Significant Memorable, worth sharing Super easy, works as expected Used without difficulty Available, accurate Works as programmed Anderson, S. P. (2011). Seductive interaction design: Creating playful, fun, and effective user experiences. Berkeley, CA: New Riders
• Behavioral: Learnability, functionality, usability • Reflective: Assessment of impact, associated values Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books.
Fear • Happiness • Sadness • Surprise Note: Not all agree that these are truly universal. See “Silicon Valley thinks everyone feels the same six emotions” by Richard Firth-Godbehere Robert Plutchik’s 8 • Anger ←→ Fear • Joy ←→ Sadness • Trust ←→ Disgust • Surprise ←→ Anticipation
Chains ◦ Attributes (appealing features & functions) ◦ Consequences (benefits to user) ◦ Core values (important to identity/emotion/purpose) • Questions ◦ “Describe a feature that makes this useful” ◦ “What does the feature do?” ◦ “Why is that important?” ◦ “How does it benefit you?” ◦ “What does it mean to you?” https://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2009/07/laddering-a-research-interview-technique-for- uncovering-core-values.php
Method ◦ Time since last experience ◦ Description ◦ Actions taken ◦ Feelings ◦ Outcome ◦ Future actions/responses desired • Example ◦ “Consider the last time you had to [X]. How long ago was it? Describe the steps you took, highlighting feelings, surprises or problems. What would you do differently?” Critical Incident http://www.usabilitynet.org/tools/criticalincidents.htm
at least 3 people • Task: Develop 3-5 interview questions to identify travel goals and problems • Assign roles: ◦ Interviewer ◦ Interviewee (goes to another team) ◦ Observer/note-taker • Conduct interview with interviewee from different team • Laddering to discover ◦ Attributes (appealing features) ◦ Consequences (user benefits) ◦ Core values ◦ Example: “Describe feature” → “Why important?” → “How does it benefit you?” • Critical incident ◦ Time since last experience ◦ Description, Actions, Feeling, Outcome ◦ Future actions/responses desired ◦ Example: “Consider the last time you [X]. How long ago? Describe steps, highlight feelings, surprises, problems. What would you do differently?”
prompt ◦ “Create a picture of a person having a problem or issue with [X].” ◦ “Draw what [X] would look like if it came to life.” • Have participant talk about drawing, feelings and stories Drawing & stories https://hbr.org/2011/04/how-colored-pencils-and-cartoo
and then review positive & negative values • Review positive values for ideal experience • Method ◦ Present scenario & task ◦ Review terms, one at a time ◦ Select all terms that apply ◦ Prioritize top 3 → stack rank ◦ Describe rationale Reaction cards Benedek, J. & Miner, T. 2002. Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. UPA Conference Proceedings, at: https://www.microsoft.com/usability/UEPostings/ DesirabilityToolkit.doc
3 people • Task: Conduct a drawing or reaction card exercise to identify user values • Assign roles: ◦ Moderator ◦ Participant (goes to another team) ◦ Observer/note-taker • Conduct elicitation with participant from different team • Drawing ◦ Present scenario and drawing prompt ◦ Have participant talk about drawing ◦ Examples: “Create picture of a person having a problem with [X].” “Draw what [X] would look like if it came to life.” • Reaction cards ◦ Present scenario and task ◦ Have participant review cards to select which apply → select top 3 ◦ Example: “Consider the last time you used [X]. Review each card and select the ones that match your experience.”
Simple and quick to administer • Repeated use for multi-step processes • Method ◦ “How are you feeling?” ◦ 9-point scale ◦ 5 levels of intensity • Now at: http://youxemotions.com/ http://uxpamagazine.org/measuring-emotions/
based on ◦ Static or dynamic ◦ Facial muscle movements ◦ Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System ◦ Trained on many faces from different countries • Example companies ◦ Affectiva, Amazon, Apple, Eyeris, Face++, Google, IBM, Kairos, Microsoft, Noldus, Nviso, Sightcorp, Trueface.ai
Indicator of arousal, status • Low status: ◦ Slouch, closed posture ◦ Restless, fidgeting ◦ Tentative, deference, avert gaze • High status: ◦ Use more space ◦ Tall, relaxed, still ◦ Direct eye contact, gaze https://library.gv.com/how-to-build-better-rapport-for-better-research-interviews-869952b6a71d
least 3 people • Task: Conduct a task to understand associated emotions • Assign roles: ◦ Moderator ◦ Participant (goes to another team) ◦ Observer/note-taker • Have participant perform task and gather emotional data at start, middle, end of task • Survey ◦ Single item self report: “How are you feeling” with 5-9 point scale (positive-negative) ◦ Bipolar emotional response: Pick 3-5 emotions and their opposites • Observation ◦ Facial expressions: surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, sadness, contempt ◦ Body language status: ▪ Low (slouch, closed posture, restless, deference) ▪ High (open, relaxed, tall, still, direct)
◦ Persona ◦ Context • Collect data • Illustrate ◦ Main phases (3-5) ◦ Main tasks within each phase ◦ Associated emotions ◦ Quotes to highlight ◦ Implications (to drive action) https://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/8462249080 https://www.nngroup.com/articles/customer-journey-mapping/
playful, fun, and effective user experiences. Berkeley, CA: New Riders. Jordan, P. W. (2000). Designing pleasurable products: An introduction to the new human factors. London: Taylor & Francis. Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books. Walter, A. (2011). Designing for emotion. New York, N.Y: A Book Apart/Jeffrey Zeldman.