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D7424ff0e1dc983d898de62c7496c321?s=47 uxindia
October 04, 2018


Half day workshop - Day 1



October 04, 2018


  1. None
  2. Designing for the whole human Methods to discover emotions and

  3. Designing for the whole human Methods to discover emotions and

  4. Steve Fadden, Ph.D. UX Research Manager, Google Lecturer, UC Berkeley

    School of Information
  5. Why do we use products & services?

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  10. Hierarchy of needs Meaningful Pleasurable Convenient Usable Reliable Functional (useful)

    Significant Memorable, worth sharing Super easy, works as expected Used without difficulty Available, accurate Works as programmed Anderson, S. P. (2011). Seductive interaction design: Creating playful, fun, and effective user experiences. Berkeley, CA: New Riders
  11. Understanding emotions, needs, and values

  12. “The essential difference between emotion and reason is that emotion

    leads to action while reason leads to conclusions.” Donald Calne, neurologist and author
  13. Emotions & actions Emotion General tendency Sadness Withdrawal, slow down

    Fear Avoidance Anger Attack, assert Shame Hide Guilt Make amends, solve Love Nurture, protect Joy Repeat
  14. Attitude & perception Happiness correlates with brand attitude and purchase

    intent Arousal and liking are higher for ads with music Disgust and sadness increase, while happiness decreases, with streaming media buffering
  15. Emotional ad campaigns benefit more https://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/emotional-ads-work-best.htm#sthash.yu8l31Jn.dpuf

  16. "...over 50% of experience is based on how a customer

    feels. It’s surprising how many brands don’t do research on how customers feel about them." Colin Shaw, management expert
  17. Levels of emotion • Visceral: Initial gut reaction, sensory input

    • Behavioral: Learnability, functionality, usability • Reflective: Assessment of impact, associated values Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books.
  18. Human needs hierarchy Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self- actualization Esteem

    Belonging Safety Physiological
  19. Emotion needs hierarchy Hierarchy of user needs Pleasurable Usable Reliable

  20. Identify emotions

  21. Identify the emotion • Anger • Disgust • Fear •

    Happiness • Sadness • Surprise
  22. Identify the emotion • Anger • Disgust • Fear •

    Happiness • Sadness • Surprise
  23. Identify the emotion • Anger • Disgust • Fear •

    Happiness • Sadness • Surprise
  24. Identify the emotion • Anger • Disgust • Fear •

    Happiness • Sadness • Surprise
  25. Reflect

  26. Facial tracking systems

  27. “Basic” emotions Paul Ekman’s 6 • Anger • Disgust •

    Fear • Happiness • Sadness • Surprise Note: Not all agree that these are truly universal. See “Silicon Valley thinks everyone feels the same six emotions” by Richard Firth-Godbehere Robert Plutchik’s 8 • Anger ←→ Fear • Joy ←→ Sadness • Trust ←→ Disgust • Surprise ←→ Anticipation
  28. “Compound” emotions Evidence for 4 core emotions: • Anger/disgust •

    Fear/surprise • Joy • Sadness And 15 “blends” of emotions, such as: • Happily surprised • Sadly fearful • Fearfully disgusted • Angrily surprised • Disgustedly surprised
  29. Methods

  30. Approaches Observation Analytics Biometrics Interview Survey Elicitation Mapping

  31. • Develop empathy and understand intentions and principles • Understanding

    why ◦ Reasoning ◦ Reactions ◦ Values ◦ Guiding principles • Tips ◦ Start broad ◦ Don’t take notes ◦ Let speaker control topics ◦ Avoid “I” statements ◦ Fewest words possible ◦ Be respectful; don’t judge Listening Young, I. (2015). Practical empathy for collaboration and creativity in your work. Rosenfeld Media. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Rosenfeld Media.
  32. Laddering • Uncover core beliefs and values • Means End

    Chains ◦ Attributes (appealing features & functions) ◦ Consequences (benefits to user) ◦ Core values (important to identity/emotion/purpose) • Questions ◦ “Describe a feature that makes this useful” ◦ “What does the feature do?” ◦ “Why is that important?” ◦ “How does it benefit you?” ◦ “What does it mean to you?” https://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2009/07/laddering-a-research-interview-technique-for- uncovering-core-values.php
  33. • Gain evidence of real problems and solution opportunities •

    Method ◦ Time since last experience ◦ Description ◦ Actions taken ◦ Feelings ◦ Outcome ◦ Future actions/responses desired • Example ◦ “Consider the last time you had to [X]. How long ago was it? Describe the steps you took, highlighting feelings, surprises or problems. What would you do differently?” Critical Incident http://www.usabilitynet.org/tools/criticalincidents.htm
  34. Practice Critical Incident and Laddering

  35. Practice Critical Incident and Laddering • Form small team with

    at least 3 people • Task: Develop 3-5 interview questions to identify travel goals and problems • Assign roles: ◦ Interviewer ◦ Interviewee (goes to another team) ◦ Observer/note-taker • Conduct interview with interviewee from different team • Laddering to discover ◦ Attributes (appealing features) ◦ Consequences (user benefits) ◦ Core values ◦ Example: “Describe feature” → “Why important?” → “How does it benefit you?” • Critical incident ◦ Time since last experience ◦ Description, Actions, Feeling, Outcome ◦ Future actions/responses desired ◦ Example: “Consider the last time you [X]. How long ago? Describe steps, highlight feelings, surprises, problems. What would you do differently?”
  36. Reflect

  37. • Understand values, feelings, and associations • Give creative drawing

    prompt ◦ “Create a picture of a person having a problem or issue with [X].” ◦ “Draw what [X] would look like if it came to life.” • Have participant talk about drawing, feelings and stories Drawing & stories https://hbr.org/2011/04/how-colored-pencils-and-cartoo
  38. • Understand values embodied by product/service • Engage with product

    and then review positive & negative values • Review positive values for ideal experience • Method ◦ Present scenario & task ◦ Review terms, one at a time ◦ Select all terms that apply ◦ Prioritize top 3 → stack rank ◦ Describe rationale Reaction cards Benedek, J. & Miner, T. 2002. Measuring desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. UPA Conference Proceedings, at: https://www.microsoft.com/usability/UEPostings/ DesirabilityToolkit.doc
  39. Negative Annoying Boring Busy Complex Confusing Dated Difficult Disconnected Disruptive

    Distracting Dull Fragile Frustrating Gets in the way Hard to Use Impersonal Incomprehensible Inconsistent Ineffective Intimidating Irrelevant Not Secure Not Valuable Reaction card terms Empowering Energetic Engaging Entertaining Enthusiastic Essential Exceptional Exciting Expected Familiar Fast Flexible Fresh Friendly Fun Helpful High quality Impressive Innovative Inspiring Integrated Intuitive Inviting Low Maintenance Meaningful Motivating Novel Optimistic Personal Powerful Predictable Professional Relevant Reliable Responsive Satisfying Secure Organized Sophisticated Stable Stimulating Straight Forward Time-Saving Trustworthy Unconventional Understandable Usable Useful Valuable Approachable Attractive Business-like Calm Clean Clear Collaborative Comfortable Compatible Compelling Comprehensive Confident Connected Consistent Controllable Convenient Creative Customizable Cutting edge Desirable Easy to use Effective Efficient Effortless Old Ordinary Overbearing Overwhelming Patronizing Poor quality Rigid Simplistic Slow Sterile Stressful Time-consuming Too Technical Unapproachable Unattractive Uncontrollable Undesirable Unpredictable Unrefined Positive Accessible Advanced Appealing https://www.nngroup.com/articles/desirability-reaction-words/
  40. Practice value elicitation

  41. Practice value elicitation • Form small team with at least

    3 people • Task: Conduct a drawing or reaction card exercise to identify user values • Assign roles: ◦ Moderator ◦ Participant (goes to another team) ◦ Observer/note-taker • Conduct elicitation with participant from different team • Drawing ◦ Present scenario and drawing prompt ◦ Have participant talk about drawing ◦ Examples: “Create picture of a person having a problem with [X].” “Draw what [X] would look like if it came to life.” • Reaction cards ◦ Present scenario and task ◦ Have participant review cards to select which apply → select top 3 ◦ Example: “Consider the last time you used [X]. Review each card and select the ones that match your experience.”
  42. Reflect

  43. • Understand emotions associated with an experience • Need to

    consider granularity of experience, effort to complete • Method ◦ Engage with product ◦ Complete survey Survey methods
  44. Single item self-report • Understand emotional valence and intensity •

    Simple and quick to administer • Repeated use for multi-step processes • Method ◦ “How are you feeling?” ◦ 9-point scale ◦ 5 levels of intensity • Now at: http://youxemotions.com/ http://uxpamagazine.org/measuring-emotions/
  45. Single item self-report (YouXemotions) Positive Negative Delighted Excited Interested Satisfied

    Indifferent Confused Frustrated Disappointed Angry Moderate Very strong http://youxemotions.com/
  46. Semantic differential: Bipolar Emotional Response “How would you describe this

    design?” Friendly - - - - - Hostile Clear - - - - - Confusing Surprising - - - - - Predictable Happy - - - - - Sad Respectful - - - - - Shameful Brave - - - - - Afraid Loving - - - - - Hateful [EXAMPLE] http://www.uxforthemasses.com/bert/
  47. Geneva Emotion Wheel https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Scherers-Geneva-Emotion-Wheel-109_fig4_221141088

  48. Pick-A-Mood http://studiolab.ide.tudelft.nl/diopd/library/tools/pick-a-mood/

  49. Analytics & Biometrics Category Based on Can inform Analytics Usage

    data, activity logs Engagement, adoption Electrocardiogram (ECG) Electrical heart activity (chest), heart rate variability Arousal, some emotion Electroencephalogram (EEG), Event-Related Potentials (ERP) Electrical brain activity (scalp) Arousal, some emotion Eyetracking Pupil diameter, blink magnitude, fixation duration, frequency, speed Arousal, some emotion Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Conductivity (hand, fingers, feet) Arousal Facial expression Muscle group position Arousal, emotion Voice Pitch, loudness, spacing, timbre, tone Arousal, emotion
  50. Usage data • Understand UX based on what users do

    • Awareness ◦ Page views ◦ Click-throughs • Attraction ◦ Bounce rate ◦ Session length • Investment ◦ Subscribers ◦ Downloads • Adoption ◦ Return visits ◦ Data/social sharing https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2011/05/optimizing-emotional-engagement-in-web-design- through-metrics/
  51. Eye tracking • Identify emotions from pupil diameter, eye movements,

    blink activity • Some accuracy for limited set of emotions ◦ Valence: positive, negative ◦ Arousal: neutral, excited • Measures include ◦ Pupil size ◦ Saccade acceleration, velocity ◦ Fixation frequency, duration ◦ Blink magnitude https://eyetracking.com.sg/2015/12/15/emotional-ux-techniques-for-measuring-users-emotions/
  52. Face tracking • Identify emotions from facial features • Often

    based on ◦ Static or dynamic ◦ Facial muscle movements ◦ Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System ◦ Trained on many faces from different countries • Example companies ◦ Affectiva, Amazon, Apple, Eyeris, Face++, Google, IBM, Kairos, Microsoft, Noldus, Nviso, Sightcorp, Trueface.ai
  53. Face expression observation • Reliably describe facial expressions • Facial

    Action Coding System ◦ Paul Ekman, 1978 ◦ Specific muscles, degree of intensity • Action Units (>50, involving the 43 facial muscles) • Examples ◦ Happiness: Cheek raiser, lip corner puller ◦ Sadness: Inner brow raiser, brow lowerer, lip corner depressor ◦ Surprise: Inner Brow Raiser, Outer Brow Raiser, Upper Lid Raiser, Jaw Drop https://www.paulekman.com/product-category/facs/
  54. Facial expression observation • Understand expressions for surprise, fear, disgust,

    anger, happiness, sadness, contempt • Microexpressions ◦ Brief (<.1s) ◦ Involuntary • Areas to note ◦ Forehead ◦ Eyebrows / Eyelids / Eyes ◦ Nose ◦ Cheeks ◦ Mouth ◦ Jaw https://www.scienceofpeople.com/microexpressions/
  55. Body language • Gain important context for facial expressions •

    Indicator of arousal, status • Low status: ◦ Slouch, closed posture ◦ Restless, fidgeting ◦ Tentative, deference, avert gaze • High status: ◦ Use more space ◦ Tall, relaxed, still ◦ Direct eye contact, gaze https://library.gv.com/how-to-build-better-rapport-for-better-research-interviews-869952b6a71d
  56. Practice survey and observation

  57. Practice survey and observation • Form small team with at

    least 3 people • Task: Conduct a task to understand associated emotions • Assign roles: ◦ Moderator ◦ Participant (goes to another team) ◦ Observer/note-taker • Have participant perform task and gather emotional data at start, middle, end of task • Survey ◦ Single item self report: “How are you feeling” with 5-9 point scale (positive-negative) ◦ Bipolar emotional response: Pick 3-5 emotions and their opposites • Observation ◦ Facial expressions: surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, sadness, contempt ◦ Body language status: ▪ Low (slouch, closed posture, restless, deference) ▪ High (open, relaxed, tall, still, direct)
  58. Reflect

  59. Mapping • Illustrate how users experience product/service • Potential considerations

    ◦ Focus areas ◦ Contexts ◦ Personas/stakeholders ◦ Phases ◦ Channels ◦ Tasks ◦ Resources ◦ Actions ◦ Thoughts ◦ Emotions ◦ Implications ◦ Actions
  60. Journey map • Describe research question/goal • Narrow your focus

    ◦ Persona ◦ Context • Collect data • Illustrate ◦ Main phases (3-5) ◦ Main tasks within each phase ◦ Associated emotions ◦ Quotes to highlight ◦ Implications (to drive action) https://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/8462249080 https://www.nngroup.com/articles/customer-journey-mapping/
  61. Emotion map • Determine focus (based on goal) • Granularity:

    Phase or Task? • Type of data: Qualitative, Hybrid, Quantitative? • Scope: Standalone, supporting info? • Socialization approach https://medium.com/salesforce-ux/agile-journey-mapping-with-empathy-3e6c5a876347
  62. Practice mapping

  63. Build map • Form small team with at least 3

    people • Illustrate ◦ Persona, context ◦ Phases (3-5) ◦ Emotions ◦ Quotes or observations to highlight ◦ Implications
  64. Reflect

  65. Further reading Anderson, S. P. (2011). Seductive interaction design: Creating

    playful, fun, and effective user experiences. Berkeley, CA: New Riders. Jordan, P. W. (2000). Designing pleasurable products: An introduction to the new human factors. London: Taylor & Francis. Norman, D. A. (2004). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books. Walter, A. (2011). Designing for emotion. New York, N.Y: A Book Apart/Jeffrey Zeldman.
  66. “Good design touches you. Great design touches your soul." Onur

    Mustak Cobanli, designer http://www.competition.adesignaward.com/quotes.html
  67. Thank you! Twitter: @sfadden Slideshare: www.slideshare.net/SteveFadden1 Linkedin: www.linkedin.com/in/stevefadden (please remind

    me how we met!)