0% 0.8% 0.8% 3.7% 86.1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Black or of African descent East Asian Hispanic or Latino/Latina Middle Eastern Native American, Pacific Islander, or Indigenous Australian South Asian White or European descent Select all that apply 3.4% 15.8% 9.1% 5.1% 1.0% 19.2% 54.1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Black or of African descent East Asian Hispanic or Latino/Latina Middle Eastern Native American, Pacific Islander, or Indigenous Australian South Asian White or European descent Student Survey Teacher Survey
  10. Which programming language(s) did you use in your course? (Select

    all that apply) Which programming language(s) did students use in your course? (Select all that apply) 28.9% 28.3% 26.0% 18.0% 36.2% 10.1% 29.8% 8.6% 8.5% 21.0% 19.4% 17.1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 30.9% 32.9% 31.2% 17.0% 29.2% 11.9% 29.5% 10.5% 9.2% 14.9% 13.9% 28.8% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Respondent characteristics: Programming languages Student Survey Teacher Survey
  11. Learning Outcomes: Preparation for the future

  12. Using GitHub (versus not using GitHub) in programming classes predicted

    greater positive learning outcomes. • Preparation for the future • Students felt more prepared for being a part of the developer community and creating a portfolio of their work. • Students felt more prepared for future internships and career, and learned more about collaboration, popular industry tools, and project management. • The number of GitHub features used in the classroom positively predicted learning outcomes for students. Preparation for the future: Key takeaways
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 Teamwork and collaboration Popular industry

    tool(s) Project management Very much Very little Rate how much you have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: Rate how much your students have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: 1 2 3 4 5 Teamwork and collaboration Popular industry tool(s) Project management Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey Teacher Survey
  14. 11% 7% 19% 31% 32% 30% 15% 19% 20% 17%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Rate how much you have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: Teamwork and collaboration Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  15. 6% 8% 23% 34% 29% 24% 18% 22% 23% 14%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Rate how much you have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: Popular industry tool(s) Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  16. 9% 11% 23% 32% 25% 29% 18% 21% 20% 12%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Rate how much you have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: Project management Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  17. Rate how much [course] has prepared you for each of

    the following Rate how much [course] has prepared your students for each of the following 1 2 3 4 5 Future internship or career Being a part of the developer community Developing a portfolio of your work Taking more advanced courses Very much Very little 1 2 3 4 5 Future internship or career Being a part of the developer community Developing a portfolio of your work Taking more advanced courses ns ns Student Survey Teacher Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  18. 5% 7% 19% 35% 33% 14% 14% 24% 29% 19%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Rate how much [course] has prepared you for each of the following: Future internship or career Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  19. 8% 10% 20% 33% 31% 24% 19% 21% 22% 14%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Rate how much [course] has prepared you for each of the following: Being a part of the developer community Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  20. 10% 11% 20% 28% 30% 24% 19% 20% 22% 15%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Rate how much [course] has prepared you for each of the following: Developing a portfolio of your own work Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  21. Rate how much [course] has prepared you for each of

    the following: Taking more advanced courses 6% 6% 20% 33% 36% 9% 9% 19% 32% 32% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Very much Student Survey Preparation for the future: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  22. Student Survey Teacher Survey 1 2 3 4 5 Fewer

    features (-1SD) More features (+1SD) Very much Very little Teamwork and collaborations Project management Preparation for future internship/career Preparation for being part of the developer community 1 2 3 4 5 Fewer features (-1SD) More features (+1SD) Very much Very little Teamwork and collaborations Project management Preparation for future internship/career Preparation for being part of the developer community Preparation for the future: Rate how much [course] has prepared you for each of the following Rate how much [course] has prepared your students for each of the following
  23. Learning Outcomes: Classroom experience

  24. Using GitHub (versus not using GitHub) in programming classes predicted

    greater positive learning outcomes. • Overall, students and teachers felt using GitHub in the classroom improved rather than worsened students’ learning experience. • Although implementation of GitHub in the classroom had no effect on teachers’ reports of student engagement, participation, and attendance, using GitHub in the classroom predicted slightly higher student ratings across the three variables. • Students who used GitHub in the classroom tend to like their class more and put more effort into the class than students who did not use GitHub in the classroom. Students who used GitHub in the classroom were also more likely to recommend their class to others and take similar courses in the future. • Students in GitHub (versus non GitHub) classrooms felt more competent. They were also more likely to feel like they have the skills necessary to do well and satisfied with their performance in the class. Classroom experience: Key takeaways
  25. 0% 2% 2% 12% 31% 34% 20% 52% 23% 8%

    14% 2% 2% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all Very much How m GitHub improv learnin How m GitHub worsen learnin Classroom experience: Does using GitHub in the classroom improve or worsen the learning experience? Student Survey Teacher Survey 2% 1% 1% 16% 26% 27% 28% 68% 10% 3% 11% 3% 2% 3% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all Very much How much has using GitHub in [course] improved your learning experience? How much has using GitHub in [course] worsened your learning experience?
  26. Rate yourself for each item below 1 2 3 4

    5 Level of engagement in course Level of participation in course Class attendance in course Very High Very Low 1 2 3 4 5 Level of engagement in course Level of participation in course Class attendance in course ns ns ns Rate each item below based on your general impression (of students) this past semester Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey Teacher Survey
  27. 1% 4% 13% 42% 41% 2% 6% 14% 37% 42%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Very low Slightly low Neither low nor high Slightly high Very high Rate how much you have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: Level of engagement Student Survey Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  28. 1% 4% 14% 38% 43% 2% 6% 15% 34% 43%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Very low Slightly low Neither low nor high Slightly high Very high Rate how much you have learned about each of the following through [course] this past semester: Your level of participation in [course] Student Survey Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  29. Rate how much you have learned about each of the

    following through [course] this past semester: Your class attendance in [course] Student Survey 3% 6% 14% 27% 51% 5% 7% 14% 21% 53% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Very low Slightly low Neither low nor high Slightly high Very high Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 Liking Effort High Low Both

    liking and effort variables were composite scores of multiple items: Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below 1 (Not at all true) to 5 (Very true) •Liking: •I enjoy [course] very much. •[Course] holds my attention very well. •I would describe [course] as very interesting. •Effort: •I put a lot of effort into [course] •It’s important to me to do well in [course] •I put a lot of energy into [course] Student Survey Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  31. Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items

    below 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I would recommend [course] to other students I would take a course similar to [course] in the future Strongly agree Strongly disagree Student Survey Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  32. 1% 2% 3% 6% 15% 33% 40% 4% 4% 5%

    9% 17% 31% 31% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below: I would recommend [course] to other students Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey
  33. 2% 3% 4% 8% 14% 30% 40% 5% 4% 5%

    9% 16% 27% 34% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below: I would take a course similar to [course] in the future Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey
  34. Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items

    below 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 After being in [course] for a while, I feel pretty competent I am satisfied with my performance in [course] I have the skills necessary to do well in [course] Very true Not at all true Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey
  35. Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items

    below: After being in [course] for a while, I feel pretty competent 2% 2% 5% 19% 21% 26% 26% 3% 4% 6% 21% 20% 25% 21% 0% 10% 20% 30% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all true Very true Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey
  36. 2% 2% 6% 15% 19% 26% 31% 3% 3% 7%

    17% 17% 26% 28% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all true Very true Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below: I am satisfied with my performance in [course] Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey
  37. 1% 1% 3% 12% 17% 28% 38% 1% 2% 4%

    14% 16% 25% 38% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all true Very true Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below: I have the skills necessary to do well in [course] Classroom experience: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms Student Survey
  38. Sense of Belonging

  39. Using GitHub (versus not using GitHub) in programming classes predicted

    a greater sense of belonging, a variable important to academic success. • Students felt greater belonging both in the classroom and in the field. • This finding could be related to several other findings from this study: 1. On average, there was greater emphasis on group assignments in GitHub (versus non GitHub) classrooms. Working more closely and cooperatively with peers may have boosted students’ sense of belonging in the classroom. 2.Students in GitHub (versus non GitHub classrooms) felt more prepared for being part of the developer community, and felt they learned more about popular industry tools. These effects may have directly contributed to students’ sense of belonging in the field. Sense of belonging: Key takeaways
  40. Both Belonging in class and Belonging in field variables were

    composite scores of multiple items: Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree) •Belonging in class: •My contributions in [course] are valued •I feel comfortable in [course] •People in [course] accept me •Belonging in field: •I see myself as part of the developer community •I feel that I am a member of the developer community •I feel a sense of belonging to the developer community 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Belonging in class Belonging in field High Low Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  41. Student Survey 16% 12% 21% 51% 20% 17% 25% 37%

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Agree or strongly agree with 0 Agree or strongly agree with 1 Agree or strongly agree with 2 Agree or strongly agree with all 3 Out of the students who responded to all 3 statements, percentage of students who either agreed or strongly agreed with zero, one, two, or all three statements Belonging in class: Use your general impression of [course] to rate the items below 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree) •My contributions in [course] are valued •I feel comfortable in [course] •People in [course] accept me Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  42. 1% 2% 3% 12% 20% 37% 26% 3% 5% 6%

    17% 21% 32% 17% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the following: My contributions in [course] are valued Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  43. 0% 1% 3% 7% 17% 39% 32% 1% 2% 4%

    9% 18% 37% 28% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the following: I feel comfortable in [course] Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  44. 0% 1% 2% 11% 15% 39% 33% 1% 1% 2%

    16% 15% 36% 29% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the following: People in [course] accept me Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  45. Belonging in field: Use your general impression of [course] to

    rate the items below 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree) •I see myself as part of the developer community •I feel that I am a member of the developer community •I feel a sense of belonging to the developer community Student Survey 32% 10% 10% 48% 45% 10% 8% 37% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Agree or strongly agree with 0 Agree or strongly agree with 1 Agree or strongly agree with 2 Agree or strongly agree with all 3 Out of the students who responded to all 3 statements, percentage of students who either agreed or strongly agreed with zero, one, two, or all three statements Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  46. 1% 3% 4% 13% 20% 33% 27% 3% 5% 7%

    16% 21% 27% 21% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the following: I see myself as part of the developer community Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  47. 1% 3% 4% 14% 21% 31% 25% 4% 6% 7%

    17% 22% 25% 19% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Use your general impression of [course] to rate the following: I feel that I am a member of the developer community Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  48. Use your general impression of [course] to rate the following:

    I feel a sense of belonging to the developer community 1% 3% 4% 14% 21% 32% 26% 3% 6% 7% 18% 22% 25% 20% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Student Survey Sense of belonging: GitHub versus non GitHub classrooms
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Belonging in class

    Belonging in field High Low Less familiar with GitHub than peers As familiar or more familiar with GitHub than peers Sense of belonging: Familiarity with GitHub Student Survey
  50. Feedback

  51. Students who received (versus did not receive) feedback via GitHub

    benefited slightly more from feedback •Students felt they used their teachers’ feedback more effectively and found their teachers’ feedback more helpful. •Students felt their teachers better understood their needs as a student. •Students felt they used their peers’ feedback more effectively and found their peers’ feedback more helpful. Feedback: Key takeaways
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I understand the

    instructor's feedback I pay attention to the instructor's feedback I use the instructor's feedback effectively I find the instructor's feedback helpful The instructor understands my needs as a student Strongly agree Strongly disagree Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback ns ns Use your general impression of the instructor’s feedback to rate the items below: Feedback Student Survey
  53. Student Survey Use your general impression of the instructor’s feedback

    to rate the items below: I use the instructor’s feedback effectively 1% 1% 3% 6% 13% 36% 38% 3% 1% 1% 2% 8% 17% 37% 30% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree I don't know/Not sure Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback Feedback
  54. Student Survey Use your general impression of the instructor’s feedback

    to rate the items below: I find the instructor’s feedback helpful 0% 1% 3% 5% 14% 38% 37% 2% 2% 2% 4% 7% 17% 34% 31% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree I don't know/Not sure Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback Feedback
  55. Student Survey Use your general impression of the instructor’s feedback

    to rate the items below: The instructor understands my needs as a student 1% 2% 2% 6% 18% 33% 36% 4% 2% 3% 4% 9% 18% 32% 28% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree I don't know/Not sure Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback Feedback
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I understand feedback

    from peers I pay attention to feedback from peers I use feedback from peers effectively I find feedback from peers helpful Strongly agree Strongly disagree Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback ns ns Feedback Student Survey
  57. Student Survey Use your general impression of your peers’ feedback

    to rate the items below: I use feedback from peers effectively 1% 0% 2% 6% 15% 39% 34% 3% 1% 1% 3% 10% 18% 40% 23% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree I don't know/Not sure Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback Feedback
  58. Student Survey Use your general impression of your peers’ feedback

    to rate the items below: I find feedback from peers helpful 1% 1% 1% 6% 13% 43% 32% 4% 2% 1% 2% 9% 16% 38% 29% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree I don't know/Not sure Used GitHub to provide feedback Did not use GitHub to provide feedback Feedback
  59. Learning GitHub

  60. Students need more support from teachers and peers when learning

    to use GitHub. • About a quarter of students felt they received less support than they needed from teachers, and about a third of students felt they received less support than they needed from peers. • Because student respondents felt they were generally more familiar with GitHub than their peers at the beginning of the semester, it is likely that the average student felt they received even less support than student respondents. • First-time users, compared to non first-time users, felt learning to use GitHub was slightly more difficult. Learning GitHub: Key takeaways
  61. Learning GitHub 49% 36% 13% 3% 1% 2% 14% 54%

    26% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Not at all familiar Slightly familiar Moderately familiar Very familiar Extremely familiar How familiar were your students with GitHub at the beginning of the semester? How familiar are your students with GitHub now? 8% 21% 26% 29% 15% 0% 0% 22% 49% 26% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Not at all familiar Slightly familiar Moderately familiar Very familiar Extremely familiar How familiar were you with GitHub at the beginning of the semester? How familiar are you with GitHub now? Student Survey Teacher Survey
  62. Learning GitHub 30% 27% 28% 14% 1% 0% 10% 20%

    30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Easy Difficult How easy or difficult was it to learn how to use GitHub? 8% 24% 29% 34% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 1 2 3 4 5 Easy Difficult How easy or difficult was it for the average student in [course] to learn how to use GitHub? Student Survey Teacher Survey
  63. Learning GitHub 31% 27% 27% 13% 1% 17% 26% 34%

    22% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Easy Difficult How easy or difficult was it to learn how to use GitHub? Non first-time user First-time user Student Survey
  64. Learning GitHub Student Survey Teacher Survey 10% 15% 55% 13%

    8% 12% 20% 47% 15% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Too little support Just the right amount of support Too much support Describe the amount of support you received from each of the following as you were learning GitHub [course] teachers [course] peers 1% 11% 59% 19% 6% 5% 9% 19% 45% 13% 1% 13% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Too little support Just the right amount of support Too much support I don't know/not sure Describe the amount of support students received on average from each of the following as they were learning GitHub [course] teachers [course] peers
  65. education.github.com