First 9-1-1 call made in in Haleyville Alabama. • 1969 – Esri founded. • 1973 – National policy setting aside 9-1-1 established. • 1981 – first commercial GIS released (ARC/INFO). • 2000 – 93% of US covered by 9-1-1 service. • 2011 – First national ‘Functional and Interface Standards’ released for i3 (aka NG9-1-1) • National migration from ‘analog’ networks to pure ‘digital’ now underway. • We call this ‘Next Generation 9-1-1’, or NG9-1-1 for short. • Lots of opportunities and new capabilities will come to 3000+ counties and equivalents! • Lots of challenges come with this change…
Public Safety Answering Point. • PIDF-LO (Presence Information Data Format – Location Object) will replace ALI with more location information that needs to match GIS. • Civic Location has more detailed location elements than ALI. • Geodetic Location refers to coordinates for latitude and longitude X / Y (later Z). • LVF validates all civic locations in data prior to inclusion in a LIS, ALI or LDB. • ECRF provides real time PSAP routing instructions, and responder determination, for both location types. • Dispatchable Location, as defined by the FCC, but basically subaddressing.
(363 pgs), v3 in review (525 pages) • A selection of GIS related points of interest in v3: ‒ Section 4.7 Discrepancy Reporting (DR) ‒ Section 5.3 ECRF and LVF ‒ Section 5.4 Spatial Interface (SI) ‒ Section 5.5 MSAG Conversion Service (MCS) ‒ Section 5.6 Geocode Service (GCS) ‒ Section 5.20 Map Data Service (MDS) ‒ Appendix B schema (M to M) • vs. NG9-1-1 GIS Data Model schema (‘Receiving’ GIS database structure) • vs. CLDXF schema (‘Sending’ PIDF-LO database structure).
Caller Dials 9-1-1 PSAP ESRP LVF / ECRF Location + PSAP URI Location + Service URN PSAP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) Is the identifier of the PSAP to connect the call to. PIDF-LO + PSAP URI: email@example.com Location & PSAP PIDF-LO + Service URN: urn:service:sos Service URN (Uniform Resource Name) Is the reference to the type of service. Location & Service
the GIS data layer uses in a 9-1-1: ‒ Location Validation ‒ Geospatial Call Routing ‒ Dispatch Routing ‒ Public Safety Mapping Applications • Data structure for interoperability exchange in NG9-1-1. ‒ May use any internal GIS data model for daily maintenance. • GIS data layers now REQUIRED: ‒ Site / Structure Address Points ‒ Provisioning Boundary* (the area of GIS data provisioning responsibility)
• NAD83 remains constant for North American points over time while WGS84 is defined by station points all over the world, thus they are not identical. • Cartesian coordinate frames for origin, axes orientation in space, and unit of scale differ between the two.
Incorporated Municipality A4 Unincorporated Municipality A5 Neighborhood RD Street Name PRM Street Pre-Modifier PRD Street Pre-Directional STP Street Pre-Type STS Street Suffix POD Street Post-Directional POM Street Post-Modifier HNO House Number HNS House Number Suffix BLD Building FLR Floor UNIT Unit ROOM Room SEAT Seat PCN Postal Community Name PC Postal Code LMK Landmark Name PLC Place Type LOC Additional Location Information PN Post Number MP Milepost PIDF-LO Hierarchy
will ‘1103 Longhorn Rd’ route? Longhorn Rd Longhorn Rd 1100 1101 1098 1099 1200 1201 1198 1199 Road centerline Address Ranges for NG9-1-1 Call Routing Buffered addressing vs. Real world addressing This could make a big difference in an ECRF geospatial call routing environment PSAP A PSAP B PSAP A PSAP B
for NG9-1-1 • Guidelines are designed to support the needs of, but are not limited to, the following public safety applications: • NG9-1-1 Validation • NG9-1-1 Call Routing • 9-1-1 Map Display • Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) • Vehicle Routing • Emergency Notification • Contents: • Placement Methodologies (Geocoding, Parcel, Site, Structures, Property Access) • Best Practices • Sub Addresses • Accuracy Considerations • Metadata
NENA-INF-028 provides guidance on ‘how’ to create/maintain GIS data for NG 9-1-1 processes and functionality. • Completeness and timeliness of data • Guidelines for gap/overlap detection • NG9-1-1 Discrepancy and Error Reporting • Roadmap for process improvement • Boundary Polygons (for v1) • PSAP • Law • Fire • EMS • Road Centerlines (required for v2)
was established by ‘CTIA-The Wireless Association’ (representing NENA, APCO, and 4x Tier 1 Carriers) who design / implement the NEAD. Smaller carriers (Tier 2 & 3) represented by CCA. • The NEAD stores the physical address of a Wi-Fi or Bluetooth beacon as a ‘Dispatchable Location’ for the beacon itself. • Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) is the NEAD Project Manager. • West Safety Services is the NEAD implementation vendor. • Two parts: NEAD (database) and NEAM (administration, data provisioning management, validation). • UPDATE: The display layout is completed, being tested in early December in San Jose, and Atlanta area • UPDATE: Project plan is complete and live service in selected areas is expected to be provided in 2Q 2019 W-iFi MAC Address Bluetooth LE UUID
order (2015): Year 2, 40% of all wireless calls must be horizontally accurate to within 50 meters, both outdoor and indoor locations. (2017) Year 3, Wireless accuracy requirement goes up to 50%, adds uncompensated barometric pressure determination. (2018) Year 5, Wireless accuracy requirement goes up to 70% of calls. (2020) Year 6, Wireless accuracy requirement goes up to 80% of wireless calls, adds that 25% to have a ‘Dispatchable Location’ (top 25 Cellular Market Areas - CMAs) and/or ‘Z’ value. (2021) Year 8, Up to 80% of wireless calls to have a ‘Dispatchable Location’ (top 50 CMAs) and/or ‘Z’ value. (2023) NG911 Now Coalition (NENA, NASNA, iCERT, et. al.) - working to accelerate Next Generation services nationwide implementation, including retirement of legacy systems, by 2020. .
GIS database schemas in line with NENA GIS Data Model in the following order: – PSAP boundary – Responder boundaries (Law, Fire, EMS) – Road Centerlines – Site/Structure Address Points (and support sub addressing) 2. Implement global unique ID provisioning and maintenance plan for all GIS data 3. Develop URI taxonomy and provision all GIS features requiring URIs 4. Check GIS attribution 5. Check GIS geometry 6. Compare MSAG records to GIS RCLs 7. Compare ALI records to GIS APs 8. Compare ALI records to GIS RCLs
coordinate system (for horizontal location determination and measurements for Earths surface) for data exchange inter- operability A vertical datum is used as a consistent surface level for the Earth from which all vertical measurements can be performed. NAVD88 is currently in use by GPS/GNSS systems as a veritcal datum and NOAA will have a new ‘geopotantial’ one by 2022. A vertical datum has not been consistently recommended by NENA.
GIS Data Model includes: Section 3.7 - “There is no vertical accuracy requirement at this time. A future edition of this document will provide a vertical accuracy and datum recommendation.” Section 4.5 - Site/Structure Address Points includes an ‘elevation’ attribute measured in meters above mean sea level. The draft ECRF LVF Provisioning standard includes: Section 5.5 - All geodetic data in i3 uses WGS84 as referenced in NENA STA 010, Section 3.4. For 3-dimensional geometries the European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) parameters are required to be follow as outlined in EPSG::4979. STA-010 v2 Table A-15-1 for ‘Data Element Mapping’ Requires that a “Datum must always be WGS84 (EPSG4326/EPSG4979)” for received locations and converted if not received in this format.
Deployment obstacles: – Z value derived by GPS today represents altitude above mean sea level (MSL). It may have to be translated to above ground level (AGL) to be useful. Existing GPS Capabilities GPS Horizontal Error Impacting Factors Ionospheric effects +-5m Shifts in satellite orbit +-2.5m Clock errors on satellite’s clocks +-2m Multipath effect +-1m Tropospheric effects +-0.5m Calculation and rounding errors +-1m TOTAL +-12m Altitude provided by most cell phones is not accurate enough, even compensating for the AGL to MSL factor. For an accurate barometric pressure derived Z estimation you need to ‘compensate’ for local conditions.
a study to evaluate options for using raw or “uncompensated” barometric pressure readings in the field. – Within 18 months: Carriers will promote the development of standards for the delivery of “uncompensated” barometry (e.g., ‘101.3 kPa’) to PSAPs. – Carriers will work with NENA and APCO to test the use of compensated altimetry (i.e., ‘75m above Mean Sea Level’), possibly based on compensated altimetry. – Within 36 months: Carriers, NENA, and APCO must develop a Z-Axis metric, based on testbed data, for submission to the FCC. ‘Z’ Value Development Timeline
of vertical location information with wireless 911 calls, within the following timeframes: – Within 3 years: Must make uncompensated barometric data available to PSAPs. – Within 6 years: Providers must deploy for the top 25 markets either: (1) dispatchable location for 25% of the population, or (2) z-axis technology that achieves the Commission-approved z-axis metric covering at least 80% of the population. ‘Z’ Value Deployment Timeline
of the Earth. (Earth is not a sphere) • A ‘datum’ defines the position of the spheroid relative to the center of the Earth. What is a Datum? Datums are created for horizontal and vertical calculations. NAD83 replaced NAD27 (NOAA will have a new ‘geometric’ one in 2022). WGS84 used globally for GPS and adopted by NENA. Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000
specific area, an appropriate projected coordinate system (ex. Conical) is selected in the GIS (ex. State Plane). Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 Esri ‘Understanding Map Projections’ 2000 A Projected Coordinate System