9-1-1 and GIS in the 21st Century – What You Should Know Now.

9-1-1 and GIS in the 21st Century – What You Should Know Now.

Robert Kelley


  1. 9-1-1 and GIS in the 21st Century – What You

    Should Know Now.
  2. 9-1-1 Technology is Changing in the US • 1968 –

    First 9-1-1 call made in in Haleyville Alabama. • 1969 – Esri founded. • 1973 – National policy setting aside 9-1-1 established. • 1981 – first commercial GIS released (ARC/INFO). • 2000 – 93% of US covered by 9-1-1 service. • 2011 – First national ‘Functional and Interface Standards’ released for i3 (aka NG9-1-1) • National migration from ‘analog’ networks to pure ‘digital’ now underway. • We call this ‘Next Generation 9-1-1’, or NG9-1-1 for short. • Lots of opportunities and new capabilities will come to 3000+ counties and equivalents! • Lots of challenges come with this change…
  3. Source: Wikipedia 2018 Avg. 10% of calls or less are

    ‘landline’ Avg. 90% of calls or more are ‘wireless’ or ‘VoIP’ 9-1-1 Today

    9-1-1 Functionality Migration to NG9-1-1
  5. Key NG9-1-1 Terms in the Future • PSAP is a

    Public Safety Answering Point. • PIDF-LO (Presence Information Data Format – Location Object) will replace ALI with more location information that needs to match GIS. • Civic Location has more detailed location elements than ALI. • Geodetic Location refers to coordinates for latitude and longitude X / Y (later Z). • LVF validates all civic locations in data prior to inclusion in a LIS, ALI or LDB. • ECRF provides real time PSAP routing instructions, and responder determination, for both location types. • Dispatchable Location, as defined by the FCC, but basically subaddressing.
  6. 6 Standard for the i3 Architecture • NENA-STA-010 v2 on-line

    (363 pgs), v3 in review (525 pages) • A selection of GIS related points of interest in v3: ‒ Section 4.7 Discrepancy Reporting (DR) ‒ Section 5.3 ECRF and LVF ‒ Section 5.4 Spatial Interface (SI) ‒ Section 5.5 MSAG Conversion Service (MCS) ‒ Section 5.6 Geocode Service (GCS) ‒ Section 5.20 Map Data Service (MDS) ‒ Appendix B schema (M to M) • vs. NG9-1-1 GIS Data Model schema (‘Receiving’ GIS database structure) • vs. CLDXF schema (‘Sending’ PIDF-LO database structure).
  7. Getting the Call to the PSAP ESINet Geodetic Location Query

    Caller Dials 9-1-1 PSAP ESRP LVF / ECRF Location + PSAP URI Location + Service URN PSAP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) Is the identifier of the PSAP to connect the call to. PIDF-LO + PSAP URI: sos@psap.austin.tx.us Location & PSAP PIDF-LO + Service URN: urn:service:sos Service URN (Uniform Resource Name) Is the reference to the type of service. Location & Service
  8. ECRF Conceptual Diagram Geodetic Example: Location (X, Y coordinates) is

    compared to the Polygon layer representing PSAPs to route to. PSAP ‘B’ PSAP ‘A’ (X,Y)
  9. ECRF Conceptual Diagram Civic Example 1: Location geocoded to RCL

    layer then compared to the Polygon layer representing PSAPs to route to. PSAP ‘B’ PSAP ‘A’ (Civic)
  10. FCC Driver for Better Location Determination in 9-1-1 • November

    2014 ‘Roadmap’ agreement established between NENA, APCO, 4 CMRS providers. • FCC 4th report released February 3, 2015 (FCC 15-9). • FCC15-9 details new accuracy requirements for: ‒ Outdoor horizontal location accuracy (X / Y) ‒ Indoor horizontal location accuracy (X / Y) ‒ Vertical accuracy (Z) ‒ Defines ‘Dispatchable Location’ (Subaddressing) ‒ National Emergency Address Database (NEAD)
  11. PSAP ‘B’ PSAP ‘A’ ECRF Conceptual Diagram Civic Example 2:

    Location geocoded to a Site / Structure or Address Point layer then compared to the Polygon layer representing PSAPs to route to. Only way to handle Dispatchable Location. (Civic)
  12. 12 Standard for NG9-1-1 GIS Data Model • NENA-STA-006 defines

    the GIS data layer uses in a 9-1-1: ‒ Location Validation ‒ Geospatial Call Routing ‒ Dispatch Routing ‒ Public Safety Mapping Applications • Data structure for interoperability exchange in NG9-1-1. ‒ May use any internal GIS data model for daily maintenance. • GIS data layers now REQUIRED: ‒ Site / Structure Address Points ‒ Provisioning Boundary* (the area of GIS data provisioning responsibility)
  13. NG9-1-1 Interoperability Format – World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84)

    • NAD83 remains constant for North American points over time while WGS84 is defined by station points all over the world, thus they are not identical. • Cartesian coordinate frames for origin, axes orientation in space, and unit of scale differ between the two.
  14. 14 Inaccurate boundary lines may cause routing issues. Polygon boundaries

    should be the #1 priority for review/updating. Polygon Boundaries for NG9-1-1 Call Routing
  15. Polygons can have simplified or changing boundaries. Polygon Boundary Level

    of Detail vs Accuracy
  16. 16 Element Description Country Country A1 State A2 County A3

    Incorporated Municipality A4 Unincorporated Municipality A5 Neighborhood RD Street Name PRM Street Pre-Modifier PRD Street Pre-Directional STP Street Pre-Type STS Street Suffix POD Street Post-Directional POM Street Post-Modifier HNO House Number HNS House Number Suffix BLD Building FLR Floor UNIT Unit ROOM Room SEAT Seat PCN Postal Community Name PC Postal Code LMK Landmark Name PLC Place Type LOC Additional Location Information PN Post Number MP Milepost PIDF-LO Hierarchy
  17. 17

  18. 18 1100 1101 1022 1023 1200 1201 1102 1103 Where

    will ‘1103 Longhorn Rd’ route? Longhorn Rd Longhorn Rd 1100 1101 1098 1099 1200 1201 1198 1199 Road centerline Address Ranges for NG9-1-1 Call Routing Buffered addressing vs. Real world addressing This could make a big difference in an ECRF geospatial call routing environment PSAP A PSAP B PSAP A PSAP B
  19. 19 Information Document for Site Structure Address Point GIS Data

    for NG9-1-1 • Guidelines are designed to support the needs of, but are not limited to, the following public safety applications: • NG9-1-1 Validation • NG9-1-1 Call Routing • 9-1-1 Map Display • Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) • Vehicle Routing • Emergency Notification • Contents: • Placement Methodologies (Geocoding, Parcel, Site, Structures, Property Access) • Best Practices • Sub Addresses • Accuracy Considerations • Metadata
  20. 20 PSAP ‘B’ PSAP ‘A’ Site Structure Address Points for

    NG9-1-1 Call Routing 105 105 104 104 106 106 105 104 106
  21. 21 Information Document for GIS Data Stewardship for NG9-1-1 •

    NENA-INF-028 provides guidance on ‘how’ to create/maintain GIS data for NG 9-1-1 processes and functionality. • Completeness and timeliness of data • Guidelines for gap/overlap detection • NG9-1-1 Discrepancy and Error Reporting • Roadmap for process improvement • Boundary Polygons (for v1) • PSAP • Law • Fire • EMS • Road Centerlines (required for v2)
  22. 22 The National Emergency Address Database (NEAD) • NEAD, LLC

    was established by ‘CTIA-The Wireless Association’ (representing NENA, APCO, and 4x Tier 1 Carriers) who design / implement the NEAD. Smaller carriers (Tier 2 & 3) represented by CCA. • The NEAD stores the physical address of a Wi-Fi or Bluetooth beacon as a ‘Dispatchable Location’ for the beacon itself. • Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) is the NEAD Project Manager. • West Safety Services is the NEAD implementation vendor. • Two parts: NEAD (database) and NEAM (administration, data provisioning management, validation). • UPDATE: The display layout is completed, being tested in early December in San Jose, and Atlanta area • UPDATE: Project plan is complete and live service in selected areas is expected to be provided in 2Q 2019 W-iFi MAC Address Bluetooth LE UUID
  23. Milestones for the FCC Mandate From effective date of FCC

    order (2015): Year 2, 40% of all wireless calls must be horizontally accurate to within 50 meters, both outdoor and indoor locations. (2017) Year 3, Wireless accuracy requirement goes up to 50%, adds uncompensated barometric pressure determination. (2018) Year 5, Wireless accuracy requirement goes up to 70% of calls. (2020) Year 6, Wireless accuracy requirement goes up to 80% of wireless calls, adds that 25% to have a ‘Dispatchable Location’ (top 25 Cellular Market Areas - CMAs) and/or ‘Z’ value. (2021) Year 8, Up to 80% of wireless calls to have a ‘Dispatchable Location’ (top 50 CMAs) and/or ‘Z’ value. (2023) NG911 Now Coalition (NENA, NASNA, iCERT, et. al.) - working to accelerate Next Generation services nationwide implementation, including retirement of legacy systems, by 2020. .
  24. 24

  25. 25 Richard Kelly NENA Liaison to the National States Geographic

    Information Council (NSGIC) APCO SDC Technical Standards Sub Committee RichardK@911Datamaster.com 512.331.0633 Thank You! Thank You!
  26. 26

  27. 27 An NG9-1-1 GIS Data Check List 1. Bring local

    GIS database schemas in line with NENA GIS Data Model in the following order: – PSAP boundary – Responder boundaries (Law, Fire, EMS) – Road Centerlines – Site/Structure Address Points (and support sub addressing) 2. Implement global unique ID provisioning and maintenance plan for all GIS data 3. Develop URI taxonomy and provision all GIS features requiring URIs 4. Check GIS attribution 5. Check GIS geometry 6. Compare MSAG records to GIS RCLs 7. Compare ALI records to GIS APs 8. Compare ALI records to GIS RCLs
  28. 28 Vertical Datums  While NENA has adopted the WGS84

    coordinate system (for horizontal location determination and measurements for Earths surface) for data exchange inter- operability  A vertical datum is used as a consistent surface level for the Earth from which all vertical measurements can be performed.  NAVD88 is currently in use by GPS/GNSS systems as a veritcal datum and NOAA will have a new ‘geopotantial’ one by 2022.  A vertical datum has not been consistently recommended by NENA.
  29. 29 NENA Standards Support for Z  The draft NG9-1-1

    GIS Data Model includes:  Section 3.7 - “There is no vertical accuracy requirement at this time. A future edition of this document will provide a vertical accuracy and datum recommendation.”  Section 4.5 - Site/Structure Address Points includes an ‘elevation’ attribute measured in meters above mean sea level.  The draft ECRF LVF Provisioning standard includes:  Section 5.5 - All geodetic data in i3 uses WGS84 as referenced in NENA STA 010, Section 3.4.  For 3-dimensional geometries the European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) parameters are required to be follow as outlined in EPSG::4979.  STA-010 v2 Table A-15-1 for ‘Data Element Mapping’  Requires that a “Datum must always be WGS84 (EPSG4326/EPSG4979)” for received locations and converted if not received in this format.
  30. 30 • GPS systems already derive the ‘Z’ coordinate. •

    Deployment obstacles: – Z value derived by GPS today represents altitude above mean sea level (MSL). It may have to be translated to above ground level (AGL) to be useful. Existing GPS Capabilities GPS Horizontal Error Impacting Factors Ionospheric effects +-5m Shifts in satellite orbit +-2.5m Clock errors on satellite’s clocks +-2m Multipath effect +-1m Tropospheric effects +-0.5m Calculation and rounding errors +-1m TOTAL +-12m  Altitude provided by most cell phones is not accurate enough, even compensating for the AGL to MSL factor.  For an accurate barometric pressure derived Z estimation you need to ‘compensate’ for local conditions.
  31. 31 – Within 6 months: Carriers, NENA, and APCO conduct

    a study to evaluate options for using raw or “uncompensated” barometric pressure readings in the field. – Within 18 months: Carriers will promote the development of standards for the delivery of “uncompensated” barometry (e.g., ‘101.3 kPa’) to PSAPs. – Carriers will work with NENA and APCO to test the use of compensated altimetry (i.e., ‘75m above Mean Sea Level’), possibly based on compensated altimetry. – Within 36 months: Carriers, NENA, and APCO must develop a Z-Axis metric, based on testbed data, for submission to the FCC. ‘Z’ Value Development Timeline
  32. 32 All providers must meet the following requirements for provision

    of vertical location information with wireless 911 calls, within the following timeframes: – Within 3 years: Must make uncompensated barometric data available to PSAPs. – Within 6 years: Providers must deploy for the top 25 markets either: (1) dispatchable location for 25% of the population, or (2) z-axis technology that achieves the Commission-approved z-axis metric covering at least 80% of the population. ‘Z’ Value Deployment Timeline
  33. 33 • In A GIS, a ‘Spheroid’ approximates the shape

    of the Earth. (Earth is not a sphere) • A ‘datum’ defines the position of the spheroid relative to the center of the Earth. What is a Datum?  Datums are created for horizontal and vertical calculations.  NAD83 replaced NAD27 (NOAA will have a new ‘geometric’ one in 2022).  WGS84 used globally for GPS and adopted by NENA. Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000
  34. 34 • In order to minimize geometric distortion for a

    specific area, an appropriate projected coordinate system (ex. Conical) is selected in the GIS (ex. State Plane). Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 A Projected Coordinate System
  35. 35 • A projection takes datum based information and places

    it on to a flat two-dimensional plane (coordinate system). What is a Coordinate System? Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000