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ADAPTing to Agile

008d9a555e3c3d1962761425b0e65a1e?s=47 Mike Cohn
June 15, 2012

ADAPTing to Agile

Transitioning to an agile development process is unlike most transitions development organizations make. Many transitions begin when a strong, visionary leader plants a stake in the ground and says, “Let's take our organization there.” Other transitions start with a lone team thinking, “Who cares what management thinks, let's do this.” The problem in transitioning to agile is that neither of these approaches alone is likely to lead to the long-term, sustainable change you want.

Mike Cohn describes how you can iterate toward more agility by combining a senior-level “guiding coalition” with multiple “action teams.” Along the way, you will learn the acronym ADAPT to describe the five steps necessary for any successful agile transition: Awareness, Desire, Ability, Promote, and Transfer. Explore the true role of leaders and managers to guide self-organizing teams toward agility. Take back proven patterns for getting started—Start Small, Stealth Mode, Going All In, Public Displays of Agility, Impending Doom, and more. Leave knowing what you must—and must not—do to succeed with agile in your organization and team.

008d9a555e3c3d1962761425b0e65a1e?s=128

Mike Cohn

June 15, 2012
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  1. © 2009 Mountain Goat Software © Copyright Mountain Goat Software®

    ADAPTing to Agile Mike Cohn mike@mountaingoatsoftware.com June 7, 2010 1
  2. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Mike Cohn Founding member

    and director of Agile Alliance and Scrum Alliance Founder of Mountain Goat Software Doing Scrum since 1995 Started my career as a programmer 2
  3. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Agenda Why transitioning to

    agile is hard ADAPTing to agile development Iterating toward agility The role of leadership Overcoming resistance 3
  4. © 2009 Mountain Goat Software © Copyright Mountain Goat Software®

    ® Two simplistic views of change: Top down: Powerful leader shares a vision Bottom-up: A team starts and everyone else sees the .1:1P@?;2@41:1C-<<>;-/4 But, transitioning to agile is neither top-down nor bottom-up It’s both at the same time Change is not top-down or bottom-up; it’s both 1 4
  5. © 2009 Mountain Goat Software © Copyright Mountain Goat Software®

    ® It is tempting to codify things that work in a given context into best practices '45?81-0?@;5:Q1D5.81<>;/1??1?† Once we know what’s “best” we stop adapting Or even thinking about what we’re doing Once we’ve stopped inspecting and adapting we’re not agile, or won’t be for long Best practices are tempting 2 †Anderson, P. “Seven Layers for Guiding the Evolving Enterprise” in The Biology of Business. 5
  6. © 2009 Mountain Goat Software © Copyright Mountain Goat Software®

    ® The transition process must be congruent with the development process 3 Self-organize Write feature 1 Write feature 2 Part of the move to agile is a move to self-organizing teams Moving to self-organization requires self-organization! 6
  7. © 2009 Mountain Goat Software © Copyright Mountain Goat Software®

    ® Traditional view of the organization is as a machine *1/-:05??19.815@?@A0E5@?<->@<A@5@.-/7 together ":/1C1?1@5@5:9;@5;:5@C588/;:@5:A15:9;@5;: Organizations are unpredictable, living systems 4 7
  8. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Q-C10B51C;2;>3-:5F-@5;:-8/4-:31 Assessment Gap Analysis

    Plan Current State Desired State Vision 8
  9. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® We need a different

    mental model The organization as a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) John Holland in Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos.E 5@/4188*-80>;< H 0E:-95/:1@C;>7;29-:E-31:@? H -/@5:35:<->-8818 H -/@5:3-:0>1-/@5:3@;C4-@;@41>-31:@?->10;5:3 H ;:@>;85?45348E05?<1>?10-:001/1:@>-85F10 H Overall system behavior is the result of a huge :A9.1>;201/5?5;:?9-01/;:?@-:@8E.E9-:E agents 9
  10. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® ;/-83;-8?-:03-<? Local agents (individuals,

    project teams, discipline coworkers) identify local gaps based on their goals Vision Current State ;/-8 -/@5;:? :?<1/@ Desired State Current State ;/-8 -/@5;:? :?<1/@ Desired State Current State ;/-8 -/@5;:? :?<1/@ Desired State 10
  11. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Closing the gap with

    the desired state Newtonian View of Success Achieving a good fit with the environment CAS View of Success 5221>5:3B51C?;2?A//1?? 11
  12. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Traditional view CAS view

    14-B5;>5?<>105/@-.81-:0/;:@>;88-.81 14-B5;>5?A:<>105/@-.81-:0 A:/;:@>;88-.81 5>1/@5;:5?01@1>95:10@4>;A34 191>31:/1-:0.E9-:E<1;<81 5>1/@5;:5?01@1>95:10.E-21C81-01>? B1>E1221/@5?-8?;-/-A?1 B1>E1221/@4-?-/-A?1 H -/4<-5>10?@-@191:@.18;C-:0;:@41:1D@?8501 01?/>5.1?15@41>@41@>-05@5;:-8;>&B51C;24;C@; /4-:31-:;>3-:5F-@5;: H #A@-:+5:@41-<<>;<>5-@1/;8A9:@;5:05/-@1C45/4 01?/>5.1?@41@>-05@5;:-8B51C-:0C45/4@41&B51C 12
  13. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Traditional view CAS view

    %18-@5;:?45<?->105>1/@5B1 Relationships are empowering Responsiveness to the environment is the measure of value 2P/51:/E-:0>185-.585@E->191-?A>1?;2 value 1/5?5;:?->1.-?10;:2-/@?-:00-@- 1/5?5;:?->1.-?10;:<-@@1>:?-:0 tensions 1-01>?->11D<1>@?-:0-A@4;>5@51? 1-01>?->12-/585@-@;>?-:0?A<<;>@1>? 13
  14. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Agenda Why transitioning to

    agile is hard ADAPTing to agile development Iterating toward agility The role of leadership Overcoming resistance 14
  15. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Awareness that there is

    room for improvement A Desire@;/4-:31 D Ability to work in an agile manner A Promote1->8E?A//1??1?@;.A580 momentum and get others to follow P Transfer@4159<-/@;2-3581@4>;A34;A@@41 ;>3-:5F-@5;:?;@4-@5@?@5/7? T 15
  16. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® MO9@41&/>A9 -?@1>-:0 @4101B18;<1>?->1:;@911@5:31D<1/@-@5;:?2;>/;01=A-85@E 

    ":1;2;A>/4-881:31?5?@4-@C1O>1?@5884-/75:3;A>C-E @4>;A348;@?;2813-/E/;01@4-@5?:O@A:5@@1?@-.81;> -A@;9-@10E1@ '45?/;015?95??5;:/>5@5/-8-:0@41<1>?;: C4;4-?.11:C;>75:39;?@8E;:@4-@->1-;2/;01 /;:?5?@1:@8E81-B1?4;81?5:@4101?53:-:059<8191:@-@5;:;2 :1C<51/1?;2@4-@/;01 We also have the issue with at least one other developer as well.” 1. Is this a problem of Awareness, Desire or Ability? A Why? 2. Thinking about ADAPT, what might you try? ? 16
  17. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® :05B50A-8-:03>;A</4-:31 All individuals will

    need to move through the Awareness, Desire, and Ability stage But will do so at different rates Early adapters and leaders: Use the Promote stage to build Awareness and Desire in later adopters !110@;'>-:?21>@4159<-/@;2-3581@;3>;A<? 8571A9-:%1?;A>/1?;>@41@>-:?5@5;:C588 fail 17
  18. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Tools for building... Awareness

    HCommunicate that there’s a problem HUse metrics HProvide exposure to new people and experiences HFocus attention on the most important reason or two for changing 18
  19. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® On the following slides,

    identify &91*&89F;*<&>894':.1))*8.7* create ability, promote the transition, and transfer its implications. 19
  20. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Desire Ability 20

  21. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Transfer Promote 21

  22. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Stop! My thoughts on

    desire, ability, transfer and promote are on the following pages. You don’t want to see them before you think about your own. 22
  23. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Tools for building... Desire

    HCommunicate that there’s a better way HCreate a sense of urgency HBuild momentum HGet the team to take agile for a test drive HAlign incentives (or, at least, remove disincentives) HFocus on addressing any fears HHelp people let go HDon’t discredit the past HEngage everyone in the transition 23
  24. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Ability HProvide coaching and

    training HHold individuals accountable HShare information HSet reasonable targets HJust do it Promote HPublicize success stories HHost an agile safari HAttract attention 24
  25. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Transfer HTransfer the effects

    of agile beyond the current group AA team transfers to its department AA department transfers to its division A1@/ HIf you don’t transfer, the transition will eventually and inevitably fail A';;9A/4organizational gravity<A885:3A?.-/7@;C->0@41 status quo HExample: AIf you don’t align promotions, raises, annual reviews, those will work against you 25
  26. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Agenda Why transitioning to

    agile is hard ADAPTing to agile development Iterating toward agility The role of leadership Overcoming resistance 26
  27. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Enterprise Transition Community (ETC)

    Improvement backlog Improvement Communities Improvement backlog Improvement backlog Improvement backlog Impediments Energy, suppport, resources, guidance, & direction (occasionally) Iterating toward agility 27
  28. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Enterprise Transition Community (ETC)

    Creates a culture in which passion and desire to improve thrive Does not direct the transition effort #>;B501?1:1>3E>1?;A>/1??A<<;>@-:0 3A50-:/1 Removes organizational impediments to agility Encourages Improvement Communities to form 28
  29. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® ETC members Sponsor >;945341?@81B18-@C45/4/4-:315?

    supported !;@-/41/7.;;7;:8E/;995@91:@ Others From any level but driven by desire to improve Disbands when the “transition” part of adopting agile is over 29
  30. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® ETC responsibilities >@5/A8-@1@41>1-?;:?2;>-0;<@5:3-3581 &@59A8-@1/;:B1>?-@5;:

    #>;B501>1?;A>/1? Engage everyone Set appropriate aspirations :@5/5<-@1-:0-00>1??<1;<815??A1?-:0;@41> impediments :/;A>-31?59A8@-:1;A?2;/A?;:<>-/@5/1?-:0 <>5:/5<81? 30
  31. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® :'O?59<>;B191:@.-/78;3 Item Who Note

    >1-@1-:M3581"2P/1NC41>1 @1-9?/-:31@418< Jim (CTO) to talk this up at monthly development meeting. Let’s see if there’s any interest. Establish an internal program 2;>01B18;<5:3&/>A9 -?@1>? How do we identify good 5:@1>:-8/-:050-@1?;C0;C1 develop them? ;881/@-:005??195:-@1&/>A9 ?A//1???@;>51?5:;A>/;9<-:E SC &-B-::-44-?1D<>1??105:@1>1?@ in this. %1?;8B105?<A@1C5@42-/585@51? ;B1>>1->>-:35:3?1/;:0Q;;> /A.5/81? JS 59@;@-87@;(>?A8-5:2-/585@51? Get more teams to do /;:@5:A;A?5:@13>-@5;: AR >51C588?A99->5F191@>5/? 2>;945?<>;61/@-:0?114;C 9-:E@1-9?41/-:9;@5B-@1 31
  32. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® 9<>;B191:@/;99A:5@51?? Form around the

    passion of a small number of people Expand from there Do the real work of improving how the organization implements agile Focus on goals with practical relevance Examples: ScrumMaster, Testing, Product Owner, Continuous Integration 32
  33. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Working with an IC

    An IC works with a project team Work is not done in an ivory tower Most ICs work in 2–4-week iterations Disband or refocus when goal has been achieved 33
  34. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® ETC Improvement Backlog …

    Establish an internal program for developing &/>A9 -?@1>? … Not everything on an IC’s improvement backlog needs to tie back to the ETC’s backlog An IC Improvement Backlog Figure out how to identify good /-:050-@1?@;.1/;91&/>A9 -?@1>?5: -005@5;:@;@4;?1C4;-?7@;<->@5/5<-@1 in this program). Establish an internal mentoring program. 1B18;<?;915:@1>:-8/8-??>;;9 @>-5:5:3 *45/4/;A>?1?*4;/-:@1-/4 @419-:C185/1:?1/;A>?1? 1@.A031@2;>:1D@E1->2;>1D@1>:-8 /;-/45:3 ;C9-:E0-E?@C4-@ 1D<1/@100-58E>-@1 34
  35. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Improvement backlogs 1.Write some

    items that you would like an on your organization’s initial improvement backlogs. 2.What improvement communities would you like to see form that could help with some of these improvements? 3.What obstacles are in the way of making these improvements? 4.What obstacles are in the way of forming an ETC or improvement community to get started? 35
  36. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Agenda Why transitioning to

    agile is hard ADAPTing to agile development Iterating toward agility The role of leadership Overcoming resistance 36
  37. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Transition team and other

    formal leaders must lead the transition but cannot do so in the usual ways Self-organizing groups still require leadership Lead through example, questions, and focus “Nudge” the organization; Poke and prod; See how the organization responds Leading an agile transition 37
  38. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Container H .;A:0->EC5@45:C45/4?182;>3-:5F-@5;:;//A>? H

    ;9<-:E<>;61/@@1-9/5@E>;81:-@5;:-85@E Glenda Eoyang: Conditions for Self-Organizing in Human Systems Differences H '41>19A?@.105221>1:/1?-9;:3@41-31:@?-/@5:35:;A> system H '1/4:5/-87:;C810310;9-5:7:;C8103110A/-@5;: 1D<1>51:/1<;C1>31:01> Transforming Exchanges H 31:@?5:@41?E?@195:@1>-/@-:01D/4-:31>1?;A>/1? H Information, money, energy (vision) 38
  39. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Using the CDE model

    ,;A/-:5:QA1:/14;C-@1-9?182;>3-:5F1? by altering the: Containers 2;>9-8@1-9?5:2;>9-8@1-9?/8->52E;>:;@1D<1/@-@5;:? D5221>1:/1? -9<1:;>-9<852E@419C5@45:;>.1@C11:/;:@-5:1>? ED/4-:31? :?1>@:1C1D/4-:31?:1C<1;<81:1C@1/4:5=A1?;> tools 39
  40. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Containers Enlarge or shrink

    teams Enlarge or shrink the responsibility boundary of teams Change team membership Create new teams or groups 40
  41. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® 5221>1:/1? Don’t require consensus

    >1-@5B5@E/;91?2>;9@1:?5;: $A51@05?-3>1191:@5?:;@-?3;;0-?P1>/1 01.-@1@4-@81-0?@;.14-B5;>/4-:31 Ask hard questions '41:1D<1/@@1-9?@;P:0?;8A@5;:? 41
  42. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® '>-:?2;>95:31D/4-:31? Encourage communication between

    teams and groups Who isn’t talking who should? Add or remove people from exchanges Change reporting relationships %18;/-@1<1;<81 ;9<85-:/1C5@41D@1>:-83>;A<? Encourage learning 42
  43. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® ,;A->1@41&/>A9 -?@1>;>/;-/4 H '41:1D@?8501?01?/>5.1??;91@1-9?C5@4?;91

    trouble spots. Think about how you might help them by /4-:35:3@415>Cotrainers, amplifying or dampening 5221>1:/1?;>/4-:35:3@415>D/4-:31?. H ;>1-/4/-?1501:@52E-@81-?@;:1@45:3E;AO00; H Note whether you are tweaking their Container, 5221>1:/1?;>D/4-:31? ,;A9534@.1-221/@5:39;>1 than one.) 43
  44. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® '41@1-9/;:?5?@?;22;A>01B18;<1>?@C;@1?@1>?- database engineer and

    you. The developers and testers are not working well together. Developers work in isolation until two days are left in the 5@1>-@5;: '41E@41:@4>;C/;01M;B1>@41C-88N@; the testers. 1 2 The team is failing to deliver potentially shippable ?;2@C->1-@@411:0;21-/45@1>-@5;: !;:1;2@41 5@19?@41E?@->@->1 P:5?410 '41EO>1/8;?1.A@ C;>75?-8C-E?812@@;.10;:15:@41:1D@5@1>-@5;: 44
  45. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® '41@1-9?119?@;.1/;:?5?@1:@8EA:01>/;995@@5:3 0A>5:35@1>-@5;:<8-::5:3 '41EP:5?4@41C;>7@41E /;995@.A@5@0;1?:O@?11985719A/4

    '41<>;0A/@ ;C:1>4-?:O@/;9<8-5:10E1@.A@E;AO>1C;>>510?41 will soon. 3 4 ,;A>;>3-:5F-@5;:4-? 05221>1:@-3581@1-9? -/4 team has its own testers who are starting to go in 05221>1:@05>1/@5;:?5:@1>9?;2<>121>>10@;;8?-:0 -<<>;-/41? 45
  46. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Jeff, a senior developer,

    is very domineering. During iteration planning the team defers to him on every 01/5?5;:1B1:@4;A34415?-4;>>5.811?@59-@;> ,;A :;@5/138-:/1?@4-@;@41>@1-9919.1>?1D/4-:31 when he suggest very low estimates on some tasks. 5 6 You are responsible for two teams. Team members on ;:105?/A??-88?501?;2B->5;A?5??A1?.12;>19-75:3- 01/5?5;: '45?4-?.11:C;>75:3C188 ":@41;@41> @1-905?/A??5;:?0>-3;:1:081??8E.1/-A?1@41E <A>?A1-.?;8A@1/;:?1:?A?5:-88/-?1? 46
  47. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® The self-organizing path Self-organization

    is not something that happens one time A team is never done doing it '41@1-9/;:@5:A-88E>1;>3-:5F1?5:-?1:?1 and-respond manner to its environment As you see the team self-organize you can .3G:*3(*':9349(43974147).7*(9.985&9- We can view this as the evolution of a team 47
  48. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® ~Philip Anderson &182;>3-:5F-@5;:<>;/110?2>;9@41<>195?1@4-@ 1221/@5B1;>3-:5F-@5;:5?1B;8B10:;@01?53:10

    @-59? @;/>1-@1-:1:B5>;:91:@5:C45/4?A//1??2A8 divisions of labor and routines not only emerge but also self-adjust in response to environmental /4-:31? '45?4-<<1:?.1/-A?19-:-3191:@?1@?A< -:1:B5>;:91:@-:01:/;A>-31?>-<501B;8A@5;: @;C->045341>P@:1??:;@.1/-A?19-:-3191:@4-? mastered the art of planning and monitoring C;>7Q;C? †Anderson, P. “Seven Layers for Guiding the Evolving Enterprise” in The Biology of Business. 48
  49. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® )->5-@5;:?181/@5;:>1@1:@5;: Evolution is the

    result of three elements: Variation, selection and retention Consider a giraffe: Variation: A random mutation that leads to a longer neck Selection: The long neck helps it reach food others can’t; so it it more likely to survive and breed Retention: The mutation is passed to its descendants 49
  50. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® 1. *F3*5*7+472&3(* 2. Manage

    meaning 3. Evolve vicarious selection systems '4>11C-E?@;5:QA1:/1@1-91B;8A@5;: 50
  51. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® 1P:1<1>2;>9-:/1 '41<>5:/5<81;2?181/@5;:@188?A?@4-@@41@>-5@?@4-@ help us

    survive will be the ones retained -:-31>?-:081-01>??1:091??-31?-.;A@C45/4@>-5@? should survive What message is your organization sending about the >18-@5B159<;>@-:/1;2?4;>@B? 8;:3@1>9<1>2;>9-:/1 What messages are sent if the organization: Provides training &A<<;>@?C;>75:3-@-?A?@-5:-.81<-/1 88;C?19<8;E11?@591@;1D<8;>1C580501-? ;1?:O@1D/4-:31911@5:3-01-085:12;>A:9-5:@-5:-.81/;01 51
  52. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Manage meaning :05B50A-8?5:-&>1?<;:0@;@4191??-31?@41E>1/15B11 3

     bees responding to a “danger” message ants responding to a “food found over here” message 1-01>?/-:<A?491??-31?5:@;@41?E?@19 e.g., putting the the team in touch with customers Or keep messages out 1-:5:3;2@1:/;91?2>;9@41?@;>51?9E@4?-:0>5@A-8?@4-@ are repeated C%*<.11'*(42*574F9&'1*9-.86:&79*7D “Our GM counts the cars in the lot every day at 5 PM” 52
  53. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® B;8B1B5/->5;A??181/@5;:?E?@19? )->5-@5;:L&181/@5;:L%1@1:@5;: &181/@5;:C-?01@1>95:5:3C45/4B->5-@5;:?C588.1>1@-5:10 Can

    take a long time &;C1;2@1:A?1B5/->5;A??181/@5;:?E?@19? '45?5?-:-:59-8@4-@/-:?9188@4-@-2;;05?<;5?;:;A? rather than eating it (?5:3;:8E@419->71@<8-/1-?;A>?181/@5;:91/4-:5?9 takes too long ">3-:5F-@5;:?-8?;1B;8B1B5/->5;A??181/@5;:?E?@19? %1@>;?<1/@5B1?;;381O? <;85/E59<>;B191:@ /;99A:5@51? 53
  54. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Agenda Why transitioning to

    agile is hard ADAPTing to agile development Iterating toward agility The role of leadership Overcoming resistance 54
  55. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Why They Resist Like

    status quo Dislike agile Passive Active How They Resist Diehards Skeptics Saboteurs Followers 55
  56. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® -:085:3>1?5?@-:/1 HPick one type

    of resistor. (Or two if you have time.) HIdentify some underlying reasons for the behavior and some things you could try to overcome it. Why They Resist Like status quo Dislike agile Passive Active How They Resist Diehard Skeptic Saboteur Follower 56
  57. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Why They Resist Like

    status quo Dislike agile Passive Active How They Resist Diehard Skeptic Saboteur Follower Skeptics H Let time run its course H Provide training H Solicit peer anecdotes H Appoint a champion skeptic H Push the issue H Build awareness 57
  58. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Why They Resist Like

    status quo Dislike agile Passive Active How They Resist Diehard Skeptic Saboteur Follower Saboteurs H Success H Reiterate and reinforce the commitment H Move them H Fire them H Encourage a thriving set of communities 58
  59. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Why They Resist Like

    status quo Dislike agile Passive Active How They Resist Diehard Skeptic Saboteur Follower Diehards H Align incentives H Create dissatisfaction with the status quo H Acknowledge and confront fear 59
  60. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Why They Resist Like

    status quo Dislike agile Passive Active How They Resist Diehard Skeptic Saboteur Follower Followers H Change team composition H Praise the right behavior H Model the right behavior H Involve them H Identify the true barrier (awareness, desire, ability) 60
  61. © Copyright Mountain Goat Software® ® Mike Cohn 95719;A:@-5:3;-@?;2@C->1 /;9

    CCC 9;A:@-5:3;-@?;2@C->1 /;9 @C5@@1>9571C/;4: (720) 890−6110 61