result in about 2.7°C warming above pre-industrial levels. • There remains a substantial gap between promises and actions of the governments. • Global emissions need to be reduced rapidly in the coming years and decades → zero emissions with 1.5°C limit by 2050. Sources: https://climateactiontracker.org/global/temperatures/ https://newclimate.org/2021/11/09/cat-global-update-glasgows-2030-credibility-gap/ Global CO2 emissions by 2050 and Warming Projections by 2100
Research a. Carbon Capture b. Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage c. Carbon Storage/Sequestration Advanced Energy Systems a. Hydrogen Turbines b. Gasification Technologies c. Advanced Combustion d. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells e. Hydrogen from coal f. Coal to liquids Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Major Demonstrations a. Clean Coal Power Initiative b. FutureGen 2.0 c. Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage 美國能源部以20億美金進行10年淨煤發電提案(Clean Coal Power Initiative, CCPI)
Fluidized bed reactor M Cyclone Oil Oil CO2 Condenser Pump Pump Mixing Chamber Porous Burner Air C3 H8 Char Oily phase Aqueous phase 生質裂解油示範車 Products Reactants Mixture (low heating value) biomass and agricultural/forestry residues Recycled Exhaust gas Yang, S. I., Wu, M. S., Wu, C. Y. Energy, Vol. 66, pp.162-171, 2/37
x 2 1 y x O 2Me O O 2Me → + − 1 y x 2 2 y x 2m n O m)Me (2n O mH nCO O m)Me (2n H C − + + + → + + 1 y x 2 2 2 2m n O m)Me (2n O mH nCO )O 2 m (n H C − + + + → + + Air reactor Fuel reactor Total reaction: Chemical Looping
burning velocity, ul, of a fuel–air mixture is an important physicochemical property due to its dependence on pressure, temperature, mixture equivalence ratio and diluent concentration. ✓ It affects the combustion rate in an engine, the equivalence ratio limits for stable combustion
speeds were accurately measured for CO/H2/air and CO/H2/O2/helium mixtures at different equivalence ratios and mixing ratios by the constant-pressure spherical flame technique for pressures up to 40 atmospheres. ✓ A kinetic mechanism based on recently published reaction rate constants is present- ed to model these measured laminar flame speeds as well as a limited set of other experimental data. ✓ The detailed CO/H 2 /O2 kinetic mechanism with elementary reaction rate constants is listed in Table.
properties for the species in the mechanism were obtained from the NIST- JANAF Thermochemical Tables . ✓ The transport parameters were obtained from the Sandia CHEMKIN transport database. The SENKIN, PREMIX, and SHOCK codes from the CHEMKIN package were used to calculate the species concentration pro- files, flame speeds, and ignition delay times.
The measured laminar flame speeds for CO/ H 2 /air and CO/H2/O2/helium mixtures as a function of equivalence ratio at different mixing ratios for pressures of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 atmospheres are shown in Figs., with comparisons to measured data from literature and also to calculated flame speed data using different mechanisms. The measured flame speeds increase with increasing H 2 content in the CO/H 2 mixtures, while they decrease with increasing pressure for the helium-diluted mixtures.
Figure compares the calculated ignition temperatures as a function of pressure with the experimental data at strain rates of 100 s-1 for 5% H2 in CO . A sensitivity analysis indicated that the reactions of H+ O2 =O+OH, O+H2 =H+OH, H+HO2 = OH+OH, H2 +O2 =HO2 +H, and CO+ OH = CO2 + H are the most important for the prediction of ignition temperatures around 900 K at pressures lower than 0.3 atmospheres. Our satisfactory predictions strongly support the accuracy of the rate constants used in the current model.