D a l e y ( 2 0 2 0 ) ommonly known cardiovascular risk factors; Tobacco use - 2-4 fold increased risk of heart disease. Diet - There is strong evidence that a diet rich in fruits & vegetables reduces the Diabetes - Doubles risk of cardiovascular disease. This risk increases with poor Hypertension - 50% increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia - Increased levels of non-HDL cholesterol increases CVD by 60%. Obesity - 50% increase in risk of cardiovascular disease independent of other risk Sedentary lifestyle - Individuals reporting >23hrs sedentary behaviour per week Age - Cardiovascular disease progresses over time, therefore risk rises with age. Gender - Men tend to develop heart disease earlier in life, but after the menopause - Double the risk of stroke. risk of cardiovascular disease. glycaemic control. factors; rising incrementally as BMI rises. Obesity also increases the risk of DM, HTN & dyslipidaemia, magnifying its significance. are at ~40% greater risk of cardiovascular disease. As with obesity, a sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of DM, HTN & dyslipidaemia, magnifying its significance. CV risk becomes essentially the same.
D a l e y ( 2 0 2 0 ) ess commonly known cardiovascular risk factors; Ethnicity - 1.5 times higher risk of of cardiovascular disease if you are South Asian Family history - A family history of CVD is considered significant if: Father or brother are diagnosed under the age of 55. Mother or sister are diagnosed under the age of 65. Air Pollution - Average annual exposure to >PM 2.5 AQI increases risk of heart Stress - 50% increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Mental Health - 1 in 4 people will suffer mental ill-health in their lifetime. Alcohol - Heavy excesses of alcohol increases CV risk. However, alcohol in small (vs Caucasian). - If you are African or Afro-Caribbean, your risk of HTN is increased & your risk of stroke is 1.5-2.5 times higher. In contrast, the risk of heart disease is actually lower (50% in men & 20-30% in women). - There is an increased risk of DM in all African, Afro-Caribbean & South Asian individuals, possibly due to insulin resistance. disease. Those who suffer with mental ill-health are at an increased risk of heart and circulatory diseases. Partly this is because they are more likely to concurrently suffer with physical ill-health, leading to other CV risk factors; however, mental ill-health increases CV risk independently. quantities may reduce the risk of some CV diseases.