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Motivating Others

Motivating Others

To accomplish their work, people must motivate people who report to them, coworkers, bosses, or customers. This slide deck covers motivating by self interest, positive reinforcement, recognition, expectancy theory, strength of motivation and self-motivation.

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Candice Nance

March 20, 2013
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Transcript

  1. BUS 101: HUMAN RELATIONS IN BUSINESS Professor Nance

  2. What’s next? • Chapter 10: • Becoming an Effective Leader • Chapter 11:

    • Motivating Others • Chapter 12: • Helping Others Develop and Grow
  3. MOTIVATING OTHERS Chapter 11

  4. Motivation 1.  An internal state that leads to effort expended

    toward objectives 2.  An activity performed by one person to get another to accomplish work
  5. Learning Objectives 1.  Motivate people by responding to their self-interests.

    2.  Make effective use of positive reinforcement to motivate people in many situations. 3.  Make effective use of recognition to motivate others.
  6. Learning Objectives 4.  Apply expectancy theory as a comprehensive way

    of motivating others. 5.  Diagnose situations to analyze the strength of motivation present. 6.  Identify effective techniques for self- motivation.
  7. “WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME?” Learning Objective #1

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  9. What’s in it for me? (WIIFM) • You must be aware

    of the intensity of a person’s desire • Find out what needs, desires, or motives a person is attempting to satisfy • Needs are important because they lead to behavior, or what people actually do
  10. Representative List of Needs • Achievement • Power • Affiliation • Autonomy • Esteem • Safety

    and security • Equity
  11. USING POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT TO MOTIVATE OTHERS Learning Objective #2

  12. Behavior Modification • An attempt to change behavior by manipulating rewards

    and punishments • Most widely-used formal method of motivating people in the workplace
  13. Law of Effect • Behavior that leads to a positive consequence

    will be repeated • Behavior that leads to a negative consequence will be avoided
  14. Positive Reinforcement • Increasing the probability that behavior will be repeated

    by rewarding people for making the desired response
  15. Negative Reinforcement • Rewarding people by taking away an uncomfortable consequence

    of their behavior • Is a reward, not a punishment Avoidance motivation
  16. Rules for Positive Reinforcement 1.  State clearly what behavior will

    lead to a reward. 2.  Choose an appropriate reward. 3.  Supply amble feedback. 4.  Schedule rewards intermittently. 5.  Make the rewards follow the observed behavior closely in time.
  17. Rules for Positive Reinforcement 6.  Make the reward fit the

    behavior. 7.  Make the rewards visible. 8.  Change the reward periodically. 9.  Reward the group or team also.
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  19. USING RECOGNITION TO MOTIVATE OTHERS Learning Objective #3

  20. Recognition is an Effective Motivator • Normal need to crave recognition

    • Most workers want more recognition • Often tied in with other motivators • Ex: pay raises and promotions are positive reinforcement and recognition
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  22. Approaches to Giving Recognition • Identify a meritorious behavior • Recognize the

    behavior with an oral, written, or material rewards • Statements of recognition are more effective when expressed in specific (rather than general) terms
  23. Fine Points about Using Recognition to Motivate Others • Not everyone

    responds well to the same form of recognition • Ex: most technical people do not like general praise
  24. USING EXPECTANCY THEORY TO MOTIVATE OTHERS Learning Objective #4

  25. Expectancy Theory • Based on the premise that how much effort

    people expend depends on how much reward they expect to receive in return • Assumes people are rational and logical, thus wanting to maximize gain and minimize loss
  26. Basic Components of Expectancy Theory • Three major components: 1.  Effort-to-performance

    expectancy 2.  Performance-to-outcome expectancy 3.  Valence
  27. #1 – Effort-to-Performance Expectancy • The probability assigned by the individual

    that effort will lead to performing the task correctly • Expectancies range from 0 to 1.0 • Deals with self-efficacy, and individual’s confidence in their ability to carry out a specific task
  28. #2 – Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy • The probability assigned by the individual

    that performance will lead to certain outcomes or rewards • Ranges from 0 to 1.0 • Closely linked to trusting your manager and the company
  29. #3 – Valence • The value, worth or attractiveness of an

    outcome • Ranges from -100 to +100 • Negative valance: • A person will work to avoid an outcome
  30. HOW MOODS INFLUENCE EXPECTANCY THEORY Learning Objective #5

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  33. Diagnosing Motivation w/Expectancy Theory 1.  Does the person I am

    attempting to motivate have the skills and self- confidence to do the job? 2.  What assurance does the person have that if he/she performs the work, the promised reward will be forthcoming? 3.  How badly does the person want the reward being offered in the situation? 4.  Are there any zeroes in the first 3 questions? (zeroes out equation) 5.  Is the person in a reasonably good mood?
  34. Guidelines for Applying Expectancy Theory 1.  Train and encourage people.

    2.  Make explicit the link between rewards and performance. 3.  Make sure the rewards are large enough. 4.  Understand individual differences in valences. 5.  Use the Pygmalion effect to increase effort-to-performance expectancies.
  35. Pygmalion Effect The phenomenon that people will rise (or fall)

    to the expectations another person has of them
  36. What’s the difference? Pygmalion Effect Galatea Effect

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  38. TECHNIQUES FOR SELF- MOTIVATION Learning Objective #6

  39. Techniques for Self-Motivation 1.  Set goals for yourself. 2.  Find

    intrinsically motivating work. 3.  Get feedback on your performance. 4.  Apply behavior modification to yourself. 5.  Improve your skills relevant to your goal. 6.  Raise your level of self-expectation. 7.  Develop a strong work ethic.
  40. Announcements • Announcements

  41. Have a good rest of the week!

  42. What’s next? • Chapter 10: • Becoming an Effective Leader • Chapter 11:

    • Motivating Others • Chapter 12: • Helping Others Develop and Grow
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