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Task-based language teaching in an English for business purposes program

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=47 Ken Urano
April 27, 2018

Task-based language teaching in an English for business purposes program

ACLL2018: The Asian Conference on Language Learning 2018
April 27–29, 2018
Art Center Kobe, Kobe, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=128

Ken Urano

April 27, 2018
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  1. Task-based Language Teaching in an English for Business Purposes Program

    Ken Urano (urano@hgu.jp) Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, Japan http://www.urano-ken.com/research/ACLL2018 The Asian Conference on Language Learning 2018 @ Art Center Kobe April 27, 2018
  2. School Systems in Japan

  3. School Systems in Japan • 2–3 years of kindergarten •

    6 years of primary school (compulsory) • 3 years of junior high school (compulsory) • 3 years of senior high school • 4 years of university
  4. • In junior/senior high schools, • “Foreign Language” became a

    compulsory subject in 2002. • English should be selected in principle, though some (very few) schools (mostly senior high schools) choose to provide other languages such as Chinese, Korean, French, and German. • Before 2002, “Foreign Language” was an elective, but almost all students took it. (Butler & Iino, 2005; Terasawa, 2014b) English Language Education in Japan
  5. English Language Education in Japan • In elementary schools, •

    “Foreign Language Activities” became a compulsory subject for 5th & 6th graders in 2011. • It will be expanded to 3rd & 4th graders in 2020.
  6. English Language Education in Japan Why do we teach/learn English

    in Japan? or Why is English a compulsory subject in Japan?
  7. Why do we teach/learn English in Japan? • Needs are

    very limited (Terasawa, 2014a, 2015, 2018). • Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSS) dataset • 2002 & 2003 data combined (N = 4,910) • “Do you use English in your everyday life?” “I frequently/sometimes use English in business.” 6.1% “I use English for non-business purposes.” 9.8% “I hardly (ever) have a chance to use English.” 85.9%
  8. Why do we teach/learn English in Japan? • Japanese General

    Social Surveys (JGSS) dataset • 2006 & 2010 data combined (N = 4,626) • “Have you ever read, listened, or spoken English for the following activities for the past 12 months? Business use 12.4% Non-business use 36.8% Not at all 58.4%
  9. Why do we teach/learn English in Japan? • Needs for

    learning English cannot be identified at the national level in Japan. • Therefore, it is difficult to implement an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) curriculum in primary and secondary education. • However, there is some room for ESP in tertiary education.
  10. English Language Teaching at Universities

  11. English Language Teaching at Universities • Usually offered as a

    package of 15 90-minute classes per semester (1–2 credits). • Roughly divided into two categories: • University-wide general education courses • Faculty-specific English courses
  12. English Language Teaching at Universities • English as a general

    education subject • Specific goals are not usually set. • English for General Purposes (EGP)
  13. English Language Teaching at Universities • English as a faculty-specific

    subject • ESP is becoming popular in fields like engineering, science, medicine, nursing, and pharmaceutical sciences. • English for Business Purposes (EBP) is also becoming popular. (Terauchi, Yamauchi, Noguchi, & Sasajima, 2010)
  14. Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)

  15. Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) • Simply put, task-based learning (TBL)

    is “learning by doing.” • TBL is not just for language. • Examples: Riding a bicycle, playing soccer, etc.
  16. Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) • Basic steps in task-based syllabus

    design: 1. Set a (communicative) goal as a target task. 2. Create a series of pedagogic tasks by adjusting task complexity. 3. Sequence the pedagogic tasks from the simplest to the most complex (= target task).
  17. Airline Flight Attendant (Long, 2015)

  18. Airline Flight Attendant (Long, 2015) • Target tasks: 1. Serve

    breakfast, lunch, dinner, drinks, snacks… 2. Check life vests, oxygen cylinders, seat belts… 3. Check overhead bins, luggage stowed under seats, passengers in assigned seats…
  19. • Target task types: 1. Serve food and beverages 2.

    Check safety equipment 3. Prepare for takeoff Airline Flight Attendant (Long, 2015)
  20. • Target task types: 1. Serve food and beverages 2.

    Check safety equipment 3. Prepare for takeoff Airline Flight Attendant (Long, 2015)
  21. Airline Flight Attendant (Long, 2015) • Pedagogic tasks for “serve

    food and beverages” 0. Experience the task as a passenger (input) 1. Identify choices between two food items 2. Identify choices among multiple items 3. Respond to choices when some items are unavailable .
 .
 . n. Full simulation (the exit task)
  22. Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) How can we identify the target

    task(s)? By conducting needs analysis. (Long, 2005, 2015)
  23. Needs Analysis In an era of shrinking resources, there are

    growing demands for accountability in public life, with education a particularly urgent case and foreign language education a prime example within it…. There is an urgent need for courses of all kinds to be relevant… to the needs of specific groups of learners and of society at large. (Long, 2005, p. 19)
  24. Needs Analysis In an era of shrinking resources, there are

    growing demands for accountability in public life, with education a particularly urgent case and foreign language education a prime example within it…. There is an urgent need for courses of all kinds to be relevant… to the needs of specific groups of learners and of society at large. (Long, 2005, p. 19)
  25. Sources of Needs Analysis • Learning situation analysis (LSA) •

    Ask the learners what they want. • Target situation analysis (TSA) • Analyze what the learners actually need to do. • Present situation analysis (PSA) • Evaluate the present situation against LSA & TSA
  26. Sources of Needs Analysis • Learning situation analysis (LSA) •

    Ask the learners what they want. • Target situation analysis (TSA) • Analyze what the learners actually need to do. • Present situation analysis (PSA) • Evaluate the present situation against LSA & TSA
  27. Target Situation Analysis (TSA) • Closest to the actual needs

    • Sources: • In-service people • Domain experts • Relevant documents • Target discourse
  28. Target Situation Analysis (TSA) • Closest to the actual needs

    • Sources: • In-service people • Domain experts • Relevant documents • Target discourse
  29. Steps in Target Discourse Analysis 1. Identify the target discourse.

    • “Where will the students use English?” 2. Collect target discourse samples. • “What do they actually do there?” 3. Analyze the discourse samples. • “Are there any patterns?”
  30. Importance of Target Discourse Analysis • Discrepancy between commercial textbooks

    and the actual target discourse • Bartlett (2005) • Collected dialogs at coffee shops and compared the discourse with dialogs found in commercial textbooks.
  31. Wait person Customer Are you ready to order? Yes. Could

    I have (choose an entreé)? What kind of potatoes would you like? Let me see. I’d like… And would you like peas or asparagus? May I have…? Would you like Italian or French dressing with your salad? Could I have…? What would you like for dessert? What do you have? … … Sample Textbook Dialog (Bartlett, 2005, p. 331)
  32. 1 S: Hi. Can I help you? 2 C: Can

    I get a grande latte with vanilla? 3 S: Did you want that blended or on the rocks? 4 C: Blended, I guess. 5 S: 2% or skimmed? 6 C: Uhm 2%. 7 S: 2% OK. Any whipped cream? 8 C: Sorry? 9 S: Did you want whipped cream on that? 10 C: Yes. 11 S: Anything else? 12 C: No, that’s it. Oh no. Can I get—are those scones? 13 S: Yeah, we have cranberry and blueberry. 14 C: I think I’ll have one of those (pointing). … Sample Prototypical Dialog (Bartlett, 2005, p. 338)
  33. Importance of Target Discourse Analysis As witnessed during the researcher’s

    own language teaching experience and supported by previous target discourse analyses, many current textbook materials ill- equip learners to handle real-life discourse. The present analysis attempts to show that although natural interactions are somewhat complex and reveal variability, there is a predictable overall nature. (Bartlett, 2005, p. 338)
  34. Importance of Target Discourse Analysis As witnessed during the researcher’s

    own language teaching experience and supported by previous target discourse analyses, many current textbook materials ill- equip learners to handle real-life discourse. The present analysis attempts to show that although natural interactions are somewhat complex and reveal variability, there is a predictable overall nature. (Bartlett, 2005, p. 338)
  35. Quick Summary

  36. Quick Summary • The need to learn English in primary

    and secondary education is not clear. • ESP is becoming popular in universities where English is offered at the faculty-specific level. • TBLT is a goal-oriented approach and encourages learning by doing. • Needs analysis is crucial for both TBLT and ESP curriculum development. • Target situation analysis, more specifically, target discourse analysis is important.
  37. Difficulty in Task-based Curriculum Development

  38. Difficulty in Task-based Curriculum Development • The target discourse is

    often inaccessible. • Discourse samples very often contain confidential information, and researchers/teachers are often denied access. • Still we need to formally request access. • Winn (2005) suggests networking with the persons in charge can be helpful.
  39. A Case of a University EBP Curriculum

  40. A Case of a University EBP Curriculum • English for

    Specific Purposes (ESP) • English for Academic Purposes (EAP) • English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) • English for Medical Purposes (EMP) • English for Business Purposes (EBP) • …
  41. A Case of a University EBP Curriculum • English for

    Specific Purposes (ESP) • English for Academic Purposes (EAP) • English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) • English for Medical Purposes (EMP) • English for Business Purposes (EBP) • …
  42. A Case of a University EBP Curriculum • A private

    university located in Sapporo, the 5th largest city in Japan on the island of Hokkaido. • Largest and oldest private university in Hokkaido. • Five faculties: Economics, Law, Engineering, Humanities, and Business Administration • The Faculty of Business Administration has its own English program.
  43. A Case of a University EBP Curriculum • A private

    university located in Sapporo, the 5th largest city in Japan on the island of Hokkaido. • Largest and oldest private university in Hokkaido. • Five faculties: Economics, Law, Engineering, Humanities, and Business Administration • The Faculty of Business Administration has its own English program.
  44. Needs Identification Place of Employment 6% 32% 11% 52% Sapporo

    Other area in Hokkaido Kanto (in and around Tokyo) Other
  45. Needs Identification Industry Type 10.3 6.8 8.2 11 11.3 16.4

    16.8 19.2 Banks and financing business Services Transportation and telecommunications Retail Wholesale Public officials Manufacturing Other
  46. • Needs to use English in Hokkaido (Naito et al.,

    2007) • Internet survey for business people in Hokkaido • Data in 2005 (N = 1,085) • “How often do you use English for work?” “Every day.” 4.7% “A few times a week.” 4.6% “A few times a month.” 4.4% Needs Identification
  47. Needs Identification • Frequent tasks (Naito et al., 2007) Listening

    customers 30% phone calls 16% office conversation 13% Speaking customers 34% phone calls 16% office conversation 14%
  48. Needs Identification • Frequent tasks (Naito et al., 2007) Reading

    websites 43% manuals 38% emails 34% Writing emails 34% reports 12% research papers 9%
  49. Needs Identification • Frequent tasks (Naito et al., 2007) Reading

    websites 43% manuals 38% emails 34% Writing emails 34% reports 12% research papers 9%
  50. Case 1: Task-based Writing Class

  51. Case 1: Task-based Writing Class • Goals of the business

    email writing class 1. To understand different types of business emails and ways to write them effectively 2. To learn frequent expressions used in business emails 3. To be able to write effective business emails for different purposes
  52. • Materials: • Combination of a commercial textbook (for practicality)

    and original writing tasks that are partly derived from target discourse samples Case 1: Task-based Writing Class
  53. Case 1: Task-based Writing Class Beginning → → → →

    → → → → → → → → → → End Syllabus Overall increase in task complexity
  54. Case 1: Task-based Writing Class Beginning → → → →

    → → → → → → → → → → End Syllabus Increased complexity within sub-tasks
  55. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry Overall Increase in Task Complexity
  56. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry Overall Increase in Task Complexity Tasks
  57. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry Overall Increase in Task Complexity Simpler More Complex
  58. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry Overall Increase in Task Complexity Simpler More Complex
  59. Increased Complexity within Sub-tasks Pre-task Authentic input (target discourse) Pre-task

    Modified input (from the textbook) Sub-task 1 Group writing assignment Instructor’s feedback Sub-task 2 Individual writing assignment (homework) Peer feedback + instructor’s feedback Sub-task 3 Revision (homework) Instructor’s feedback
  60. Increased Complexity within Sub-tasks Pre-task Authentic input (target discourse) Pre-task

    Modified input (from the textbook) Sub-task 1 Group writing assignment Instructor’s feedback Sub-task 2 Individual writing assignment (homework) Peer feedback + instructor’s feedback sub-task 3 Revision (homework) Instructor’s feedback Increased complexity Same complexity
  61. Authentic Input (Target Discourse) Not available online. Please contact urano@hgu.jp

    for further information.
  62. Authentic Input (Target Discourse) Not available online. Please contact urano@hgu.jp

    for further information.
  63. Modified Input (Textbook) Dear Sales Manager: We import computer components

    in Japan. We are interested in your Product A, which was covered in an article in the April 2 issue of Business Week. If you ship your products abroad, please inform us of the formal order procedure. Thank you. Shiokawa (2012, p. 35)
  64. Sub-task 1 (less complex) You run a small cookware shop

    in Nagoya, and the shop is gaining popularity thanks to its selection of unique kitchen items. You are now looking at a product catalog of a kitchenware company in the US. You are particularly interested in a dinnerware set on p. 15. Write an inquiry email asking: • If the company sells its products overseas. • If the company has distributers in Japan. Based on Shiokawa (2012, p. 39)
  65. Sub-task 2 & 3 (more complex) You work for Orchard

    Food Trading in Singapore. Last week, you requested a catalog from Tokyo Liquor, and they sent you the PDF version of their catalog. In the catalog, a few of the items, especially sake and craft beer from Hokkaido, seem to be promising as items for the Japan Fair scheduled this autumn. You are going to meet them in Tokyo next month to discuss this, but are going to send email to them before hand, asking: • If it is possible to taste some of the sake at the meeting in Tokyo. • What the minimum and maximum units of order are for Otaru Beer. • If Otaru Beer is available in cans, rather than in bottles.
  66. Sample Student Work Dear Ms. Kobayashi, Thank you so much

    for sending us the catalog we requested. We looked it and there are some products good for the Singapore exhibition in Autumn. We would like to talk about the exhibition with you more tangible in the business meeting in Tokyo. We have three questions. 1. Is it possible to try Japanese sake in the business meeting? 2. Could you let us know minimum and maximum units of order for the Otaru Beer and Noboribetsu Oni Densetsu Beer? We are interested in those products. 3. Do you have the canned beer? I thought there are only bottled beer in the catalog. We are looking for your reply. XXX YYY, Japanese Food Section Manager
  67. Case 2: Task-based Presentation Class

  68. Case 2: Task-based Presentation Class • Goals of the business

    presentation class 1. To understand different types of presentations and ways to give presentations effectively 2. To learn frequent expressions used in business presentations 3. To be able to give effective business presentations for different purposes
  69. • Materials: • Original speaking tasks that are partly derived

    from target discourse samples Case 2: Task-based Presentation Class
  70. • Business exchange at an international food expo Discourse Sample

    1
  71. None
  72. Not available online. Please contact urano@hgu.jp for further information.

  73. • Semi-structured interview with an in-service learner (ongoing) • Experience

    in internship at various business transactions Discourse Sample 2
  74. Summary

  75. Summary Summary • Needs analysis is crucial for TBLT and

    ESP curriculum development. • Target situation analysis, more specifically, target discourse analysis is important. • Access to the target discourse is sometimes difficult. • Attempts are being made to gain access. Ken Urano urano@hgu.jp http://www.urano-ken.com/research/ACLL2018
  76. • Bartlett, N. J. D. (2005). A double shot 2%

    mocha latte, please, with whip: Service encounters in two coffee shops and at a coffee cart. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 305–343). Cambridge University Press. • Butler, Y. G. & Iino, M. (2005). Current Japanese reforms in English language education: The 2003 "Action Plan." Language Policy, 4, 25–45. • Long, M. H. (2005). Methodological issues in learner needs analysis. In M. H. Long (ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 19–76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Naito, H., Yoshida, M., Iida, M., Miura, H., Sakabe, T., Shibata, A., et al. (2007). Hokkaido-no sangyokai-niokeru Eigo-no niizu. [The needs of the English language in the industries in Hokkaido.] Kitahiroshima: JACET ESP Hokkaido. • Shiokawa, H. (2012). Bijinesu eibun meru nyumon: Kaisetsu toeEnshu. [Introduction to English business email: Explanation and practice. [Kindle] Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/B0155VGNKO/ • Terauchi, H., Yamauchi, H., Noguchi, J., & Sasajima, S. (Eds.) (2010). 21-seiki-no ESP: Atarashii ESP riron-no kouchiku-to jissen. [ESP in the 21st century: ESP theory and application today.] Tokyo: Taishukan. • Terasawa, T. (2014a). The needs to use English in Japanese society: A statistical examination of policies and goals of English education. In S. Yoshijima (ed.), Foreign language Education V: Roles and challenges in general education (pp. 262-284). Tokyo: Asahi Shuppan-sha. • Terasawa, T. (2014b). “Nande Eigo-yaruno?”-no sengoshi: “Kokuminkyoiku”-toshiteno Eigo, sono dento-no seiritsukatei. [The postwar history of "Why do we teach English?": The process of building up the tradition of "English as national education.”] Tokyo: Kenkyusha. • Terasawa, T. (2015). “Nihonjin-to Eigo”-no shakaigaku: Naze Eigokyoikuron-wa gokaidarake nanoka. [Sociology of English language and the Japanese: Why do we have so many misunderstandings about English education?] Tokyo: Kenkyusha. • Terasawa, T. (2018). Learning English in Japan: Myths and realities. Melbourne, Australia: Trans Pacific Press. • Winn, M. (2005). Collecting target discourse: The case of the US naturalization interview. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 265–304). Cambridge University Press. References